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tk_textCut(n) - text, tk_textCopy, tk_textCut, tk_textPaste - Create and manipulate text widgets - man n tk_textCut

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text(n)                      Tk Built-In Commands                      text(n)



______________________________________________________________________________

NAME
       text,  tk_textCopy,  tk_textCut,  tk_textPaste  - Create and manipulate
       text widgets

SYNOPSIS
       text pathName ?options?
       tk_textCopy pathName                                                    |
       tk_textCut pathName                                                     |
       tk_textPaste pathName                                                   |

STANDARD OPTIONS
       -background           -highlightthickness  -relief
       -borderwidth          -insertbackground    -selectbackground
       -cursor               -insertborderwidth   -selectborderwidth
       -exportselection      -insertofftime       -selectforeground
       -font                 -insertontime        -setgrid
       -foreground           -insertwidth         -takefocus
       -highlightbackground  -padx                -xscrollcommand
       -highlightcolor       -pady                -yscrollcommand

       See the options manual entry for details on the standard options.

WIDGET-SPECIFIC OPTIONS
       Command-Line Name:-autoseparators
       Database Name:  autoSeparators
       Database Class: AutoSeparators

              Specifies a boolean that says whether separators  are  automati- |
              cally inserted in(1,8) the undo stack. Only meaningful when the -undo |
              option is true.

       Command-Line Name:-height
       Database Name:  height
       Database Class: Height

              Specifies the desired height for the window, in(1,8) units(1,7) of charac-
              ters  in(1,8)  the  font given by the -font option.  Must be at least
              one.

       Command-Line Name:-maxundo
       Database Name:  maxUndo
       Database Class: MaxUndo

              Specifies the maximum number of compound  undo  actions  on  the |
              undo  stack.  A zero or a negative value imply an unlimited undo |
              stack.

       Command-Line Name:-spacing1
       Database Name:  spacing1
       Database Class: Spacing1

              Requests additional space above each text line  in(1,8)  the  widget,
              using any of the standard forms for screen distances.  If a line
              wraps, this option only applies to the first line  on  the  dis-
              play.   This  option  may be overriden with -spacing1 options in(1,8)
              tags.

       Command-Line Name:-spacing2
       Database Name:  spacing2
       Database Class: Spacing2

              For lines that wrap (so that they cover more than  one  line  on
              the  display)  this option specifies additional space to provide
              between the display lines that represent a single line of  text.
              The  value  may  have  any of the standard forms for screen dis-
              tances.  This option may be overriden with -spacing2 options  in(1,8)
              tags.

       Command-Line Name:-spacing3
       Database Name:  spacing3
       Database Class: Spacing3

              Requests  additional  space  below each text line in(1,8) the widget,
              using any of the standard forms for screen distances.  If a line
              wraps, this option only applies to the last line on the display.
              This option may be overriden with -spacing3 options in(1,8) tags.

       Command-Line Name:-state
       Database Name:  state
       Database Class: State

              Specifies one of two states for the text:  normal  or  disabled.
              If  the  text is disabled then characters may not be inserted or
              deleted and no insertion cursor will be displayed, even  if(3,n)  the
              input focus is in(1,8) the widget.

       Command-Line Name:-tabs
       Database Name:  tabs
       Database Class: Tabs

              Specifies a set(7,n,1 builtins) of tab stops for the window.  The option's value
              consists of a list of screen distances giving the  positions  of
              the  tab stops.  Each position may optionally be followed in(1,8) the
              next list element by one of the keywords left, right, center, or
              numeric, which specifies how to justify text relative to the tab
              stop.  Left is the default; it causes the text following the tab
              character  to  be positioned with its left edge at the tab posi-
              tion.  Right means that the right edge of the text following the
              tab  character  is  positioned  at  the tab position, and center
              means that the text is centered at the  tab  position.   Numeric
              means  that  the  decimal point in(1,8) the text is positioned at the
              tab position;  if(3,n) there is no decimal point then the least  sig-
              nificant  digit  of the number is positioned just to the left of
              the tab position;  if(3,n) there is no number in(1,8) the  text  then  the
              text is right-justified at the tab position.  For example, -tabs
              {2c left 4c 6c center} creates three tab stops at two-centimeter
              intervals;   the  first two use left justification and the third
              uses center justification.  If the list of tab  stops  does  not
              have  enough  elements  to cover all of the tabs in(1,8) a text line,
              then Tk extrapolates new tab stops using the spacing and  align-
              ment  from the last tab stop in(1,8) the list.  The value of the tabs
              option may be overridden by -tabs options in(1,8) tags.  If no  -tabs
              option  is  specified,  or  if(3,n) it is specified as an empty list,
              then Tk uses default tabs  spaced  every  eight  (average  size)
              characters.

       Command-Line Name:-undo
       Database Name:  undo
       Database Class: Undo

              Specifies  a  boolean  that  says  whether the undo mechanism is |
              active or not.

       Command-Line Name:-width
       Database Name:  width
       Database Class: Width

              Specifies the desired width for the window in(1,8) units(1,7)  of  charac-
              ters in(1,8) the font given by the -font option.  If the font doesn't
              have a uniform width then the width of the  character  ``0''  is
              used in(1,8) translating from character units(1,7) to screen units.

       Command-Line Name:-wrap
       Database Name:  wrap
       Database Class: Wrap

              Specifies  how  to handle lines in(1,8) the text that are too long to
              be displayed in(1,8) a single line of the text's window.   The  value
              must  be  none  or char or word.  A wrap mode of none means that
              each line of text appears as exactly one  line  on  the  screen;
              extra characters that don't fit on the screen are not displayed.
              In the other modes each line of text will be broken up into sev-
              eral  screen lines if(3,n) necessary to keep all the characters visi-
              ble.  In char mode a screen line break may occur after any char-
              acter;  in(1,8)  word  mode  a  line  break will only be made at word
              boundaries.
_________________________________________________________________


DESCRIPTION
       The text command creates a new window (given by the pathName  argument)
       and  makes it into a text widget.  Additional options, described above,
       may be specified on the command line or in(1,8) the option database to  con-
       figure  aspects  of  the  text such as its default background color and
       relief.  The text command returns the path name of the new window.

       A text widget displays one or more lines of text and allows  that  text
       to be edited.  Text widgets support four different kinds of annotations
       on the text, called tags, marks, embedded windows or  embedded  images.
       Tags  allow different portions of the text to be displayed with differ-
       ent fonts and colors.  In addition, Tcl commands can be associated with
       tags  so  that scripts are invoked when particular actions such as key-
       strokes and mouse button presses occur  in(1,8)  particular  ranges  of  the
       text.  See TAGS below for more details.

       The  second  form  of  annotation consists of marks, which are floating
       markers in(1,8) the text.  Marks are used to keep track of various interest-
       ing  positions  in(1,8)  the text as it is edited.  See MARKS below for more
       details.

       The third form of annotation allows arbitrary windows to be embedded in(1,8)
       a text widget.  See EMBEDDED WINDOWS below for more details.

       The fourth form of annotation allows Tk images to be embedded in(1,8) a text
       widget.  See EMBEDDED IMAGES below for more details.

       The text widget also has a  built-in  undo/redo  mechanism.   See  UNDO |
       MECHANISM below for more details.


INDICES
       Many of the widget commands for texts take one or more indices as argu-
       ments.  An index is a string(3,n) used to indicate a particular place within
       a text, such as a place to insert characters or one endpoint of a range
       of characters to delete.  Indices have the syntax
              base modifier modifier modifier ...
       Where base gives a starting point and the modifiers  adjust  the  index
       from  the starting point (e.g. move(3x,7,3x curs_move) forward or backward one character).
       Every index must contain a base, but the modifiers are optional.

       The base for an index must have one of the following forms:

       line.char   Indicates char'th character on line line.  Lines  are  num-
                   bered  from 1 for consistency with other UNIX programs that
                   use this numbering scheme.  Within a line,  characters  are
                   numbered from 0.  If char is end then it refers to the new-
                   line character that ends the line.

       @x,y        Indicates the character that covers the pixel whose x and y
                   coordinates within the text's window are x and y.

       end         Indicates the end of the text (the character just after the
                   last newline).

       mark        Indicates the character just after the mark whose  name  is
                   mark.

       tag.first   Indicates  the  first  character  in(1,8) the text that has been
                   tagged with tag.  This form generates an error(8,n) if(3,n) no  char-
                   acters are currently tagged with tag.

       tag.last    Indicates the character just after the last one in(1,8) the text
                   that has been tagged with  tag.   This  form  generates  an
                   error(8,n) if(3,n) no characters are currently tagged with tag.

       pathName    Indicates the position of the embedded window whose name is
                   pathName.  This form generates an  error(8,n)  if(3,n)  there  is  no
                   embedded window by the given name.

       imageName   Indicates  the position of the embedded image whose name is
                   imageName.  This form generates an error(8,n)  if(3,n)  there  is  no
                   embedded image by the given name.

