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text(n) - text, tk_textCopy, tk_textCut, tk_textPaste, text, tk_textCopy, tk_textCut, tk_textPaste - Create and manipulate text widgets - man n text

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text(n)                      Tk Built-In Commands                      text(n)



NAME
       text,  tk_textCopy,  tk_textCut,  tk_textPaste  - Create and manipulate
       text widgets

SYNOPSIS
       text pathName ?options?
       tk_textCopy pathName
       tk_textCut pathName
       tk_textPaste pathName
       -background    -highlightthickness -relief
       -borderwidth   -insertbackground   -selectbackground
       -cursor   -insertborderwidth  -selectborderwidth
       -exportselection    -insertofftime -selectforeground
       -font     -insertontime  -setgrid
       -foreground    -insertwidth   -takefocus
       -highlightbackground     -padx     -xscrollcommand
       -highlightcolor     -pady     -yscrollcommand

WIDGET-SPECIFIC OPTIONS
       Specifies a boolean that  says  whether  separators  are  automatically
       inserted  in(1,8)  the  undo stack. Only meaningful when the -undo option is
       true.  Specifies the desired height for the window, in(1,8) units(1,7) of charac-
       ters  in(1,8)  the  font  given  by the -font option.  Must be at least one.
       Specifies the maximum number of  compound  undo  actions  on  the  undo
       stack.  A  zero  or  a  negative  value  imply an unlimited undo stack.
       Requests additional space above each text line in(1,8) the widget, using any
       of  the  standard  forms  for  screen distances.  If a line wraps, this
       option only applies to the first line on the display.  This option  may
       be  overriden  with -spacing1 options in(1,8) tags.  For lines that wrap (so
       that they cover more than one line on the display) this  option  speci-
       fies  additional space to provide between the display lines that repre-
       sent a single line of text.  The value may have  any  of  the  standard
       forms  for  screen distances.  This option may be overriden with -spac-
       ing2 options in(1,8) tags.  Requests additional space below each  text  line
       in(1,8)  the  widget,  using any of the standard forms for screen distances.
       If a line wraps, this option only applies to the last line on the  dis-
       play.   This  option  may  be overriden with -spacing3 options in(1,8) tags.
       Specifies one of two states for the text:  normal or disabled.  If  the
       text  is disabled then characters may not be inserted or deleted and no
       insertion cursor will be displayed, even if(3,n) the input focus is  in(1,8)  the
       widget.   Specifies  a  set(7,n,1 builtins)  of tab stops for the window.  The option's
       value consists of a list of screen distances giving  the  positions  of
       the  tab  stops.   Each position may optionally be followed in(1,8) the next
       list element by one of the keywords left, right,  center,  or  numeric,
       which  specifies how to justify text relative to the tab stop.  Left is
       the default; it causes the text following the tab character to be posi-
       tioned  with  its  left edge at the tab position.  Right means that the
       right edge of the text following the tab character is positioned at the
       tab  position,  and  center  means that the text is centered at the tab
       position.  Numeric means that the decimal point in(1,8) the  text  is  posi-
       tioned  at  the  tab  position;   if(3,n) there is no decimal point then the
       least significant digit of the number is positioned just to the left of
       the  tab  position;  if(3,n) there is no number in(1,8) the text then the text is
       right-justified at the tab position.  For example, -tabs {2c left 4c 6c
       center} creates three tab stops at two-centimeter intervals;  the first
       two use left justification and the third uses center justification.  If
       the list of tab stops does not have enough elements to cover all of the
       tabs in(1,8) a text line, then Tk extrapolates new tab stops using the spac-
       ing and alignment from the last tab stop in(1,8) the list.  The value of the
       tabs option may be overridden by -tabs options in(1,8) tags.   If  no  -tabs
       option  is  specified,  or if(3,n) it is specified as an empty list, then Tk
       uses default tabs spaced every eight (average size) characters.  Speci-
       fies  a  boolean that says whether the undo mechanism is active or not.
       Specifies the desired width for the window in(1,8) units(1,7)  of  characters  in(1,8)
       the font given by the -font option.  If the font doesn't have a uniform
       width then the width of the character ``0'' is used in(1,8) translating from
       character  units(1,7) to screen units.  Specifies how to handle lines in(1,8) the
       text that are too long to be displayed in(1,8) a single line of  the  text's
       window.   The  value must be none or char or word.  A wrap mode of none
       means that each line of text appears as exactly one line on the screen;
       extra  characters  that  don't fit on the screen are not displayed.  In
       the other modes each line of text will be broken up into several screen
       lines  if(3,n) necessary to keep all the characters visible.  In char mode a
       screen line break may occur after any character; in(1,8) word  mode  a  line
       break will only be made at word boundaries.


DESCRIPTION
       The  text command creates a new window (given by the pathName argument)
       and makes it into a text widget.  Additional options, described  above,
       may  be specified on the command line or in(1,8) the option database to con-
       figure aspects of the text such as its  default  background  color  and
       relief.  The text command returns the path name of the new window.

       A  text  widget displays one or more lines of text and allows that text
       to be edited.  Text widgets support four different kinds of annotations
       on  the  text, called tags, marks, embedded windows or embedded images.
       Tags allow different portions of the text to be displayed with  differ-
       ent fonts and colors.  In addition, Tcl commands can be associated with
       tags so that scripts are invoked when particular actions such  as  key-
       strokes  and  mouse  button  presses  occur in(1,8) particular ranges of the
       text.  See TAGS below for more details.

       The second form of annotation consists of  marks,  which  are  floating
       markers in(1,8) the text.  Marks are used to keep track of various interest-
       ing positions in(1,8) the text as it is edited.  See MARKS  below  for  more
       details.

       The third form of annotation allows arbitrary windows to be embedded in(1,8)
       a text widget.  See EMBEDDED WINDOWS below for more details.

       The fourth form of annotation allows Tk images to be embedded in(1,8) a text
       widget.  See EMBEDDED IMAGES below for more details.

       The  text  widget  also  has  a built-in undo/redo mechanism.  See UNDO
       MECHANISM below for more details.


INDICES
       Many of the widget commands for texts take one or more indices as argu-
       ments.  An index is a string(3,n) used to indicate a particular place within
       a text, such as a place to insert characters or one endpoint of a range
       of  characters  to delete.  Indices have the syntax base modifier modi-
       fier modifier ...  Where base gives a starting point and the  modifiers
       adjust the index from the starting point (e.g. move(3x,7,3x curs_move) forward or backward
       one character).  Every index must contain a base, but the modifiers are
       optional.

       The base for an index must have one of the following forms:

       line.char   Indicates  char'th  character on line line.  Lines are num-
                   bered from 1 for consistency with other UNIX programs  that
                   use  this  numbering scheme.  Within a line, characters are
                   numbered from 0.  If char is end then it refers to the new-
                   line character that ends the line.

       @x,y        Indicates the character that covers the pixel whose x and y
                   coordinates within the text's window are x and y.

       end         Indicates the end of the text (the character just after the
                   last newline).

       mark        Indicates  the  character just after the mark whose name is
                   mark.

       tag.first   Indicates the first character in(1,8) the  text  that  has  been
                   tagged  with tag.  This form generates an error(8,n) if(3,n) no char-
                   acters are currently tagged with tag.

       tag.last    Indicates the character just after the last one in(1,8) the text
                   that  has  been  tagged  with  tag.  This form generates an
                   error(8,n) if(3,n) no characters are currently tagged with tag.

       pathName    Indicates the position of the embedded window whose name is
                   pathName.   This  form  generates  an  error(8,n) if(3,n) there is no
                   embedded window by the given name.

       imageName   Indicates the position of the embedded image whose name  is
                   imageName.   This  form  generates  an error(8,n) if(3,n) there is no
                   embedded image by the given name.

       If the base could match more than one of the above  forms,  such  as  a
       mark and imageName both having the same value, then the form earlier in(1,8)
       the above list takes precedence.  If modifiers follow the  base  index,
       each  one  of  them  must have one of the forms listed below.  Keywords
       such as chars and wordend may be abbreviated as long as  the  abbrevia-
       tion is unambiguous.

       + count chars
              Adjust  the  index  forward by count characters, moving to later
              lines in(1,8) the text if(3,n) necessary.  If there are fewer  than  count
              characters  in(1,8)  the  text  after the current index, then set(7,n,1 builtins) the
              index to the last character in(1,8) the text.  Spaces on either  side
              of count are optional.

       - count chars
              Adjust the index backward by count characters, moving to earlier
              lines in(1,8) the text if(3,n) necessary.  If there are fewer  than  count
              characters  in(1,8)  the  text before the current index, then set(7,n,1 builtins) the
              index to the first character in(1,8) the text.  Spaces on either side
              of count are optional.

       + count lines
              Adjust  the  index  forward  by  count lines, retaining the same
              character position within the line.  If  there  are  fewer  than
              count  lines  after  the line containing the current index, then
              set(7,n,1 builtins) the index to refer to the same  character  position  on  the
              last  line of the text.  Then, if(3,n) the line is not long enough to
              contain a character at the indicated character position,  adjust
              the  character  position  to  refer to the last character of the
              line  (the  newline).   Spaces  on  either  side  of  count  are
              optional.

       - count lines
              Adjust  the  index  backward  by count lines, retaining the same
              character position within the line.  If  there  are  fewer  than
              count  lines  before the line containing the current index, then
              set(7,n,1 builtins) the index to refer to the same  character  position  on  the
              first line of the text.  Then, if(3,n) the line is not long enough to
              contain a character at the indicated character position,  adjust
              the  character  position  to  refer to the last character of the
              line  (the  newline).   Spaces  on  either  side  of  count  are
              optional.

       linestart
              Adjust the index to refer to the first character on the line.

       lineend
              Adjust the index to refer to the last character on the line (the
              newline).

       wordstart
              Adjust the index to refer to the first  character  of  the  word
              containing  the current index.  A word consists of any number of
              adjacent characters that are letters, digits, or underscores, or
              a single character that is not one of these.

       wordend
              Adjust  the  index to refer to the character just after the last
              one of the word containing the current index.   If  the  current
              index  refers  to  the last character of the text then it is not
              modified.

       If more than one modifier is present then they are applied in(1,8)  left-to-
       right  order.   For  example, the index ``end - 1 chars'' refers to the
       next-to-last character in(1,8) the text  and  ``insert  wordstart  -  1  c''
       refers  to the character just before the first one in(1,8) the word contain-
       ing the insertion cursor.


TAGS
       The first form of annotation in(1,8) text widgets is a tag.  A tag is a tex-
       tual  string(3,n)  that is associated with some of the characters in(1,8) a text.
       Tags may contain arbitrary characters, but it is probably best to avoid
       using  the the characters `` '' (space), +, or -: these characters have
       special meaning in(1,8) indices, so tags containing them can't  be  used  as
       indices.  There may be any number of tags associated with characters in(1,8)
       a text.  Each tag may refer to a single character, a range  of  charac-
       ters,  or  several  ranges  of characters.  An individual character may
       have any number of tags associated with it.

       A priority order is defined among tags,  and  this  order  is  used  in(1,8)
       implementing some of the tag-related functions described below.  When a
       tag is defined (by associating it with characters or setting  its  dis-
       play  options or binding commands to it), it is given a priority higher
       than any existing tag.  The priority order of  tags  may  be  redefined
       using the ``pathName tag raise(3,n)'' and ``pathName tag lower'' widget com-
       mands.

       Tags serve three purposes in(1,8) text widgets.  First, they control the way
       information  is  displayed  on  the screen.  By default, characters are
       displayed as determined by the background, font, and foreground options
       for  the  text widget.  However, display options may be associated with
       individual tags using the ``pathName tag  configure''  widget  command.
       If  a  character  has  been tagged, then the display options associated
       with the tag override the default display style.  The following options
       are currently supported for tags:

       -background color
              Color specifies the background color to use for characters asso-
              ciated with the tag.  It may have any of the forms  accepted  by
              Tk_GetColor.

       -bgstipple bitmap
              Bitmap  specifies a bitmap that is used as a stipple pattern for
              the background.  It may  have  any  of  the  forms  accepted  by
              Tk_GetBitmap.   If  bitmap  hasn't  been  specified, or if(3,n) it is
              specified as an empty string(3,n), then a solid fill will be used for
              the background.

       -borderwidth pixels
              Pixels  specifies  the  width of a 3-D border to draw around the
              background.  It may have any of the forms accepted by Tk_GetPix-
              els.  This option is used in(1,8) conjunction with the -relief option
              to give a 3-D appearance to the background for characters; it is
              ignored  unless the -background option has been set(7,n,1 builtins) for the tag.

       -elide boolean
              Elide specifies whether the data should be elided.  Elided  data
              is  not  displayed  and takes no space on screen, but further on
              behaves just as normal data.

       -fgstipple bitmap
              Bitmap specifies a bitmap that is used as a stipple pattern when
              drawing  text  and  other  foreground information such as under-
              lines.  It may have any of the forms accepted  by  Tk_GetBitmap.
              If  bitmap  hasn't  been  specified, or if(3,n) it is specified as an
              empty string(3,n), then a solid fill will be used.

       -font fontName
              FontName is the name of a font to use  for  drawing  characters.
              It may have any of the forms accepted by Tk_GetFont.

       -foreground color
              Color  specifies  the  color  to use when drawing text and other
              foreground information such as underlines.  It may have  any  of
              the forms accepted by Tk_GetColor.

       -justify justify
              If  the  first  character  of a display line has a tag for which
              this option has been specified, then justify determines  how  to
              justify the line.  It must be one of left, right, or center.  If
              a line wraps, then the justification for each line on  the  dis-
              play  is determined by the first character of that display line.

       -lmargin1 pixels
              If the first character of a text line has a tag for  which  this
              option  has  been  specified, then pixels specifies how much the
              line should be indented from the left edge of the window.   Pix-
              els may have any of the standard forms for screen distances.  If
              a line of text wraps, this option only applies to the first line
              on  the  display;  the -lmargin2 option controls the indentation
              for subsequent lines.

       -lmargin2 pixels
              If the first character of a display line has  a  tag  for  which
              this  option  has been specified, and if(3,n) the display line is not
              the first for its text line (i.e., the text line  has  wrapped),
              then  pixels specifies how much the line should be indented from
              the left edge of the window.  Pixels may have any of  the  stan-
              dard  forms for screen distances.  This option is only used when
              wrapping is enabled, and it only applies to the second and later
              display lines for a text line.