       If  the  base  could  match more than one of the above forms, such as a
       mark and imageName both having the same value, then the form earlier in(1,8)
       the  above  list takes precedence.  If modifiers follow the base index,
       each one of them must have one of the  forms  listed  below.   Keywords
       such  as  chars and wordend may be abbreviated as long as the abbrevia-
       tion is unambiguous.

       + count chars
              Adjust the index forward by count characters,  moving  to  later
              lines  in(1,8)  the text if(3,n) necessary.  If there are fewer than count
              characters in(1,8) the text after the current  index,  then  set(7,n,1 builtins)  the
              index  to the last character in(1,8) the text.  Spaces on either side
              of count are optional.

       - count chars
              Adjust the index backward by count characters, moving to earlier
              lines  in(1,8)  the text if(3,n) necessary.  If there are fewer than count
              characters in(1,8) the text before the current index,  then  set(7,n,1 builtins)  the
              index to the first character in(1,8) the text.  Spaces on either side
              of count are optional.

       + count lines
              Adjust the index forward by  count  lines,  retaining  the  same
              character  position  within  the  line.  If there are fewer than
              count lines after the line containing the  current  index,  then
              set(7,n,1 builtins)  the  index  to  refer to the same character position on the
              last line of the text.  Then, if(3,n) the line is not long enough  to
              contain  a character at the indicated character position, adjust
              the character position to refer to the  last  character  of  the
              line  (the  newline).   Spaces  on  either  side  of  count  are
              optional.

       - count lines
              Adjust the index backward by count  lines,  retaining  the  same
              character  position  within  the  line.  If there are fewer than
              count lines before the line containing the current  index,  then
              set(7,n,1 builtins)  the  index  to  refer to the same character position on the
              first line of the text.  Then, if(3,n) the line is not long enough to
              contain  a character at the indicated character position, adjust
              the character position to refer to the  last  character  of  the
              line  (the  newline).   Spaces  on  either  side  of  count  are
              optional.

       linestart
              Adjust the index to refer to the first character on the line.

       lineend
              Adjust the index to refer to the last character on the line (the
              newline).

       wordstart
              Adjust  the  index  to  refer to the first character of the word
              containing the current index.  A word consists of any number  of
              adjacent characters that are letters, digits, or underscores, or
              a single character that is not one of these.

       wordend
              Adjust the index to refer to the character just after  the  last
              one  of  the  word containing the current index.  If the current
              index refers to the last character of the text then  it  is  not
              modified.

       If  more than one modifier is present then they are applied in(1,8) left-to-
       right order.  For example, the index ``end - 1 chars''  refers  to  the
       next-to-last  character  in(1,8)  the  text  and  ``insert wordstart - 1 c''
       refers to the character just before the first one in(1,8) the word  contain-
       ing the insertion cursor.


TAGS
       The first form of annotation in(1,8) text widgets is a tag.  A tag is a tex-
       tual string(3,n) that is associated with some of the characters in(1,8)  a  text.
       Tags may contain arbitrary characters, but it is probably best to avoid
       using the the characters `` '' (space), +, or -: these characters  have
       special  meaning  in(1,8)  indices, so tags containing them can't be used as
       indices.  There may be any number of tags associated with characters in(1,8)
       a  text.   Each tag may refer to a single character, a range of charac-
       ters, or several ranges of characters.   An  individual  character  may
       have any number of tags associated with it.

       A  priority  order  is  defined  among  tags, and this order is used in(1,8)
       implementing some of the tag-related functions described below.  When a
       tag  is  defined (by associating it with characters or setting its dis-
       play options or binding commands to it), it is given a priority  higher
       than  any  existing  tag.   The priority order of tags may be redefined
       using the ``pathName tag raise(3,n)'' and ``pathName tag lower'' widget com-
       mands.

       Tags serve three purposes in(1,8) text widgets.  First, they control the way
       information is displayed on the screen.   By  default,  characters  are
       displayed as determined by the background, font, and foreground options
       for the text widget.  However, display options may be  associated  with
       individual  tags  using  the ``pathName tag configure'' widget command.
       If a character has been tagged, then  the  display  options  associated
       with the tag override the default display style.  The following options
       are currently supported for tags:

       -background color
              Color specifies the background color to use for characters asso-
              ciated  with  the tag.  It may have any of the forms accepted by
              Tk_GetColor.

       -bgstipple bitmap
              Bitmap specifies a bitmap that is used as a stipple pattern  for
              the  background.   It  may  have  any  of  the forms accepted by
              Tk_GetBitmap.  If bitmap hasn't been  specified,  or  if(3,n)  it  is
              specified as an empty string(3,n), then a solid fill will be used for
              the background.

       -borderwidth pixels
              Pixels specifies the width of a 3-D border to  draw  around  the
              background.  It may have any of the forms accepted by Tk_GetPix-
              els.  This option is used in(1,8) conjunction with the -relief option
              to give a 3-D appearance to the background for characters; it is
              ignored unless the -background option has been set(7,n,1 builtins) for the  tag.

       -elide boolean
              Elide  specifies whether the data should be elided.  Elided data
              is not displayed and takes no space on screen,  but  further  on
              behaves just as normal data.

       -fgstipple bitmap
              Bitmap specifies a bitmap that is used as a stipple pattern when
              drawing text and other foreground  information  such  as  under-
              lines.   It  may have any of the forms accepted by Tk_GetBitmap.
              If bitmap hasn't been specified, or if(3,n) it  is  specified  as  an
              empty string(3,n), then a solid fill will be used.

       -font fontName
              FontName  is  the  name of a font to use for drawing characters.
              It may have any of the forms accepted by Tk_GetFont.

       -foreground color
              Color specifies the color to use when  drawing  text  and  other
              foreground  information  such as underlines.  It may have any of
              the forms accepted by Tk_GetColor.

       -justify justify
              If the first character of a display line has  a  tag  for  which
              this  option  has been specified, then justify determines how to
              justify the line.  It must be one of left, right, or center.  If
              a  line  wraps, then the justification for each line on the dis-
              play is determined by the first character of that display  line.

       -lmargin1 pixels
              If  the  first character of a text line has a tag for which this
              option has been specified, then pixels specifies  how  much  the
              line  should be indented from the left edge of the window.  Pix-
              els may have any of the standard forms for screen distances.  If
              a line of text wraps, this option only applies to the first line
              on the display;  the -lmargin2 option controls  the  indentation
              for subsequent lines.

       -lmargin2 pixels
              If  the  first  character  of a display line has a tag for which
              this option has been specified, and if(3,n) the display line  is  not
              the  first  for its text line (i.e., the text line has wrapped),
              then pixels specifies how much the line should be indented  from
              the  left  edge of the window.  Pixels may have any of the stan-
              dard forms for screen distances.  This option is only used  when
              wrapping is enabled, and it only applies to the second and later
              display lines for a text line.

       -offset pixels
              Pixels specifies an amount by which the text's  baseline  should
              be  offset  vertically from the baseline of the overall line, in(1,8)
              pixels.  For example, a positive offset can be used  for  super-
              scripts  and a negative offset can be used for subscripts.  Pix-
              els may have any of the standard forms for screen distances.

       -overstrike boolean
              Specifies whether or not to draw a horizontal rule  through  the
              middle  of  characters.   Boolean  may  have  any  of  the forms
              accepted by Tk_GetBoolean.

       -relief relief
              Relief specifies the 3-D relief to use for drawing  backgrounds,
              in(1,8)  any  of  the forms accepted by Tk_GetRelief.  This option is
              used in(1,8) conjunction with the -borderwidth option to give  a  3-D
              appearance  to  the  background  for  characters;  it is ignored
              unless the -background option has been set(7,n,1 builtins) for the tag.

       -rmargin pixels
              If the first character of a display line has  a  tag  for  which
              this option has been specified, then pixels specifies how wide a
              margin to leave between the end of the line and the  right  edge
              of  the  window.   Pixels may have any of the standard forms for
              screen distances.  This option is only  used  when  wrapping  is
              enabled.   If  a text line wraps, the right margin for each line
              on the display is determined by the first character of that dis-
              play line.

       -spacing1 pixels
              Pixels  specifies how much additional space should be left above
              each text line, using any of the standard forms for screen  dis-
              tances.   If a line wraps, this option only applies to the first
              line on the display.

       -spacing2 pixels
              For lines that wrap, this option specifies how  much  additional
              space to leave between the display lines for a single text line.
              Pixels may have any of the standard forms for screen  distances.

       -spacing3 pixels
              Pixels  specifies how much additional space should be left below
              each text line, using any of the standard forms for screen  dis-
              tances.   If  a line wraps, this option only applies to the last
              line on the display.

       -tabs tabList
              TabList specifies a set(7,n,1 builtins) of tab stops in(1,8) the same form as for the
              -tabs option for the text widget.  This option only applies to a
              display line if(3,n) it applies to the first character on  that  dis-
              play  line.   If this option is specified as an empty string(3,n), it
              cancels the option, leaving it  unspecified  for  the  tag  (the
              default).  If the option is specified as a non-empty string(3,n) that
              is an empty list, such as -tags { }, then  it  requests  default
              8-character tabs as described for the tags widget option.