       -offset pixels
              Pixels  specifies  an amount by which the text's baseline should
              be offset vertically from the baseline of the overall  line,  in(1,8)
              pixels.   For  example, a positive offset can be used for super-
              scripts and a negative offset can be used for subscripts.   Pix-
              els may have any of the standard forms for screen distances.

       -overstrike boolean
              Specifies  whether  or not to draw a horizontal rule through the
              middle of  characters.   Boolean  may  have  any  of  the  forms
              accepted by Tk_GetBoolean.

       -relief relief
              Relief  specifies the 3-D relief to use for drawing backgrounds,
              in(1,8) any of the forms accepted by Tk_GetRelief.   This  option  is
              used  in(1,8)  conjunction with the -borderwidth option to give a 3-D
              appearance to the  background  for  characters;  it  is  ignored
              unless the -background option has been set(7,n,1 builtins) for the tag.

       -rmargin pixels
              If  the  first  character  of a display line has a tag for which
              this option has been specified, then pixels specifies how wide a
              margin  to  leave between the end of the line and the right edge
              of the window.  Pixels may have any of the  standard  forms  for
              screen  distances.   This  option  is only used when wrapping is
              enabled.  If a text line wraps, the right margin for  each  line
              on the display is determined by the first character of that dis-
              play line.

       -spacing1 pixels
              Pixels specifies how much additional space should be left  above
              each  text line, using any of the standard forms for screen dis-
              tances.  If a line wraps, this option only applies to the  first
              line on the display.

       -spacing2 pixels
              For  lines  that wrap, this option specifies how much additional
              space to leave between the display lines for a single text line.
              Pixels  may have any of the standard forms for screen distances.

       -spacing3 pixels
              Pixels specifies how much additional space should be left  below
              each  text line, using any of the standard forms for screen dis-
              tances.  If a line wraps, this option only applies to  the  last
              line on the display.

       -tabs tabList
              TabList specifies a set(7,n,1 builtins) of tab stops in(1,8) the same form as for the
              -tabs option for the text widget.  This option only applies to a
              display  line  if(3,n) it applies to the first character on that dis-
              play line.  If this option is specified as an empty  string(3,n),  it
              cancels  the  option,  leaving  it  unspecified for the tag (the
              default).  If the option is specified as a non-empty string(3,n) that
              is  an  empty  list, such as -tags { }, then it requests default
              8-character tabs as described for the tags widget option.

       -underline boolean
              Boolean specifies whether or not to draw an underline underneath
              characters.   It  may  have any of the forms accepted by Tk_Get-
              Boolean.

       -wrap mode
              Mode specifies how to handle  lines  that  are  wider  than  the
              text's window.  It has the same legal values as the -wrap option
              for the text widget:  none, char, or word.  If this  tag  option
              is specified, it overrides the -wrap option for the text widget.

       If a character has several tags associated with it, and if(3,n)  their  dis-
       play options conflict, then the options of the highest priority tag are
       used.  If a particular display option hasn't been specified for a  par-
       ticular tag, or if(3,n) it is specified as an empty string(3,n), then that option
       will never be used;  the next-highest-priority tag's option  will  used
       instead.   If  no  tag  specifies a particular display option, then the
       default style for the widget will be used.

       The second purpose for tags is event bindings.  You can associate bind-
       ings  with a tag in(1,8) much the same way you can associate bindings with a
       widget class:  whenever particular X events occur  on  characters  with
       the  given tag, a given Tcl command will be executed.  Tag bindings can
       be used to give behaviors to ranges of characters; among other  things,
       this  allows  hypertext-like  features to be implemented.  For details,
       see the description of the tag bind(2,n,1 builtins) widget command below.

       The third use for tags is in(1,8) managing the selection.  See THE SELECTION
       below.


MARKS
       The  second  form  of  annotation in(1,8) text widgets is a mark.  Marks are
       used for remembering particular places in(1,8) a text.  They  are  something
       like  tags,  in(1,8)  that  they  have names and they refer to places in(1,8) the
       file(1,n), but a mark isn't associated with particular characters.  Instead,
       a  mark is associated with the gap between two characters.  Only a sin-
       gle position may be associated with a mark at any given time.   If  the
       characters  around  a  mark are deleted the mark will still remain;  it
       will just have new neighbor characters.  In contrast, if(3,n) the characters
       containing  a tag are deleted then the tag will no longer have an asso-
       ciation with characters in(1,8) the file.  Marks may be manipulated with the
       ``pathName  mark''  widget  command, and their current locations may be
       determined by using the mark name as an index in(1,8) widget commands.

       Each mark also has a gravity, which is either left or right.  The grav-
       ity for a mark specifies what happens to the mark when text is inserted
       at the point of the mark.  If a mark has left gravity, then the mark is
       treated  as  if(3,n)  it  were attached to the character on its left, so the
       mark will remain to the left of any text inserted at the mark position.
       If  the  mark has right gravity, new text inserted at the mark position
       will appear to the left of the mark (so that the  mark  remains  right-
       most).  The gravity for a mark defaults to right.

       The  name  space  for  marks is different from that for tags:  the same
       name may be used for both a mark and a tag, but they will refer to dif-
       ferent things.

       Two marks have special significance.  First, the mark insert is associ-
       ated with the insertion cursor, as described under THE INSERTION CURSOR
       below.  Second, the mark current is associated with the character clos-
       est to the mouse and is adjusted automatically to track the mouse posi-
       tion and any changes to the text in(1,8) the widget (one exception:  current
       is not updated in(1,8) response to mouse motions if(3,n) a mouse button is  down;
       the  update(7,n)  will  be  deferred  until  all  mouse  buttons  have  been
       released).  Neither of these special marks may be deleted.


EMBEDDED WINDOWS
       The third form of annotation in(1,8) text widgets  is  an  embedded  window.
       Each  embedded  window  annotation causes a window to be displayed at a
       particular point in(1,8)  the text.  There may be  any  number  of  embedded
       windows  in(1,8)  a  text  widget, and any widget may be used as an embedded
       window (subject to the  usual  rules  for  geometry  management,  which
       require  the  text  window to be the parent of the embedded window or a
       descendant of its parent).   The  embedded  window's  position  on  the
       screen will be updated as the text is modified or scrolled, and it will
       be mapped and unmapped as it moves into and out of the visible area  of
       the  text  widget.  Each embedded window occupies one character's worth
       of index space in(1,8) the text widget, and it may be referred to either  by
       the  name  of  its  embedded  window or by its position in(1,8) the widget's
       index space.  If the range of text containing the  embedded  window  is
       deleted then the window is destroyed.

       When  an embedded window is added to a text widget with the window cre-
       ate widget command, several configuration  options  may  be  associated
       with  it.  These options may be  modified later with the window config-
       ure widget command.  The following options are currently supported:

       -align where
              If the window is not as tall as the line in(1,8)  which  it  is  dis-
              played,  this option determines where the window is displayed in(1,8)
              the line.  Where must have one of the values top (align the  top
              of the window with the top of the line), center (center the win-
              dow within the range of the line), bottom (align the  bottom  of
              the  window  with  the  bottom  of the line's area), or baseline
              (align the bottom of the window with the baseline of the  line).