       -underline boolean
              Boolean specifies whether or not to draw an underline underneath
              characters.  It may have any of the forms  accepted  by  Tk_Get-
              Boolean.

       -wrap mode
              Mode  specifies  how  to  handle  lines  that are wider than the
              text's window.  It has the same legal values as the -wrap option
              for  the  text widget:  none, char, or word.  If this tag option
              is specified, it overrides the -wrap option for the text widget.

       If  a  character has several tags associated with it, and if(3,n) their dis-
       play options conflict, then the options of the highest priority tag are
       used.   If a particular display option hasn't been specified for a par-
       ticular tag, or if(3,n) it is specified as an empty string(3,n), then that option
       will  never  be used;  the next-highest-priority tag's option will used
       instead.  If no tag specifies a particular  display  option,  then  the
       default style for the widget will be used.

       The second purpose for tags is event bindings.  You can associate bind-
       ings with a tag in(1,8) much the same way you can associate bindings with  a
       widget  class:   whenever  particular X events occur on characters with
       the given tag, a given Tcl command will be executed.  Tag bindings  can
       be  used to give behaviors to ranges of characters; among other things,
       this allows hypertext-like features to be  implemented.   For  details,
       see the description of the tag bind(2,n,1 builtins) widget command below.

       The third use for tags is in(1,8) managing the selection.  See THE SELECTION
       below.


MARKS
       The second form of annotation in(1,8) text widgets is  a  mark.   Marks  are
       used  for  remembering particular places in(1,8) a text.  They are something
       like tags, in(1,8) that they have names and they  refer  to  places  in(1,8)  the
       file(1,n), but a mark isn't associated with particular characters.  Instead,
       a mark is associated with the gap between two characters.  Only a  sin-
       gle  position  may be associated with a mark at any given time.  If the
       characters around a mark are deleted the mark will  still  remain;   it
       will just have new neighbor characters.  In contrast, if(3,n) the characters
       containing a tag are deleted then the tag will no longer have an  asso-
       ciation with characters in(1,8) the file.  Marks may be manipulated with the
       ``pathName mark'' widget command, and their current  locations  may  be
       determined by using the mark name as an index in(1,8) widget commands.

       Each mark also has a gravity, which is either left or right.  The grav-
       ity for a mark specifies what happens to the mark when text is inserted
       at the point of the mark.  If a mark has left gravity, then the mark is
       treated as if(3,n) it were attached to the character on  its  left,  so  the
       mark will remain to the left of any text inserted at the mark position.
       If the mark has right gravity, new text inserted at the  mark  position
       will  appear  to  the left of the mark (so that the mark remains right-
       most).  The gravity for a mark defaults to right.

       The name space for marks is different from that  for  tags:   the  same
       name may be used for both a mark and a tag, but they will refer to dif-
       ferent things.

       Two marks have special significance.  First, the mark insert is associ-
       ated with the insertion cursor, as described under THE INSERTION CURSOR
       below.  Second, the mark current is associated with the character clos-
       est to the mouse and is adjusted automatically to track the mouse posi-
       tion and any changes to the text in(1,8) the widget (one exception:  current
       is  not updated in(1,8) response to mouse motions if(3,n) a mouse button is down;
       the  update(7,n)  will  be  deferred  until  all  mouse  buttons  have  been
       released).  Neither of these special marks may be deleted.


EMBEDDED WINDOWS
       The  third  form  of  annotation in(1,8) text widgets is an embedded window.
       Each embedded window annotation causes a window to be  displayed  at  a
       particular  point  in(1,8)   the  text.  There may be any number of embedded
       windows in(1,8) a text widget, and any widget may be  used  as  an  embedded
       window  (subject  to  the  usual  rules  for geometry management, which
       require the text window to be the parent of the embedded  window  or  a
       descendant  of  its  parent).   The  embedded  window's position on the
       screen will be updated as the text is modified or scrolled, and it will
       be  mapped and unmapped as it moves into and out of the visible area of
       the text widget.  Each embedded window occupies one  character's  worth
       of  index space in(1,8) the text widget, and it may be referred to either by
       the name of its embedded window or by  its  position  in(1,8)  the  widget's
       index  space.   If  the range of text containing the embedded window is
       deleted then the window is destroyed.

       When an embedded window is added to a text widget with the window  cre-
       ate  widget  command,  several  configuration options may be associated
       with it.  These options may be  modified later with the window  config-
       ure widget command.  The following options are currently supported:

       -align where
              If  the  window  is  not as tall as the line in(1,8) which it is dis-
              played, this option determines where the window is displayed  in(1,8)
              the  line.  Where must have one of the values top (align the top
              of the window with the top of the line), center (center the win-
              dow  within  the range of the line), bottom (align the bottom of
              the window with the bottom of  the  line's  area),  or  baseline
              (align  the bottom of the window with the baseline of the line).

       -create script
              Specifies a Tcl script that may be evaluated to create the  win-
              dow for the annotation.  If no -window option has been specified
              for the annotation this script will be evaluated when the  anno-
              tation is about to be displayed on the screen.  Script must cre-
              ate a window for the annotation and return the name of that win-
              dow  as  its  result.  If the annotation's window should ever be
              deleted, script will be evaluated again the next time(1,2,n) the  anno-
              tation is displayed.

       -padx pixels
              Pixels specifies the amount of extra space to leave on each side
              of the embedded window.  It may have  any  of  the  usual  forms
              defined for a screen distance.

       -pady pixels
              Pixels  specifies  the amount of extra space to leave on the top
              and on the bottom of the embedded window.  It may  have  any  of
              the usual forms defined for a screen distance.

       -stretch boolean
              If  the requested height of the embedded window is less(1,3) than the
              height of the line in(1,8) which it is displayed, this option can  be
              used  to  specify  whether the window should be stretched verti-
              cally to fill its line.  If the -pady option has been  specified
              as well, then the requested padding will be retained even if(3,n) the
              window is stretched.

       -window pathName
              Specifies the name of a window to display in(1,8) the annotation.


EMBEDDED IMAGES
       The final form of annotation in(1,8) text  widgets  is  an  embedded  image.
       Each  embedded  image  annotation  causes an image to be displayed at a
       particular point in(1,8)  the text.  There may be  any  number  of  embedded
       images in(1,8) a text widget, and a particular image may be embedded in(1,8) mul-
       tiple places in(1,8) the same text widget.  The embedded image's position on
       the  screen  will be updated as the text is modified or scrolled.  Each
       embedded image occupies one character's worth of  index  space  in(1,8)  the
       text  widget,  and  it may be referred to either by its position in(1,8) the
       widget's index space, or the name it is  assigned  when  the  image  is
       inserted  into the text widget widh image create.  If the range of text
       containing the embedded image is deleted then that copy of the image is
       removed from the screen.

       When  an embedded image is added to a text widget with the image create
       widget command, a  name  unique  to  this  instance  of  the  image  is
       returned.   This name may then be used to refer to this image instance.
       The name is taken to be  the  value  of  the  -name  option  (described
       below).   If  the -name option is not provided, the -image name is used
       instead.  If the imageName is already in(1,8) use in(1,8) the text  widget,  then
       #nn  is  added  to  the  end of the imageName, where nn is an arbitrary
       integer.  This insures the imageName is  unique.   Once  this  name  is
       assigned to this instance of the image, it does not change, even though
       the -image or -name values can be changed with image configure.

       When an embedded image is added to a text widget with the image  create
       widget  command,  several  configuration options may be associated with
       it.  These options may be modified later with the image configure  wid-
       get command.  The following options are currently supported:

       -align where
              If  the  image  is  not  as tall as the line in(1,8) which it is dis-
              played, this option determines where the image is  displayed  in(1,8)
              the  line.  Where must have one of the values top (align the top
              of the image with the top of the line), center (center the image
              within  the  range of the line), bottom (align the bottom of the
              image with the bottom of the line's area),  or  baseline  (align
              the bottom of the image with the baseline of the line).

       -image image
              Specifies the name of the Tk image to display in(1,8) the annotation.
              If image is not a valid Tk image, then an error(8,n) is returned.

       -name ImageName
              Specifies the name by which this image instance  may  be  refer-
              enced in(1,8) the text widget. If ImageName is not supplied, then the
              name of the Tk image is  used  instead.   If  the  imageName  is
              already  in(1,8)  use,  #nn  is  appended  to  the end of the name as
              described above.

       -padx pixels
              Pixels specifies the amount of extra space to leave on each side
              of  the  embedded  image.   It  may  have any of the usual forms
              defined for a screen distance.

       -pady pixels
              Pixels specifies the amount of extra space to leave on  the  top
              and on the bottom of the embedded image.  It may have any of the
              usual forms defined for a screen distance.


THE SELECTION
       Selection support is implemented  via  tags.   If  the  exportSelection
       option  for the text widget is true then the sel tag will be associated
       with the selection:

       [1]    Whenever characters are tagged with sel  the  text  widget  will
              claim ownership of the selection.

       [2]    Attempts  to retrieve the selection will be serviced by the text
              widget, returning all the characters with the sel tag.

       [3]    If the selection is claimed away by another  application  or  by
              another window within this application, then the sel tag will be
              removed from all characters in(1,8) the text.

       [4]    Whenever the sel tag range changes a virtual(5,8) event <<Selection>>
              is generated.

       The sel tag is automatically defined when a text widget is created, and
       it may not be deleted with the ``pathName tag delete'' widget  command.
       Furthermore,  the  selectBackground, selectBorderWidth, and selectFore-
       ground options for the text widget are tied to the  -background,  -bor-
       derwidth,  and  -foreground options for the sel tag:  changes in(1,8) either
       will automatically be reflected in(1,8) the other.


THE INSERTION CURSOR
       The mark named(5,8) insert has special significance in(1,8) text widgets.  It  is
       defined  automatically  when a text widget is created and it may not be
       unset with the ``pathName mark unset'' widget command.  The insert mark
       represents the position of the insertion cursor, and the insertion cur-
       sor will automatically be drawn at this point whenever the text  widget
       has the input focus.


THE MODIFIED FLAG
       The  text widget can keep track of changes to the content of the widget
       by means of the modified flag. Inserting or deleting text will set(7,n,1 builtins) this
       flag. The flag can be queried, set(7,n,1 builtins) and cleared programatically as well.
       Whenever the flag changes state a <<Modified>> virtual(5,8) event is  gener-
       ated. See the edit modified widget command for more details.


THE UNDO MECHANISM
       The  text  widget  has  an  unlimited undo and redo mechanism (when the |
       -undo widget option is true) which  records  every  insert  and  delete |
       action on a stack.                                                      |

       Boundaries  (called  "separators")  are  inserted between edit actions. |
       The purpose of these separators is to group inserts  and  deletes  into |
       one compound edit action.  When undoing a change everything between two |
       separators will be undone.  The undone changes are then  moved  to  the |
       redo stack, so that an undone edit can be redone again.  The redo stack |
       is cleared whenever new edit actions are recorded on  the  undo  stack. |
       The  undo and redo stacks can be cleared to keep their depth under con- |
       trol.                                                                   |

       Separators are inserted automatically when the  -autoseparators  widget |
       option is true.  You can insert separators programatically as well.  If |
       a separator is already present at the top of the undo  stack  no  other |
       will be inserted.  That means that two separators on the undo stack are |
       always separated by at least one insert or delete action.               |

       The undo mechanism is also linked to the  modified  flag.   This  means |
       that undoing or redoing changes can take a modified text widget back to |
       the unmodified state or vice versa.  The  modified  flag  will  be  set(7,n,1 builtins) |
       automatically  to  the appropriate state.  This automatic coupling does |
       not work when the modified flag has been set(7,n,1 builtins) by  the  user,  until  the |
       flag has been reset(1,7,1 tput) again.                                              |

       See below for the edit widget command that controls the undo mechanism.


WIDGET COMMAND
       The text command creates a new Tcl command whose name is  the  same  as
       the path name of the text's window.  This command may be used to invoke
       various operations on the widget.  It has the following general form:
              pathName option ?arg arg ...?
       PathName is the name of the command, which is the same as the text wid-
       get's  path  name.  Option and the args determine the exact behavior of
       the command.  The following commands are possible for text widgets:

       pathName bbox index
              Returns a list of four elements describing the  screen  area  of
              the  character  given  by  index.  The first two elements of the
              list give the x and y coordinates of the  upper-left  corner  of
              the  area  occupied  by the character, and the last two elements
              give the width and height of the area.  If the character is only
              partially  visible on the screen, then the return value reflects
              just the visible part.  If the character is not visible  on  the
              screen then the return value is an empty list.

       pathName cget option
              Returns  the  current value of the configuration option given by
              option.  Option may have any of the values accepted by the  text
              command.

       pathName compare index1 op index2
              Compares the indices given by index1 and index2 according to the
              relational operator given by op, and returns 1 if(3,n) the  relation-
              ship  is  satisfied  and  0  if(3,n) it isn't.  Op must be one of the
              operators <, <=, ==, >=, >, or !=.   If  op  is  ==  then  1  is
              returned  if(3,n)  the two indices refer to the same character, if(3,n) op
              is < then 1 is returned if(3,n) index1 refers to an earlier character
              in(1,8) the text than index2, and so on.

       pathName configure ?option? ?value option value ...?
              Query  or modify the configuration options of the widget.  If no
              option is specified, returns a list describing all of the avail-
              able  options for pathName (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for information
              on the format of this list).  If option  is  specified  with  no
              value,  then the command returns a list describing the one named(5,8)
              option (this list will be identical to the corresponding sublist
              of  the  value  returned  if(3,n) no option is specified).  If one or
              more option-value pairs are specified, then the command modifies
              the  given widget option(s) to have the given value(s);  in(1,8) this
              case the command returns an empty string.  Option may  have  any
              of the values accepted by the text command.

       pathName debug ?boolean?
              If  boolean  is  specified, then it must have one of the true or
              false values accepted by Tcl_GetBoolean.  If the value is a true
              one then internal consistency checks will be turned on in(1,8) the B-
              tree code associated with text widgets.  If boolean has a  false
              value  then  the debugging checks will be turned off.  In either
              case the command returns an empty string.   If  boolean  is  not
              specified then the command returns on or off to indicate whether
              or not debugging is turned on.   There  is  a  single  debugging
              switch(1,n)  shared by all text widgets:  turning debugging on or off
              in(1,8) any widget turns it on or off for all widgets.   For  widgets
              with  large  amounts of text, the consistency checks may cause a
              noticeable slow-down.

       When debugging is turned on, the drawing routines of  the  text  widget |
       set(7,n,1 builtins) the global variables tk_textRedraw and tk_textRelayout to the lists |
       of indices that are redrawn.  The values of these variables are  tested |
       by Tk's test suite.

       pathName delete index1 ?index2 ...?
              Delete  a range of characters from the text.  If both index1 and
              index2 are specified, then delete all  the  characters  starting
              with  the  one  given  by index1 and stopping just before index2
              (i.e. the character  at  index2  is  not  deleted).   If  index2
              doesn't specify a position later in(1,8) the text than index1 then no
              characters are deleted.  If index2 isn't specified then the sin-
              gle  character  at  index1  is  deleted.  It is not allowable to
              delete characters in(1,8) a way that would leave the text  without  a
              newline  as  the  last  character.  The command returns an empty
              string.  If more indices are given, multiple ranges of text will |
              be  deleted.   All indices are first checked for validity before |
              any deletions are made.  They are sorted and the text is removed |
              from  the last range to the first range to deleted text does not |
              cause a undesired  index  shifting  side-effects.   If  multiple |
              ranges  with  the  same  start index are given, then the longest |
              range is used.  If overlapping ranges are given, then they  will |
              be  merged into spans that do not cause deletion of text outside |
              the given ranges due to text shifted during deletion.

       pathName dlineinfo index
              Returns a list with five elements describing the  area  occupied
              by the display line containing index.  The first two elements of
              the list give the x and y coordinates of the  upper-left  corner
              of  the area occupied by the line, the third and fourth elements
              give the width and height of the area,  and  the  fifth  element
              gives  the  position of the baseline for the line, measured down
              from the top of the area.  All of this information  is  measured
              in(1,8)  pixels.   If  the  current  wrap  mode  is none and the line
              extends beyond the boundaries of the window, the  area  returned
              reflects  the  entire  area  of the line, including the portions
              that are out of the window.  If the line  is  shorter  than  the
              full  width  of  the window then the area returned reflects just
              the portion of the line  that  is  occupied  by  characters  and
              embedded  windows.   If the display line containing index is not
              visible on the screen then the return value is an empty list.

       pathName dump ?switches? index1 ?index2?
              Return the contents of the text widget from index1  up  to,  but
              not  including  index2, including the text and information about
              marks, tags, and embedded windows.  If index2 is not  specified,
              then  it defaults to one character past index1.  The information
              is returned in(1,8) the following format:

              key1 value1 index1 key2 value2 index2 ...

              The possible key values are text, mark, tagon, tagoff, and  win-
              dow.   The corresponding value is the text, mark name, tag name,
              or window name.  The index information is the index of the start
              of  the  text, the mark, the tag transition, or the window.  One
              or more of the following switches (or abbreviations thereof) may
              be specified to control the dump:

              -all   Return information about all elements: text, marks, tags,
                     images and windows.  This is the default.

              -command command
                     Instead of returning the information as the result of the
                     dump operation, invoke the command on each element of the
                     text widget within the  range.   The  command  has  three
                     arguments appended to it before it is evaluated: the key,
                     value, and index.

              -image Include information about images in(1,8) the dump results.