       -create script
              Specifies  a Tcl script that may be evaluated to create the win-
              dow for the annotation.  If no -window option has been specified
              for  the annotation this script will be evaluated when the anno-
              tation is about to be displayed on the screen.  Script must cre-
              ate a window for the annotation and return the name of that win-
              dow as its result.  If the annotation's window  should  ever  be
              deleted,  script will be evaluated again the next time(1,2,n) the anno-
              tation is displayed.

       -padx pixels
              Pixels specifies the amount of extra space to leave on each side
              of  the  embedded  window.   It  may have any of the usual forms
              defined for a screen distance.

       -pady pixels
              Pixels specifies the amount of extra space to leave on  the  top
              and  on  the  bottom of the embedded window.  It may have any of
              the usual forms defined for a screen distance.

       -stretch boolean
              If the requested height of the embedded window is less(1,3) than  the
              height  of the line in(1,8) which it is displayed, this option can be
              used to specify whether the window should  be  stretched  verti-
              cally  to fill its line.  If the -pady option has been specified
              as well, then the requested padding will be retained even if(3,n) the
              window is stretched.

       -window pathName
              Specifies the name of a window to display in(1,8) the annotation.


EMBEDDED IMAGES
       The  final  form  of  annotation  in(1,8) text widgets is an embedded image.
       Each embedded image annotation causes an image to  be  displayed  at  a
       particular  point  in(1,8)   the  text.  There may be any number of embedded
       images in(1,8) a text widget, and a particular image may be embedded in(1,8) mul-
       tiple places in(1,8) the same text widget.  The embedded image's position on
       the screen will be updated as the text is modified or  scrolled.   Each
       embedded  image  occupies  one  character's worth of index space in(1,8) the
       text widget, and it may be referred to either by its  position  in(1,8)  the
       widget's  index  space,  or  the  name it is assigned when the image is
       inserted into the text widget widh image create.  If the range of  text
       containing the embedded image is deleted then that copy of the image is
       removed from the screen.

       When an embedded image is added to a text widget with the image  create
       widget  command,  a  name  unique  to  this  instance  of  the image is
       returned.  This name may then be used to refer to this image  instance.
       The  name  is  taken  to  be  the  value of the -name option (described
       below).  If the -name option is not provided, the -image name  is  used
       instead.   If  the imageName is already in(1,8) use in(1,8) the text widget, then
       #nn is added to the end of the imageName,  where  nn  is  an  arbitrary
       integer.   This  insures  the  imageName  is unique.  Once this name is
       assigned to this instance of the image, it does not change, even though
       the -image or -name values can be changed with image configure.

       When  an embedded image is added to a text widget with the image create
       widget command, several configuration options may  be  associated  with
       it.   These options may be modified later with the image configure wid-
       get command.  The following options are currently supported:

       -align where
              If the image is not as tall as the line  in(1,8)  which  it  is  dis-
              played,  this  option determines where the image is displayed in(1,8)
              the line.  Where must have one of the values top (align the  top
              of the image with the top of the line), center (center the image
              within the range of the line), bottom (align the bottom  of  the
              image  with  the  bottom of the line's area), or baseline (align
              the bottom of the image with the baseline of the line).

       -image image
              Specifies the name of the Tk image to display in(1,8) the annotation.
              If image is not a valid Tk image, then an error(8,n) is returned.

       -name ImageName
              Specifies  the  name  by which this image instance may be refer-
              enced in(1,8) the text widget. If ImageName is not supplied, then the
              name  of  the  Tk  image  is  used instead.  If the imageName is
              already in(1,8) use, #nn is appended  to  the  end  of  the  name  as
              described above.

       -padx pixels
              Pixels specifies the amount of extra space to leave on each side
              of the embedded image.  It may  have  any  of  the  usual  forms
              defined for a screen distance.

       -pady pixels
              Pixels  specifies  the amount of extra space to leave on the top
              and on the bottom of the embedded image.  It may have any of the
              usual forms defined for a screen distance.


THE SELECTION
       Selection  support  is  implemented  via  tags.  If the exportSelection
       option for the text widget is true then the sel tag will be  associated
       with the selection:

       [1]    Whenever  characters  are  tagged  with sel the text widget will
              claim ownership of the selection.

       [2]    Attempts to retrieve the selection will be serviced by the  text
              widget, returning all the characters with the sel tag.

       [3]    If  the  selection  is claimed away by another application or by
              another window within this application, then the sel tag will be
              removed from all characters in(1,8) the text.

       [4]    Whenever the sel tag range changes a virtual(5,8) event <<Selection>>
              is generated.

       The sel tag is automatically defined when a text widget is created, and
       it  may not be deleted with the ``pathName tag delete'' widget command.
       Furthermore, the selectBackground, selectBorderWidth,  and  selectFore-
       ground  options  for the text widget are tied to the -background, -bor-
       derwidth, and -foreground options for the sel tag:  changes  in(1,8)  either
       will automatically be reflected in(1,8) the other.


THE INSERTION CURSOR
       The  mark named(5,8) insert has special significance in(1,8) text widgets.  It is
       defined automatically when a text widget is created and it may  not  be
       unset with the ``pathName mark unset'' widget command.  The insert mark
       represents the position of the insertion cursor, and the insertion cur-
       sor  will automatically be drawn at this point whenever the text widget
       has the input focus.


THE MODIFIED FLAG
       The text widget can keep track of changes to the content of the  widget
       by means of the modified flag. Inserting or deleting text will set(7,n,1 builtins) this
       flag. The flag can be queried, set(7,n,1 builtins) and cleared programatically as well.
       Whenever  the flag changes state a <<Modified>> virtual(5,8) event is gener-
       ated. See the edit modified widget command for more details.


THE UNDO MECHANISM
       The text widget has an unlimited undo  and  redo  mechanism  (when  the
       -undo  widget  option  is  true)  which records every insert and delete
       action on a stack.

       Boundaries (called "separators") are  inserted  between  edit  actions.
       The  purpose  of  these separators is to group inserts and deletes into
       one compound edit action.  When undoing a change everything between two
       separators  will  be  undone.  The undone changes are then moved to the
       redo stack, so that an undone edit can be redone again.  The redo stack
       is  cleared  whenever  new edit actions are recorded on the undo stack.
       The undo and redo stacks can be cleared to keep their depth under  con-
       trol.

       Separators  are  inserted automatically when the -autoseparators widget
       option is true.  You can insert separators programatically as well.  If
       a  separator  is  already present at the top of the undo stack no other
       will be inserted.  That means that two separators on the undo stack are
       always separated by at least one insert or delete action.

       The  undo  mechanism  is  also linked to the modified flag.  This means
       that undoing or redoing changes can take a modified text widget back to
       the  unmodified  state  or  vice  versa.  The modified flag will be set(7,n,1 builtins)
       automatically to the appropriate state.  This automatic  coupling  does
       not  work  when  the  modified flag has been set(7,n,1 builtins) by the user, until the
       flag has been reset(1,7,1 tput) again.

       See below for the edit widget command that controls the undo mechanism.