              -mark  Include information about marks in(1,8) the dump results.

              -tag   Include information about tag  transitions  in(1,8)  the  dump
                     results.  Tag information is returned as tagon and tagoff
                     elements that indicate the begin and end of each range of
                     each tag, respectively.

              -text  Include  information about text in(1,8) the dump results.  The
                     value is the text up to the next element or  the  end  of
                     range  indicated by index2.  A text element does not span
                     newlines.  A multi-line block of text  that  contains  no
                     marks or tag transitions will still be dumped as a set(7,n,1 builtins) of
                     text seqments that each end with a newline.  The  newline
                     is part of the value.

              -window
                     Include  information  about  embedded windows in(1,8) the dump
                     results.  The value of  a  window  is  its  Tk  pathname,
                     unless  the  window  has  not been created yet.  (It must
                     have a create script.)  In this case an empty  string(3,n)  is
                     returned,  and  you  must  query  the window by its index
                     position to get more information.

       pathName edit option ?arg arg ...?
              This command controls the undo mechanism and the modified  flag. |
              The exact behavior of the command depends on the option argument |
              that follows the edit argument.  The following forms of the com- |
              mand are currently supported:                                    |

              pathName edit modified                                           |
              ?boolean?                                 |                      |
                     If boolean is not specified, returns the modified flag of |
                     the  widget.  The insert, delete, edit undo and edit redo |
                     commands or the user can set(7,n,1 builtins) or clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) the modified  flag. |
                     If  boolean  is  specified, sets the modified flag of the |
                     widget to boolean.                                        |

              pathName edit                                                    |
              redo                                               |             |
                     When  the -undo option is true, reapplies the last undone |
                     edits provided no other edits were done since then.  Gen- |
                     erates an error(8,n) when the redo stack is empty.  Does noth- |
                     ing when the -undo option is false.                       |

              pathName edit                                                    |
              reset(1,7,1 tput)                                              |             |
                     Clears the undo and redo stacks.                          |

              pathName edit separa-                                            |
              tor                                          |                   |
                     Inserts a separator (boundary) on the  undo  stack.  Does |
                     nothing when the -undo option is false.                   |

              pathName edit                                                    |
              undo                                               |             |
                     Undoes the last edit action  when  the  -undo  option  is |
                     true.   An  edit  action is defined as all the insert and |
                     delete commands that are recorded on the  undo  stack  in(1,8) |
                     between  two separators. Generates an error(8,n) when the undo |
                     stack is empty.  Does nothing when the  -undo  option  is |
                     false.                                                    |

       pathName get index1 ?index2 ...?
              Return  a  range  of characters from the text.  The return value
              will be all the characters in(1,8) the text  starting  with  the  one
              whose index is index1 and ending just before the one whose index
              is index2 (the character at index2 will not  be  returned).   If
              index2  is  omitted  then  the  single  character  at  index1 is
              returned.  If there are no characters  in(1,8)  the  specified  range
              (e.g.  index1 is past the end of the file(1,n) or index2 is less(1,3) than
              or equal to index1) then an empty string(3,n) is  returned.   If  the
              specified  range contains embedded windows, no information about
              them is included in(1,8) the  returned  string.   If  multiple  index |
              pairs  are  given, multiple ranges of text will be returned in(1,8) a |
              list.  Invalid ranges will not be represented with empty strings |
              in(1,8)  the  list.   The  ranges are returned in(1,8) the order passed to |
              get.

       pathName image option ?arg arg ...?
              This command is used to manipulate embedded images.  The  behav-
              ior  of  the command depends on the option argument that follows
              the tag argument.  The following forms of the command  are  cur-
              rently supported:

              pathName image cget index option
                     Returns the value of a configuration option for an embed-
                     ded image.  Index  identifies  the  embedded  image,  and
                     option specifies a particular configuration option, which
                     must be one of the ones listed in(1,8)  the  section  EMBEDDED
                     IMAGES.

              pathName image configure index ?option value ...?
                     Query or modify the configuration options for an embedded
                     image.   If  no  option  is  specified,  returns  a  list
                     describing  all of the available options for the embedded
                     image at index (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for  information  on
                     the format of this list).  If option is specified with no
                     value, then the command returns a list describing the one
                     named(5,8)  option  (this list will be identical to the corre-
                     sponding sublist of the value returned if(3,n)  no  option  is
                     specified).  If one or more option-value pairs are speci-
                     fied, then the command modifies the  given  option(s)  to
                     have  the  given  value(s);   in(1,8)  this  case  the command
                     returns an empty string.  See EMBEDDED IMAGES for  infor-
                     mation on the options that are supported.

              pathName image create index ?option value ...?
                     This  command  creates a new image annotation, which will
                     appear in(1,8) the text at the position given by  index.   Any
                     number  of option-value pairs may be specified to config-
                     ure the annotation.  Returns a unique identifier that may
                     be used as an index to refer to this image.  See EMBEDDED
                     IMAGES for information on the options that are supported,
                     and a description of the identifier returned.

              pathName image names
                     Returns  a list whose elements are the names of all image
                     instances currently embedded in(1,8) window.

       pathName index index
              Returns  the  position  corresponding  to  index  in(1,8)  the   form
              line.char  where line is the line number and char is the charac-
              ter number.  Index may have any of  the  forms  described  under
              INDICES above.

       pathName insert index chars ?tagList chars tagList ...?
              Inserts  all of the chars arguments just before the character at
              index.  If index refers to the end of the  text  (the  character
              after  the  last  newline)  then  the  new text is inserted just
              before the last newline instead.  If there  is  a  single  chars
              argument and no tagList, then the new text will receive any tags
              that are present on both the character before and the  character
              after  the  insertion  point; if(3,n) a tag is present on only one of
              these characters then it will not be applied to  the  new  text.
              If tagList is specified then it consists of a list of tag names;
              the new characters will receive all of the tags in(1,8) this list and
              no  others,  regardless of the tags present around the insertion
              point.  If multiple chars-tagList argument  pairs  are  present,
              they produce the same effect as if(3,n) a separate insert widget com-
              mand had been issued for each pair, in(1,8) order.  The last  tagList
              argument may be omitted.

       pathName mark option ?arg arg ...?
              This command is used to manipulate marks.  The exact behavior of
              the command depends on the option argument that follows the mark
              argument.  The following forms of the command are currently sup-
              ported:

              pathName mark gravity markName ?direction?
                     If direction is not specified, returns left or  right  to
                     indicate  which  of  its  adjacent characters markName is
                     attached to.  If direction is specified, it must be  left
                     or  right;  the  gravity  of markName is set(7,n,1 builtins) to the given
                     value.

              pathName mark names
                     Returns a list whose elements are the names  of  all  the
                     marks that are currently set.

              pathName mark next index
                     Returns  the name of the next mark at or after index.  If
                     index is specified in(1,8) numerical form, then the search for
                     the next mark begins at that index.  If index is the name
                     of a mark, then the search for the next mark begins imme-
                     diately after that mark.  This can still return a mark at
                     the same position if(3,n) there are multiple marks at the same
                     index.  These semantics mean that the mark next operation
                     can be used to step through all the marks in(1,8) a text  wid-
                     get in(1,8) the same order as the mark information returned by
                     the dump operation.  If a mark has been set(7,n,1 builtins) to  the  spe-
                     cial  end  index,  then  it  appears to be after end with
                     respect to the mark next operation.  An empty  string(3,n)  is
                     returned if(3,n) there are no marks after index.

              pathName mark previous index
                     Returns  the  name  of  the  mark at or before index.  If
                     index is specified in(1,8) numerical form, then the search for
                     the  previous  mark begins with the character just before
                     that index.  If index is the name of  a  mark,  then  the
                     search  for  the next mark begins immediately before that
                     mark.  This can still return a mark at the same  position
                     if(3,n)  there  are  multiple  marks at the same index.  These
                     semantics mean that the mark previous  operation  can  be
                     used  to  step  through all the marks in(1,8) a text widget in(1,8)
                     the reverse order as the mark information returned by the
                     dump operation.  An empty string(3,n) is returned if(3,n) there are
                     no marks before index.

              pathName mark set(7,n,1 builtins) markName index
                     Sets the mark named(5,8) markName to a  position  just  before
                     the  character  at index.  If markName already exists, it
                     is moved from its old position; if(3,n) it  doesn't  exist,  a
                     new  mark  is  created.   This  command  returns an empty
                     string.

              pathName mark unset markName ?markName markName ...?
                     Remove the mark corresponding to  each  of  the  markName
                     arguments.   The  removed  marks  will  not  be usable in(1,8)
                     indices and will not  be  returned  by  future  calls  to
                     ``pathName  mark  names''.  This command returns an empty
                     string.

       pathName scan option args
              This command is used to implement scanning on texts.  It has two
              forms, depending on option:

              pathName scan mark x y
                     Records  x and y and the current view in(1,8) the text window,
                     for use in(1,8) conjunction with later scan  dragto  commands.
                     Typically  this command is associated with a mouse button
                     press in(1,8) the widget.  It returns an empty string.

              pathName scan dragto x y
                     This command computes the difference between its x and  y
                     arguments and the x and y arguments to the last scan mark
                     command for the widget.  It then adjusts the view  by  10
                     times  the  difference  in(1,8)  coordinates.  This command is
                     typically associated with mouse motion events in(1,8) the wid-
                     get,  to  produce the effect of dragging the text at high
                     speed through the window.  The return value is  an  empty
                     string.

       pathName search ?switches? pattern index ?stopIndex?
              Searches  the  text in(1,8) pathName starting at index for a range of
              characters that matches pattern.  If a match is found, the index
              of the first character in(1,8) the match is returned as result;  oth-
              erwise an empty string(3,n) is returned.  One or more of the  follow-
              ing switches (or abbreviations thereof) may be specified to con-
              trol the search:

              -forwards
                     The search will proceed forward through the text, finding
                     the  first  matching range starting at or after the posi-
                     tion given by index.  This is the default.