WIDGET COMMAND
       The  text  command  creates a new Tcl command whose name is the same as
       the path name of the text's window.  This command may be used to invoke
       various  operations  on the widget.  It has the following general form:
       pathName option ?arg arg ...?  PathName is the  name  of  the  command,
       which  is the same as the text widget's path name.  Option and the args
       determine the exact behavior of the command.   The  following  commands
       are possible for text widgets:

       pathName bbox index
              Returns  a  list  of four elements describing the screen area of
              the character given by index.  The first  two  elements  of  the
              list  give  the  x and y coordinates of the upper-left corner of
              the area occupied by the character, and the  last  two  elements
              give the width and height of the area.  If the character is only
              partially visible on the screen, then the return value  reflects
              just  the  visible part.  If the character is not visible on the
              screen then the return value is an empty list.

       pathName cget option
              Returns the current value of the configuration option  given  by
              option.   Option may have any of the values accepted by the text
              command.

       pathName compare index1 op index2
              Compares the indices given by index1 and index2 according to the
              relational  operator given by op, and returns 1 if(3,n) the relation-
              ship is satisfied and 0 if(3,n) it isn't.  Op  must  be  one  of  the
              operators  <,  <=,  ==,  >=,  >,  or  !=.  If op is == then 1 is
              returned if(3,n) the two indices refer to the same character,  if(3,n)  op
              is < then 1 is returned if(3,n) index1 refers to an earlier character
              in(1,8) the text than index2, and so on.

       pathName configure ?option? ?value option value ...?
              Query or modify the configuration options of the widget.  If  no
              option is specified, returns a list describing all of the avail-
              able options for pathName (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for  information
              on  the  format  of  this list).  If option is specified with no
              value, then the command returns a list describing the one  named(5,8)
              option (this list will be identical to the corresponding sublist
              of the value returned if(3,n) no option is  specified).   If  one  or
              more option-value pairs are specified, then the command modifies
              the given widget option(s) to have the given value(s);  in(1,8)  this
              case  the  command returns an empty string.  Option may have any
              of the values accepted by the text command.

       pathName debug ?boolean?
              If boolean is specified, then it must have one of  the  true  or
              false values accepted by Tcl_GetBoolean.  If the value is a true
              one then internal consistency checks will be turned on in(1,8) the B-
              tree  code associated with text widgets.  If boolean has a false
              value then the debugging checks will be turned off.   In  either
              case  the  command  returns  an empty string.  If boolean is not
              specified then the command returns on or off to indicate whether
              or  not  debugging  is  turned  on.  There is a single debugging
              switch(1,n) shared by all text widgets:  turning debugging on or  off
              in(1,8)  any  widget turns it on or off for all widgets.  For widgets
              with large amounts of text, the consistency checks may  cause  a
              noticeable slow-down.

       When  debugging  is  turned on, the drawing routines of the text widget
       set(7,n,1 builtins) the global variables tk_textRedraw and tk_textRelayout to the lists
       of  indices that are redrawn.  The values of these variables are tested
       by Tk's test suite.

       pathName delete index1 ?index2 ...?
              Delete a range of characters from the text.  If both index1  and
              index2  are  specified,  then delete all the characters starting
              with the one given by index1 and  stopping  just  before  index2
              (i.e.  the  character  at  index2  is  not  deleted).  If index2
              doesn't specify a position later in(1,8) the text than index1 then no
              characters are deleted.  If index2 isn't specified then the sin-
              gle character at index1 is deleted.   It  is  not  allowable  to
              delete  characters  in(1,8) a way that would leave the text without a
              newline as the last character.  The  command  returns  an  empty
              string.  If more indices are given, multiple ranges of text will
              be deleted.  All indices are first checked for  validity  before
              any deletions are made.  They are sorted and the text is removed
              from the last range to the first range to deleted text does  not
              cause  a  undesired  index  shifting  side-effects.  If multiple
              ranges with the same start index are  given,  then  the  longest
              range  is used.  If overlapping ranges are given, then they will
              be merged into spans that do not cause deletion of text  outside
              the given ranges due to text shifted during deletion.

       pathName dlineinfo index
              Returns  a  list with five elements describing the area occupied
              by the display line containing index.  The first two elements of
              the  list  give the x and y coordinates of the upper-left corner
              of the area occupied by the line, the third and fourth  elements
              give  the  width  and  height of the area, and the fifth element
              gives the position of the baseline for the line,  measured  down
              from  the  top of the area.  All of this information is measured
              in(1,8) pixels.  If the current  wrap  mode  is  none  and  the  line
              extends  beyond  the boundaries of the window, the area returned
              reflects the entire area of the  line,  including  the  portions
              that  are  out  of  the window.  If the line is shorter than the
              full width of the window then the area  returned  reflects  just
              the  portion  of  the  line  that  is occupied by characters and
              embedded windows.  If the display line containing index  is  not
              visible on the screen then the return value is an empty list.

       pathName dump ?switches? index1 ?index2?
              Return  the  contents  of the text widget from index1 up to, but
              not including index2, including the text and  information  about
              marks,  tags, and embedded windows.  If index2 is not specified,
              then it defaults to one character past index1.  The  information
              is returned in(1,8) the following format:

              key1 value1 index1 key2 value2 index2 ...

              The  possible key values are text, mark, tagon, tagoff, and win-
              dow.  The corresponding value is the text, mark name, tag  name,
              or window name.  The index information is the index of the start
              of the text, the mark, the tag transition, or the  window.   One
              or more of the following switches (or abbreviations thereof) may
              be specified to control the dump:

              -all   Return information about all elements: text, marks, tags,
                     images and windows.  This is the default.

              -command command
                     Instead of returning the information as the result of the
                     dump operation, invoke the command on each element of the
                     text  widget  within  the  range.   The command has three
                     arguments appended to it before it is evaluated: the key,
                     value, and index.

              -image Include information about images in(1,8) the dump results.

              -mark  Include information about marks in(1,8) the dump results.

              -tag   Include  information  about  tag  transitions in(1,8) the dump
                     results. Tag information is returned as tagon and  tagoff
                     elements that indicate the begin and end of each range of
                     each tag, respectively.

              -text  Include information about text in(1,8) the dump results.   The
                     value  is  the  text up to the next element or the end of
                     range indicated by index2.  A text element does not  span
                     newlines.   A  multi-line  block of text that contains no
                     marks or tag transitions will still be dumped as a set(7,n,1 builtins) of
                     text  seqments that each end with a newline.  The newline
                     is part of the value.

              -window
                     Include information about embedded windows  in(1,8)  the  dump
                     results.   The  value  of  a  window  is its Tk pathname,
                     unless the window has not been  created  yet.   (It  must
                     have  a  create script.)  In this case an empty string(3,n) is
                     returned, and you must query  the  window  by  its  index
                     position to get more information.

       pathName edit option ?arg arg ...?
              This  command controls the undo mechanism and the modified flag.
              The exact behavior of the command depends on the option argument
              that follows the edit argument.  The following forms of the com-
              mand are currently supported:

              pathName edit modified ?boolean?
                     If boolean is not specified, returns the modified flag of
                     the  widget.  The insert, delete, edit undo and edit redo
                     commands or the user can set(7,n,1 builtins) or clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) the modified  flag.
                     If  boolean  is  specified, sets the modified flag of the
                     widget to boolean.

              pathName edit redo
                     When the -undo option is true, reapplies the last  undone
                     edits  provided no other edits were done since then. Gen-
                     erates an error(8,n) when the redo stack is empty.  Does noth-
                     ing when the -undo option is false.

              pathName edit reset(1,7,1 tput)
                     Clears the undo and redo stacks.

              pathName edit separator
                     Inserts  a  separator  (boundary) on the undo stack. Does
                     nothing when the -undo option is false.

              pathName edit undo
                     Undoes the last edit action  when  the  -undo  option  is
                     true.   An  edit  action is defined as all the insert and
                     delete commands that are recorded on the  undo  stack  in(1,8)
                     between  two separators. Generates an error(8,n) when the undo
                     stack is empty.  Does nothing when the  -undo  option  is
                     false.

       pathName get index1 ?index2 ...?
              Return  a  range  of characters from the text.  The return value
              will be all the characters in(1,8) the text  starting  with  the  one
              whose index is index1 and ending just before the one whose index
              is index2 (the character at index2 will not  be  returned).   If
              index2  is  omitted  then  the  single  character  at  index1 is
              returned.  If there are no characters  in(1,8)  the  specified  range
              (e.g.  index1 is past the end of the file(1,n) or index2 is less(1,3) than
              or equal to index1) then an empty string(3,n) is  returned.   If  the
              specified  range contains embedded windows, no information about
              them is included in(1,8) the  returned  string.   If  multiple  index
              pairs  are  given, multiple ranges of text will be returned in(1,8) a
              list.  Invalid ranges will not be represented with empty strings
              in(1,8)  the  list.   The  ranges are returned in(1,8) the order passed to
              get.

       pathName image option ?arg arg ...?
              This command is used to manipulate embedded images.  The  behav-
              ior  of  the command depends on the option argument that follows
              the tag argument.  The following forms of the command  are  cur-
              rently supported:

              pathName image cget index option
                     Returns the value of a configuration option for an embed-
                     ded image.  Index  identifies  the  embedded  image,  and
                     option specifies a particular configuration option, which
                     must be one of the ones listed in(1,8)  the  section  EMBEDDED
                     IMAGES.

              pathName image configure index ?option value ...?
                     Query or modify the configuration options for an embedded
                     image.   If  no  option  is  specified,  returns  a  list
                     describing  all of the available options for the embedded
                     image at index (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for  information  on
                     the format of this list).  If option is specified with no
                     value, then the command returns a list describing the one
                     named(5,8)  option  (this list will be identical to the corre-
                     sponding sublist of the value returned if(3,n)  no  option  is
                     specified).  If one or more option-value pairs are speci-
                     fied, then the command modifies the  given  option(s)  to
                     have  the  given  value(s);   in(1,8)  this  case  the command
                     returns an empty string.  See EMBEDDED IMAGES for  infor-
                     mation on the options that are supported.

              pathName image create index ?option value ...?
                     This  command  creates a new image annotation, which will
                     appear in(1,8) the text at the position given by  index.   Any
                     number  of option-value pairs may be specified to config-
                     ure the annotation.  Returns a unique identifier that may
                     be used as an index to refer to this image.  See EMBEDDED
                     IMAGES for information on the options that are supported,
                     and a description of the identifier returned.

              pathName image names
                     Returns  a list whose elements are the names of all image
                     instances currently embedded in(1,8) window.

       pathName index index
              Returns  the  position  corresponding  to  index  in(1,8)  the   form
              line.char  where line is the line number and char is the charac-
              ter number.  Index may have any of  the  forms  described  under
              INDICES above.

       pathName insert index chars ?tagList chars tagList ...?
              Inserts  all of the chars arguments just before the character at
              index.  If index refers to the end of the  text  (the  character
              after  the  last  newline)  then  the  new text is inserted just
              before the last newline instead.  If there  is  a  single  chars
              argument and no tagList, then the new text will receive any tags
              that are present on both the character before and the  character
              after  the  insertion  point; if(3,n) a tag is present on only one of
              these characters then it will not be applied to  the  new  text.
              If tagList is specified then it consists of a list of tag names;
              the new characters will receive all of the tags in(1,8) this list and
              no  others,  regardless of the tags present around the insertion
              point.  If multiple chars-tagList argument  pairs  are  present,
              they produce the same effect as if(3,n) a separate insert widget com-
              mand had been issued for each pair, in(1,8) order.  The last  tagList
              argument may be omitted.

       pathName mark option ?arg arg ...?
              This command is used to manipulate marks.  The exact behavior of
              the command depends on the option argument that follows the mark
              argument.  The following forms of the command are currently sup-
              ported:

              pathName mark gravity markName ?direction?
                     If direction is not specified, returns left or  right  to
                     indicate  which  of  its  adjacent characters markName is
                     attached to.  If direction is specified, it must be  left
                     or  right;  the  gravity  of markName is set(7,n,1 builtins) to the given
                     value.

              pathName mark names
                     Returns a list whose elements are the names  of  all  the
                     marks that are currently set.

              pathName mark next index
                     Returns  the name of the next mark at or after index.  If
                     index is specified in(1,8) numerical form, then the search for
                     the next mark begins at that index.  If index is the name
                     of a mark, then the search for the next mark begins imme-
                     diately after that mark.  This can still return a mark at
                     the same position if(3,n) there are multiple marks at the same
                     index.  These semantics mean that the mark next operation
                     can be used to step through all the marks in(1,8) a text  wid-
                     get in(1,8) the same order as the mark information returned by
                     the dump operation.  If a mark has been set(7,n,1 builtins) to  the  spe-
                     cial  end  index,  then  it  appears to be after end with
                     respect to the mark next operation.  An empty  string(3,n)  is
                     returned if(3,n) there are no marks after index.

              pathName mark previous index
                     Returns  the  name  of  the  mark at or before index.  If
                     index is specified in(1,8) numerical form, then the search for
                     the  previous  mark begins with the character just before
                     that index.  If index is the name of  a  mark,  then  the
                     search  for  the next mark begins immediately before that
                     mark.  This can still return a mark at the same  position
                     if(3,n)  there  are  multiple  marks at the same index.  These
                     semantics mean that the mark previous  operation  can  be
                     used  to  step  through all the marks in(1,8) a text widget in(1,8)
                     the reverse order as the mark information returned by the
                     dump operation.  An empty string(3,n) is returned if(3,n) there are
                     no marks before index.

              pathName mark set(7,n,1 builtins) markName index
                     Sets the mark named(5,8) markName to a  position  just  before
                     the  character  at index.  If markName already exists, it
                     is moved from its old position; if(3,n) it  doesn't  exist,  a
                     new  mark  is  created.   This  command  returns an empty
                     string.

              pathName mark unset markName ?markName markName ...?
                     Remove the mark corresponding to  each  of  the  markName
                     arguments.   The  removed  marks  will  not  be usable in(1,8)
                     indices and will not  be  returned  by  future  calls  to
                     ``pathName  mark  names''.  This command returns an empty
                     string.

       pathName scan option args
              This command is used to implement scanning on texts.  It has two
              forms, depending on option:

              pathName scan mark x y
                     Records  x and y and the current view in(1,8) the text window,
                     for use in(1,8) conjunction with later scan  dragto  commands.
                     Typically  this command is associated with a mouse button
                     press in(1,8) the widget.  It returns an empty string.

              pathName scan dragto x y
                     This command computes the difference between its x and  y
                     arguments and the x and y arguments to the last scan mark
                     command for the widget.  It then adjusts the view  by  10
                     times  the  difference  in(1,8)  coordinates.  This command is
                     typically associated with mouse motion events in(1,8) the wid-
                     get,  to  produce the effect of dragging the text at high
                     speed through the window.  The return value is  an  empty
                     string.

       pathName search ?switches? pattern index ?stopIndex?
              Searches  the  text in(1,8) pathName starting at index for a range of
              characters that matches pattern.  If a match is found, the index
              of the first character in(1,8) the match is returned as result;  oth-
              erwise an empty string(3,n) is returned.  One or more of the  follow-
              ing switches (or abbreviations thereof) may be specified to con-
              trol the search:

              -forwards
                     The search will proceed forward through the text, finding
                     the  first  matching range starting at or after the posi-
                     tion given by index.  This is the default.