              -backwards
                     The search will proceed backward through the text,  find-
                     ing the matching range closest to index whose first char-
                     acter is before index.

              -exact Use exact matching:  the characters in(1,8) the matching range
                     must  be  identical  to  those  in(1,8)  pattern.  This is the
                     default.

              -regexp
                     Treat pattern  as  a  regular  expression  and  match  it
                     against  the text using the rules for regular expressions
                     (see the regexp(3,n) command for details).

              -nocase
                     Ignore case differences between the pattern and the text.

              -count varName
                     The  argument  following -count gives the name of a vari-
                     able; if(3,n) a match is found, the number of index  positions
                     between  beginning  and end of the matching range will be
                     stored in(1,8) the variable.  If there are no embedded  images
                     or  windows  in(1,8) the matching range, this is equivalent to
                     the number of characters matched.  In  either  case,  the
                     range matchIdx to matchIdx + $count chars will return the
                     entire matched text.

              -elide Find elidden (hidden) text as well. By default only  dis-
                     played text is searched.

              --     This switch(1,n) has no effect except to terminate the list of
                     switches: the next argument will be  treated  as  pattern
                     even if(3,n) it starts with -.

              The  matching  range  must  be  entirely within a single line of
              text.  For regular expression matching the newlines are  removed
              from  the  ends of the lines before matching:  use the $ feature
              in(1,8) regular expressions to match the end of a  line.   For  exact
              matching  the newlines are retained.  If stopIndex is specified,
              the search stops at that index: for forward searches,  no  match
              at   or  after  stopIndex  will  be  considered;   for  backward
              searches, no match earlier in(1,8) the text than  stopIndex  will  be
              considered.   If  stopIndex  is omitted, the entire text will be
              searched: when the beginning or end of the text is reached,  the
              search continues at the other end until the starting location is
              reached again;  if(3,n) stopIndex is specified, no  wrap-around  will
              occur.

       pathName see index
              Adjusts  the  view  in(1,8) the window so that the character given by
              index is completely visible.  If index is already  visible  then
              the  command  does nothing.  If index is a short distance out of
              view, the command adjusts the view just  enough  to  make  index
              visible at the edge of the window.  If index is far out of view,
              then the command centers index in(1,8) the window.

       pathName tag option ?arg arg ...?
              This command is used to manipulate tags.  The exact behavior  of
              the  command depends on the option argument that follows the tag
              argument.  The following forms of the command are currently sup-
              ported:

              pathName tag add tagName index1 ?index2 index1 index2 ...?
                     Associate  the  tag  tagName  with  all of the characters
                     starting with index1 and ending just before  index2  (the
                     character  at index2 isn't tagged).  A single command may
                     contain any number of index1-index2 pairs.  If  the  last
                     index2  is omitted then the single character at index1 is
                     tagged.  If there are  no  characters  in(1,8)  the  specified
                     range  (e.g. index1 is past the end of the file(1,n) or index2
                     is less(1,3) than or equal to index1) then the command has  no
                     effect.

              pathName tag bind(2,n,1 builtins) tagName ?sequence? ?script?
                     This command associates script with the tag given by tag-
                     Name.  Whenever the  event  sequence  given  by  sequence
                     occurs for a character that has been tagged with tagName,
                     the script will be invoked.  This widget command is simi-
                     lar  to the bind(2,n,1 builtins) command except that it operates on char-
                     acters in(1,8) a text rather than  entire  widgets.   See  the
                     bind(2,n,1 builtins)  manual  entry for complete details on the syntax of
                     sequence and the substitutions performed on script before
                     invoking  it.   If all arguments are specified then a new
                     binding is created, replacing any  existing  binding  for
                     the  same sequence and tagName (if(3,n) the first character of
                     script is ``+'' then script augments an existing  binding
                     rather than replacing it).  In this case the return value
                     is an empty string.  If script is omitted then  the  com-
                     mand  returns  the  script  associated  with  tagName and
                     sequence (an error(8,n) occurs if(3,n) there is no  such  binding).
                     If  both script and sequence are omitted then the command
                     returns a list of all the sequences  for  which  bindings
                     have been defined for tagName.

                     The  only  events for which bindings may be specified are |
                     those related to the mouse and keyboard (such  as  Enter, |
                     Leave,  ButtonPress,  Motion,  and  KeyPress)  or virtual(5,8) |
                     events.  Event bindings for a text widget use the current |
                     mark  described  under MARKS above.  An Enter event trig- |
                     gers for a tag when the tag first becomes present on  the |
                     current  character,  and a Leave event triggers for a tag |
                     when it ceases to be present on  the  current  character. |
                     Enter and Leave events can happen either because the cur- |
                     rent mark moved or because the character at that position |
                     changed.  Note that these events are different than Enter |
                     and Leave events for windows.  Mouse and keyboard  events |
                     are  directed  to  the  current  character.  If a virtual(5,8) |
                     event is used in(1,8) a binding, that binding can trigger only |
                     if(3,n)  the  virtual(5,8) event is defined by an underlying mouse- |
                     related or keyboard-related event.

                     It is possible for the current character to have multiple
                     tags,  and  for each of them to have a binding for a par-
                     ticular event sequence.  When this occurs, one binding is
                     invoked  for  each  tag, in(1,8) order from lowest-priority to
                     highest priority.  If there are multiple  matching  bind-
                     ings  for a single tag, then the most specific binding is
                     chosen (see the manual entry for  the  bind(2,n,1 builtins)  command  for
                     details).   continue  and  break  commands within binding
                     scripts are processed in(1,8) the same  way  as  for  bindings
                     created with the bind(2,n,1 builtins) command.

                     If  bindings  are created for the widget as a whole using
                     the bind(2,n,1 builtins) command, then those bindings will supplement the
                     tag  bindings.   The  tag bindings will be invoked first,
                     followed by bindings for the window as a whole.

              pathName tag cget tagName option
                     This command returns the  current  value  of  the  option
                     named(5,8)  option  associated  with the tag given by tagName.
                     Option may have any of the values  accepted  by  the  tag
                     configure widget command.

              pathName  tag  configure  tagName ?option? ?value? ?option value
              ...?
                     This  command  is similar to the configure widget command
                     except that it modifies options associated with  the  tag
                     given  by  tagName  instead  of modifying options for the
                     overall text widget.  If no option is specified, the com-
                     mand  returns  a  list  describing  all  of the available
                     options for tagName (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for information
                     on the format of this list).  If option is specified with
                     no value, then the command returns a list describing  the
                     one named(5,8) option (this list will be identical to the cor-
                     responding sublist of the value returned if(3,n) no option  is
                     specified).  If one or more option-value pairs are speci-
                     fied, then the command modifies the  given  option(s)  to
                     have the given value(s) in(1,8) tagName; in(1,8) this case the com-
                     mand returns an empty string.  See TAGS above for details
                     on the options available for tags.

              pathName tag delete tagName ?tagName ...?
                     Deletes all tag information for each of the tagName argu-
                     ments.  The command removes the tags from all  characters
                     in(1,8)  the file(1,n) and also deletes any other information asso-
                     ciated with the tags, such as bindings and display infor-
                     mation.  The command returns an empty string.

              pathName tag lower tagName ?belowThis?
                     Changes  the  priority  of tag tagName so that it is just
                     lower in(1,8) priority than the tag whose name  is  belowThis.
                     If  belowThis  is  omitted,  then  tagName's  priority is
                     changed to make it lowest priority of all tags.

              pathName tag names ?index?
                     Returns a list whose elements are the names  of  all  the
                     tags  that  are active at the character position given by
                     index.  If index is omitted, then the return  value  will
                     describe  all  of  the tags that exist for the text (this
                     includes all tags that have been named(5,8)  in(1,8)  a  ``pathName
                     tag''  widget  command  but  haven't  been  deleted  by a
                     ``pathName tag delete'' widget command, even if(3,n) no  char-
                     acters are currently marked with the tag).  The list will
                     be sorted in(1,8) order from lowest priority to highest prior-
                     ity.