              -backwards
                     The search will proceed backward through the text,  find-
                     ing the matching range closest to index whose first char-
                     acter is before index.

              -exact Use exact matching:  the characters in(1,8) the matching range
                     must  be  identical  to  those  in(1,8)  pattern.  This is the
                     default.

              -regexp
                     Treat pattern  as  a  regular  expression  and  match  it
                     against  the text using the rules for regular expressions
                     (see the regexp(3,n) command for details).

              -nocase
                     Ignore case differences between the pattern and the text.

              -count varName
                     The  argument  following -count gives the name of a vari-
                     able; if(3,n) a match is found, the number of index  positions
                     between  beginning  and end of the matching range will be
                     stored in(1,8) the variable.  If there are no embedded  images
                     or  windows  in(1,8) the matching range, this is equivalent to
                     the number of characters matched.  In  either  case,  the
                     range matchIdx to matchIdx + $count chars will return the
                     entire matched text.

              -elide Find elidden (hidden) text as well. By default only  dis-
                     played text is searched.

              --     This switch(1,n) has no effect except to terminate the list of
                     switches: the next argument will be  treated  as  pattern
                     even if(3,n) it starts with -.

              The  matching  range  must  be  entirely within a single line of
              text.  For regular expression matching the newlines are  removed
              from  the  ends of the lines before matching:  use the $ feature
              in(1,8) regular expressions to match the end of a  line.   For  exact
              matching  the newlines are retained.  If stopIndex is specified,
              the search stops at that index: for forward searches,  no  match
              at   or  after  stopIndex  will  be  considered;   for  backward
              searches, no match earlier in(1,8) the text than  stopIndex  will  be
              considered.   If  stopIndex  is omitted, the entire text will be
              searched: when the beginning or end of the text is reached,  the
              search continues at the other end until the starting location is
              reached again;  if(3,n) stopIndex is specified, no  wrap-around  will
              occur.

       pathName see index
              Adjusts  the  view  in(1,8) the window so that the character given by
              index is completely visible.  If index is already  visible  then
              the  command  does nothing.  If index is a short distance out of
              view, the command adjusts the view just  enough  to  make  index
              visible at the edge of the window.  If index is far out of view,
              then the command centers index in(1,8) the window.

       pathName tag option ?arg arg ...?
              This command is used to manipulate tags.  The exact behavior  of
              the  command depends on the option argument that follows the tag
              argument.  The following forms of the command are currently sup-
              ported:

              pathName tag add tagName index1 ?index2 index1 index2 ...?
                     Associate  the  tag  tagName  with  all of the characters
                     starting with index1 and ending just before  index2  (the
                     character  at index2 isn't tagged).  A single command may
                     contain any number of index1-index2 pairs.  If  the  last
                     index2  is omitted then the single character at index1 is
                     tagged.  If there are  no  characters  in(1,8)  the  specified
                     range  (e.g. index1 is past the end of the file(1,n) or index2
                     is less(1,3) than or equal to index1) then the command has  no
                     effect.

              pathName tag bind(2,n,1 builtins) tagName ?sequence? ?script?
                     This command associates script with the tag given by tag-
                     Name.  Whenever the  event  sequence  given  by  sequence
                     occurs for a character that has been tagged with tagName,
                     the script will be invoked.  This widget command is simi-
                     lar  to the bind(2,n,1 builtins) command except that it operates on char-
                     acters in(1,8) a text rather than  entire  widgets.   See  the
                     bind(2,n,1 builtins)  manual  entry for complete details on the syntax of
                     sequence and the substitutions performed on script before
                     invoking  it.   If all arguments are specified then a new
                     binding is created, replacing any  existing  binding  for
                     the  same sequence and tagName (if(3,n) the first character of
                     script is ``+'' then script augments an existing  binding
                     rather than replacing it).  In this case the return value
                     is an empty string.  If script is omitted then  the  com-
                     mand  returns  the  script  associated  with  tagName and
                     sequence (an error(8,n) occurs if(3,n) there is no  such  binding).
                     If  both script and sequence are omitted then the command
                     returns a list of all the sequences  for  which  bindings
                     have been defined for tagName.

                     The  only  events for which bindings may be specified are
                     those related to the mouse and keyboard (such  as  Enter,
                     Leave,  ButtonPress,  Motion,  and  KeyPress)  or virtual(5,8)
                     events.  Event bindings for a text widget use the current
                     mark  described  under MARKS above.  An Enter event trig-
                     gers for a tag when the tag first becomes present on  the
                     current  character,  and a Leave event triggers for a tag
                     when it ceases to be present on  the  current  character.
                     Enter and Leave events can happen either because the cur-
                     rent mark moved or because the character at that position
                     changed.  Note that these events are different than Enter
                     and Leave events for windows.  Mouse and keyboard  events
                     are  directed  to  the  current  character.  If a virtual(5,8)
                     event is used in(1,8) a binding, that binding can trigger only
                     if(3,n)  the  virtual(5,8) event is defined by an underlying mouse-
                     related or keyboard-related event.

                     It is possible for the current character to have multiple
                     tags,  and  for each of them to have a binding for a par-
                     ticular event sequence.  When this occurs, one binding is
                     invoked  for  each  tag, in(1,8) order from lowest-priority to
                     highest priority.  If there are multiple  matching  bind-
                     ings  for a single tag, then the most specific binding is
                     chosen (see the manual entry for  the  bind(2,n,1 builtins)  command  for
                     details).   continue  and  break  commands within binding
                     scripts are processed in(1,8) the same  way  as  for  bindings
                     created with the bind(2,n,1 builtins) command.

                     If  bindings  are created for the widget as a whole using
                     the bind(2,n,1 builtins) command, then those bindings will supplement the
                     tag  bindings.   The  tag bindings will be invoked first,
                     followed by bindings for the window as a whole.

              pathName tag cget tagName option
                     This command returns the  current  value  of  the  option
                     named(5,8)  option  associated  with the tag given by tagName.
                     Option may have any of the values  accepted  by  the  tag
                     configure widget command.

              pathName  tag  configure  tagName ?option? ?value? ?option value
              ...?
                     This  command  is similar to the configure widget command
                     except that it modifies options associated with  the  tag
                     given  by  tagName  instead  of modifying options for the
                     overall text widget.  If no option is specified, the com-
                     mand  returns  a  list  describing  all  of the available
                     options for tagName (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for information
                     on the format of this list).  If option is specified with
                     no value, then the command returns a list describing  the
                     one named(5,8) option (this list will be identical to the cor-
                     responding sublist of the value returned if(3,n) no option  is
                     specified).  If one or more option-value pairs are speci-
                     fied, then the command modifies the  given  option(s)  to
                     have the given value(s) in(1,8) tagName; in(1,8) this case the com-
                     mand returns an empty string.  See TAGS above for details
                     on the options available for tags.