              pathName tag nextrange tagName index1 ?index2?
                     This  command searches the text for a range of characters
                     tagged with tagName where  the  first  character  of  the
                     range  is  no earlier than the character at index1 and no
                     later than the character  just  before  index2  (a  range
                     starting  at  index2 will not be considered).  If several
                     matching ranges exist, the first one is chosen.  The com-
                     mand's  return  value  is a list containing two elements,
                     which are the index of the first character of  the  range
                     and the index of the character just after the last one in(1,8)
                     the range.  If no matching range is found then the return
                     value is an empty string.  If index2 is not given then it
                     defaults to the end of the text.

              pathName tag prevrange tagName index1 ?index2?
                     This command searches the text for a range of  characters
                     tagged  with  tagName  where  the  first character of the
                     range is before the character at index1  and  no  earlier
                     than  the character at index2 (a range starting at index2
                     will be considered).  If several matching  ranges  exist,
                     the  one  closest  to  index1  is  chosen.  The command's
                     return value is a list containing two elements, which are
                     the  index  of  the  first character of the range and the
                     index of the character just after the  last  one  in(1,8)  the
                     range.   If  no  matching  range is found then the return
                     value is an empty string.  If index2 is not given then it
                     defaults to the beginning of the text.

              pathName tag raise(3,n) tagName ?aboveThis?
                     Changes  the  priority  of tag tagName so that it is just
                     higher in(1,8) priority than the tag whose name is  aboveThis.
                     If  aboveThis  is  omitted,  then  tagName's  priority is
                     changed to make it highest priority of all tags.

              pathName tag ranges tagName
                     Returns a list describing all of the ranges of text  that
                     have been tagged with tagName.  The first two elements of
                     the list describe the first tagged range in(1,8) the text, the
                     next  two  elements describe the second range, and so on.
                     The first element of each pair contains the index of  the
                     first  character  of the range, and the second element of
                     the pair contains the index of the character  just  after
                     the  last  one  in(1,8) the range.  If there are no characters
                     tagged with tag then an empty string(3,n) is returned.

              pathName tag remove tagName index1 ?index2 index1 index2 ...?
                     Remove the tag tagName from all of the characters  start-
                     ing  at index1 and ending just before index2 (the charac-
                     ter at index2 isn't affected).  A single command may con-
                     tain  any  number  of  index1-index2  pairs.  If the last
                     index2 is omitted then the single character at index1  is
                     tagged.   If  there  are  no  characters in(1,8) the specified
                     range (e.g. index1 is past the end of the file(1,n) or  index2
                     is  less(1,3) than or equal to index1) then the command has no
                     effect.  This command returns an empty string.

       pathName window option ?arg arg ...?
              This command is used to manipulate embedded windows.  The behav-
              ior  of  the command depends on the option argument that follows
              the tag argument.  The following forms of the command  are  cur-
              rently supported:

              pathName window cget index option
                     Returns the value of a configuration option for an embed-
                     ded window.  Index identifies the  embedded  window,  and
                     option specifies a particular configuration option, which
                     must be one of the ones listed in(1,8)  the  section  EMBEDDED
                     WINDOWS.

              pathName window configure index ?option value ...?
                     Query or modify the configuration options for an embedded
                     window.  If  no  option  is  specified,  returns  a  list
                     describing  all of the available options for the embedded
                     window at index (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for information  on
                     the format of this list).  If option is specified with no
                     value, then the command returns a list describing the one
                     named(5,8)  option  (this list will be identical to the corre-
                     sponding sublist of the value returned if(3,n)  no  option  is
                     specified).  If one or more option-value pairs are speci-
                     fied, then the command modifies the  given  option(s)  to
                     have  the  given  value(s);   in(1,8)  this  case  the command
                     returns an empty string.  See EMBEDDED WINDOWS for infor-
                     mation on the options that are supported.

              pathName window create index ?option value ...?
                     This  command creates a new window annotation, which will
                     appear in(1,8) the text at the position given by  index.   Any
                     number  of option-value pairs may be specified to config-
                     ure the annotation.  See EMBEDDED WINDOWS for information
                     on  the  options  that  are  supported.  Returns an empty
                     string.

              pathName window names
                     Returns a list whose elements are the names of  all  win-
                     dows currently embedded in(1,8) window.

       pathName xview option args
              This command is used to query and change the horizontal position
              of the text in(1,8) the widget's window.  It can take any of the fol-
              lowing forms:

              pathName xview
                     Returns  a list containing two elements.  Each element is
                     a real fraction between 0 and 1;  together they  describe
                     the  portion  of  the  document's horizontal span that is
                     visible in(1,8) the window.  For example, if(3,n) the first element
                     is  .2  and  the second element is .6, 20% of the text is
                     off-screen to the left, the middle 40% is visible in(1,8)  the
                     window,  and  40% of the text is off-screen to the right.
                     The fractions refer only to the lines that  are  actually
                     visible  in(1,8)  the  window:  if(3,n) the lines in(1,8) the window are
                     all very short, so that they are  entirely  visible,  the
                     returned  fractions  will  be  0 and 1, even if(3,n) there are
                     other lines in(1,8) the text that are much wider than the win-
                     dow.   These are the same values passed to scrollbars via
                     the -xscrollcommand option.

              pathName xview moveto fraction
                     Adjusts the view in(1,8) the window so that  fraction  of  the
                     horizontal  span  of  the text is off-screen to the left.
                     Fraction is a fraction between 0 and 1.

              pathName xview scroll number what
                     This command shifts the view in(1,8) the window left or  right
                     according to number and what.  Number must be an integer.
                     What must be either units(1,7) or pages or an abbreviation  of
                     one of these.  If what is units(1,7), the view adjusts left or
                     right by number average-width characters on the  display;
                     if(3,n)  it  is  pages then the view adjusts by number screen-
                     fuls.  If number is negative then characters  farther  to
                     the  left become visible;  if(3,n) it is positive then charac-
                     ters farther to the right become visible.

       pathName yview ?args?
              This command is used to query and change the  vertical  position
              of the text in(1,8) the widget's window.  It can take any of the fol-
              lowing forms:

              pathName yview
                     Returns a list containing two elements, both of which are
                     real  fractions between 0 and 1.  The first element gives
                     the position of the first character in(1,8) the  top  line  in(1,8)
                     the window, relative to the text as a whole (0.5 means it
                     is halfway through the text, for  example).   The  second
                     element  gives  the  position of the character just after
                     the last one in(1,8) the bottom line of the  window,  relative
                     to the text as a whole.  These are the same values passed
                     to scrollbars via the -yscrollcommand option.

              pathName yview moveto fraction
                     Adjusts the view in(1,8) the  window  so  that  the  character
                     given  by fraction appears on the top line of the window.
                     Fraction is a fraction between 0 and 1;  0 indicates  the
                     first character in(1,8) the text, 0.33 indicates the character
                     one-third the way through the text, and so on.

              pathName yview scroll number what
                     This command adjust the view in(1,8) the  window  up  or  down
                     according to number and what.  Number must be an integer.
                     What must be either units(1,7) or pages.  If  what  is  units(1,7),
                     the  view  adjusts up or down by number lines on the dis-
                     play;  if(3,n) it is pages then the  view  adjusts  by  number
                     screenfuls.  If number is negative then earlier positions
                     in(1,8) the text become visible;  if(3,n) it is positive then later
                     positions in(1,8) the text become visible.

              pathName yview ?-pickplace? index
                     Changes  the  view  in(1,8)  the widget's window to make index
                     visible.  If the -pickplace option isn't  specified  then
                     index  will  appear  at the top of the window.  If -pick-
                     place is specified then the widget  chooses  where  index
                     appears in(1,8) the window:

                     [1]    If  index is already visible somewhere in(1,8) the win-
                            dow then the command does nothing.

                     [2]    If index is only a few lines off-screen above  the
                            window  then  it  will be positioned at the top of
                            the window.

                     [3]    If index is only a few lines off-screen below  the
                            window then it will be positioned at the bottom of
                            the window.

                     [4]    Otherwise, index will be centered in(1,8) the window.

                     The -pickplace option has been obsoleted by the see  wid-
                     get  command  (see handles both x- and y-motion to make a
                     location visible, whereas -pickplace only handles  motion
                     in(1,8) y).

              pathName yview number
                     This  command makes the first character on the line after
                     the one given by number visible at the top of the window.
                     Number  must be an integer.  This command used to be used
                     for scrolling, but now it is obsolete.


BINDINGS
       Tk automatically creates class bindings for texts that  give  them  the
       following  default  behavior.   In  the descriptions below, ``word'' is
       dependent on the value of the tcl_wordchars variable.  See  tclvars(n).

       [1]    Clicking  mouse  button  1  positions  the insertion cursor just
              before the character underneath the mouse cursor, sets the input
              focus  to  this  widget, and clears any selection in(1,8) the widget.
              Dragging with mouse button 1 strokes out a selection between the
              insertion cursor and the character under the mouse.

       [2]    Double-clicking  with  mouse button 1 selects the word under the
              mouse and positions the insertion cursor at the end of the word.
              Dragging  after  a double click will stroke out a selection con-
              sisting of whole words.

       [3]    Triple-clicking with mouse button 1 selects the line  under  the
              mouse and positions the insertion cursor at the end of the line.
              Dragging after a triple click will stroke out a  selection  con-
              sisting of whole lines.

       [4]    The ends of the selection can be adjusted by dragging with mouse
              button 1 while the Shift key is down;  this will adjust the  end
              of  the selection that was nearest to the mouse cursor when but-
              ton 1 was pressed.  If the button is double-clicked before drag-
              ging  then  the  selection  will  be  adjusted in(1,8) units(1,7) of whole
              words;  if(3,n) it is  triple-clicked  then  the  selection  will  be
              adjusted in(1,8) units(1,7) of whole lines.

       [5]    Clicking  mouse  button 1 with the Control key down will reposi-
              tion the insertion cursor without affecting the selection.

       [6]    If any normal printing characters are typed, they  are  inserted
              at the point of the insertion cursor.

       [7]    The  view  in(1,8)  the widget can be adjusted by dragging with mouse
              button 2.  If mouse button  2  is  clicked  without  moving  the
              mouse,  the selection is copied into the text at the position of
              the mouse cursor.  The Insert key also  inserts  the  selection,
              but at the position of the insertion cursor.

       [8]    If  the  mouse  is  dragged  out of the widget while button 1 is
              pressed, the entry will automatically scroll to make  more  text
              visible  (if(3,n) there is more text off-screen on the side where the
              mouse left the window).

       [9]    The Left and Right keys move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the insertion cursor one  character
              to  the  left  or  right;   they also clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) any selection in(1,8) the
              text.  If Left or Right is typed with the Shift key  down,  then
              the  insertion  cursor  moves  and  the selection is extended to
              include the new character.  Control-Left and Control-Right  move(3x,7,3x curs_move)
              the  insertion  cursor by words, and Control-Shift-Left and Con-
              trol-Shift-Right move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the insertion cursor  by  words  and  also
              extend  the  selection.  Control-b and Control-f behave the same
              as Left and Right, respectively.  Meta-b and Meta-f  behave  the
              same as Control-Left and Control-Right, respectively.

       [10]   The  Up  and  Down keys move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the insertion cursor one line up or
              down and clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) any selection in(1,8) the text.  If  Up  or  Right  is
              typed  with  the Shift key down, then the insertion cursor moves
              and the selection is extended  to  include  the  new  character.
              Control-Up  and  Control-Down move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the insertion cursor by para-
              graphs (groups of lines separated by blank lines), and  Control-
              Shift-Up  and  Control-Shift-Down  move(3x,7,3x curs_move)  the insertion cursor by
              paragraphs and also extend the selection.   Control-p  and  Con-
              trol-n behave the same as Up and Down, respectively.

       [11]   The  Next  and  Prior  keys move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the insertion cursor forward or
              backwards by one screenful and clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) any selection in(1,8) the  text.
              If the Shift key is held down while Next or Prior is typed, then
              the selection is extended to include the  new  character.   Con-
              trol-v  moves  the  view  down  one screenful without moving the
              insertion cursor or adjusting the selection.

       [12]   Control-Next and Control-Prior scroll the view right or left  by
              one  page  without  moving the insertion cursor or affecting the
              selection.

       [13]   Home and Control-a move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the insertion cursor to the beginning of
              its  line  and  clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot)  any  selection in(1,8) the widget.  Shift-Home
              moves the insertion cursor to the beginning of the line and also
              extends the selection to that point.

       [14]   End  and  Control-e  move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the insertion cursor to the end of the
              line and clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) any selection in(1,8) the widget.  Shift-End moves the
              cursor  to the end of the line and extends the selection to that
              point.

       [15]   Control-Home and Meta-< move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the insertion cursor to the  begin-
              ning  of  the  text and clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) any selection in(1,8) the widget.  Con-
              trol-Shift-Home moves the insertion cursor to the  beginning  of
              the text and also extends the selection to that point.

       [16]   Control-End  and  Meta-> move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the insertion cursor to the end of
              the text and clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) any selection in(1,8) the widget.   Control-Shift-
              End  moves  the  cursor  to  the end of the text and extends the
              selection to that point.

       [17]   The Select key and Control-Space set(7,n,1 builtins) the selection anchor to the
              position of the insertion cursor.  They don't affect the current
              selection.   Shift-Select  and  Control-Shift-Space  adjust  the
              selection  to  the  current  position  of  the insertion cursor,
              selecting from the anchor to the insertion cursor if(3,n)  there  was
              not any selection previously.

       [18]   Control-/ selects the entire contents of the widget.

       [19]   Control-\ clears any selection in(1,8) the widget.

       [20]   The  F16  key (labelled Copy on many Sun workstations) or Meta-w
              copies the selection in(1,8) the widget to the clipboard, if(3,n) there is
              a  selection.   This  action  is  carried  out  by  the  command |
              tk_textCopy.

       [21]   The F20 key (labelled Cut on many Sun workstations) or Control-w
              copies  the selection in(1,8) the widget to the clipboard and deletes
              the selection.  This  action  is  carried  out  by  the  command |
              tk_textCut.   If  there is no selection in(1,8) the widget then these
              keys have no effect.

       [22]   The F18 key (labelled Paste on many Sun  workstations)  or  Con-
              trol-y  inserts the contents of the clipboard at the position of
              the insertion cursor.  This action is carried out by the command |
              tk_textPaste.

       [23]   The  Delete  key  deletes  the selection, if(3,n) there is one in(1,8) the
              widget.  If there is no selection, it deletes the  character  to
              the right of the insertion cursor.

       [24]   Backspace and Control-h delete the selection, if(3,n) there is one in(1,8)
              the widget.  If there is no selection, they delete the character
              to the left of the insertion cursor.

       [25]   Control-d  deletes  the  character to the right of the insertion
              cursor.

       [26]   Meta-d deletes the word to the right of the insertion cursor.

       [27]   Control-k deletes from the insertion cursor to the  end  of  its
              line;  if(3,n)  the insertion cursor is already at the end of a line,
              then Control-k deletes the newline character.

       [28]   Control-o opens a new line by inserting a newline  character  in(1,8)
              front  of the insertion cursor without moving the insertion cur-
              sor.

       [29]   Meta-backspace and Meta-Delete delete the word to  the  left  of
              the insertion cursor.

       [30]   Control-x deletes whatever is selected in(1,8) the text widget.

       [31]   Control-t  reverses the order of the two characters to the right
              of the insertion cursor.

       [32]   Control-z (and Control-underscore on UNIX when tk_strictMotif is |
              true)  undoes  the last edit action if(3,n) the -undo option is true. |
              Does nothing otherwise.                                          |

       [33]                                                                    ||
              Control-Z  (or  Control-y  on Windows) reapplies the last undone |
              edit action if(3,n) the -undo option is true. Does nothing otherwise.

       If  the  widget  is disabled using the -state option, then its view can
       still be adjusted and text can still be selected, but no insertion cur-
       sor will be displayed and no text modifications will take place.

       The behavior of texts can be changed by defining new bindings for indi-
       vidual widgets or by redefining the class bindings.


PERFORMANCE ISSUES
       Text widgets should run efficiently under a variety of conditions.  The
       text  widget uses about 2-3 bytes of main memory for each byte of text,
       so texts containing a megabyte or more  should  be  practical  on  most
       workstations.   Text  is  represented internally with a modified B-tree
       structure that makes operations relatively efficient  even  with  large
       texts.   Tags are included in(1,8) the B-tree structure in(1,8) a way that allows
       tags to span large ranges or have many disjoint smaller ranges  without
       loss  of  efficiency.   Marks are also implemented in(1,8) a way that allows
       large numbers of marks.  In most cases it is fine to have large numbers
       of unique tags, or a tag that has many distinct ranges.

       One  performance problem can arise if(3,n) you have hundreds or thousands of
       different tags that all have the following characteristics:  the  first
       and last ranges of each tag are near the beginning and end of the text,
       respectively, or a single tag range covers most  of  the  text  widget.
       The  cost  of adding and deleting tags like this is proportional to the
       number of other tags with the same properties.  In contrast,  there  is
       no  problem  with  having  thousands  of distinct tags if(3,n) their overall
       ranges are localized and spread uniformly throughout the text.

       Very long text lines can be expensive, especially  if(3,n)  they  have  many
       marks and tags within them.

       The display line with the insert cursor is redrawn each time(1,2,n) the cursor
       blinks, which causes a steady stream  of  graphics  traffic.   Set  the
       insertOffTime attribute to 0 avoid this.

KEYWORDS
       text, widget, tkvars



Tk                                    8.4                              text(n)

References for this manual (incoming links)