              pathName tag delete tagName ?tagName ...?
                     Deletes all tag information for each of the tagName argu-
                     ments.  The command removes the tags from all  characters
                     in(1,8)  the file(1,n) and also deletes any other information asso-
                     ciated with the tags, such as bindings and display infor-
                     mation.  The command returns an empty string.

              pathName tag lower tagName ?belowThis?
                     Changes  the  priority  of tag tagName so that it is just
                     lower in(1,8) priority than the tag whose name  is  belowThis.
                     If  belowThis  is  omitted,  then  tagName's  priority is
                     changed to make it lowest priority of all tags.

              pathName tag names ?index?
                     Returns a list whose elements are the names  of  all  the
                     tags  that  are active at the character position given by
                     index.  If index is omitted, then the return  value  will
                     describe  all  of  the tags that exist for the text (this
                     includes all tags that have been named(5,8)  in(1,8)  a  ``pathName
                     tag''  widget  command  but  haven't  been  deleted  by a
                     ``pathName tag delete'' widget command, even if(3,n) no  char-
                     acters are currently marked with the tag).  The list will
                     be sorted in(1,8) order from lowest priority to highest prior-
                     ity.

              pathName tag nextrange tagName index1 ?index2?
                     This  command searches the text for a range of characters
                     tagged with tagName where  the  first  character  of  the
                     range  is  no earlier than the character at index1 and no
                     later than the character  just  before  index2  (a  range
                     starting  at  index2 will not be considered).  If several
                     matching ranges exist, the first one is chosen.  The com-
                     mand's  return  value  is a list containing two elements,
                     which are the index of the first character of  the  range
                     and the index of the character just after the last one in(1,8)
                     the range.  If no matching range is found then the return
                     value is an empty string.  If index2 is not given then it
                     defaults to the end of the text.

              pathName tag prevrange tagName index1 ?index2?
                     This command searches the text for a range of  characters
                     tagged  with  tagName  where  the  first character of the
                     range is before the character at index1  and  no  earlier
                     than  the character at index2 (a range starting at index2
                     will be considered).  If several matching  ranges  exist,
                     the  one  closest  to  index1  is  chosen.  The command's
                     return value is a list containing two elements, which are
                     the  index  of  the  first character of the range and the
                     index of the character just after the  last  one  in(1,8)  the
                     range.   If  no  matching  range is found then the return
                     value is an empty string.  If index2 is not given then it
                     defaults to the beginning of the text.

              pathName tag raise(3,n) tagName ?aboveThis?
                     Changes  the  priority  of tag tagName so that it is just
                     higher in(1,8) priority than the tag whose name is  aboveThis.
                     If  aboveThis  is  omitted,  then  tagName's  priority is
                     changed to make it highest priority of all tags.

              pathName tag ranges tagName
                     Returns a list describing all of the ranges of text  that
                     have been tagged with tagName.  The first two elements of
                     the list describe the first tagged range in(1,8) the text, the
                     next  two  elements describe the second range, and so on.
                     The first element of each pair contains the index of  the
                     first  character  of the range, and the second element of
                     the pair contains the index of the character  just  after
                     the  last  one  in(1,8) the range.  If there are no characters
                     tagged with tag then an empty string(3,n) is returned.

              pathName tag remove tagName index1 ?index2 index1 index2 ...?
                     Remove the tag tagName from all of the characters  start-
                     ing  at index1 and ending just before index2 (the charac-
                     ter at index2 isn't affected).  A single command may con-
                     tain  any  number  of  index1-index2  pairs.  If the last
                     index2 is omitted then the single character at index1  is
                     tagged.   If  there  are  no  characters in(1,8) the specified
                     range (e.g. index1 is past the end of the file(1,n) or  index2
                     is  less(1,3) than or equal to index1) then the command has no
                     effect.  This command returns an empty string.

       pathName window option ?arg arg ...?
              This command is used to manipulate embedded windows.  The behav-
              ior  of  the command depends on the option argument that follows
              the tag argument.  The following forms of the command  are  cur-
              rently supported:

              pathName window cget index option
                     Returns the value of a configuration option for an embed-
                     ded window.  Index identifies the  embedded  window,  and
                     option specifies a particular configuration option, which
                     must be one of the ones listed in(1,8)  the  section  EMBEDDED
                     WINDOWS.

              pathName window configure index ?option value ...?
                     Query or modify the configuration options for an embedded
                     window.  If  no  option  is  specified,  returns  a  list
                     describing  all of the available options for the embedded
                     window at index (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for information  on
                     the format of this list).  If option is specified with no
                     value, then the command returns a list describing the one
                     named(5,8)  option  (this list will be identical to the corre-
                     sponding sublist of the value returned if(3,n)  no  option  is
                     specified).  If one or more option-value pairs are speci-
                     fied, then the command modifies the  given  option(s)  to
                     have  the  given  value(s);   in(1,8)  this  case  the command
                     returns an empty string.  See EMBEDDED WINDOWS for infor-
                     mation on the options that are supported.

              pathName window create index ?option value ...?
                     This  command creates a new window annotation, which will
                     appear in(1,8) the text at the position given by  index.   Any
                     number  of option-value pairs may be specified to config-
                     ure the annotation.  See EMBEDDED WINDOWS for information
                     on  the  options  that  are  supported.  Returns an empty
                     string.

              pathName window names
                     Returns a list whose elements are the names of  all  win-
                     dows currently embedded in(1,8) window.

       pathName xview option args
              This command is used to query and change the horizontal position
              of the text in(1,8) the widget's window.  It can take any of the fol-
              lowing forms:

              pathName xview
                     Returns  a list containing two elements.  Each element is
                     a real fraction between 0 and 1;  together they  describe
                     the  portion  of  the  document's horizontal span that is
                     visible in(1,8) the window.  For example, if(3,n) the first element
                     is  .2  and  the second element is .6, 20% of the text is
                     off-screen to the left, the middle 40% is visible in(1,8)  the
                     window,  and  40% of the text is off-screen to the right.
                     The fractions refer only to the lines that  are  actually
                     visible  in(1,8)  the  window:  if(3,n) the lines in(1,8) the window are
                     all very short, so that they are  entirely  visible,  the
                     returned  fractions  will  be  0 and 1, even if(3,n) there are
                     other lines in(1,8) the text that are much wider than the win-
                     dow.   These are the same values passed to scrollbars via
                     the -xscrollcommand option.

              pathName xview moveto fraction
                     Adjusts the view in(1,8) the window so that  fraction  of  the
                     horizontal  span  of  the text is off-screen to the left.
                     Fraction is a fraction between 0 and 1.

              pathName xview scroll number what
                     This command shifts the view in(1,8) the window left or  right
                     according to number and what.  Number must be an integer.
                     What must be either units(1,7) or pages or an abbreviation  of
                     one of these.  If what is units(1,7), the view adjusts left or
                     right by number average-width characters on the  display;
                     if(3,n)  it  is  pages then the view adjusts by number screen-
                     fuls.  If number is negative then characters  farther  to
                     the  left become visible;  if(3,n) it is positive then charac-
                     ters farther to the right become visible.

       pathName yview ?args?
              This command is used to query and change the  vertical  position
              of the text in(1,8) the widget's window.  It can take any of the fol-
              lowing forms:

              pathName yview
                     Returns a list containing two elements, both of which are
                     real  fractions between 0 and 1.  The first element gives
                     the position of the first character in(1,8) the  top  line  in(1,8)
                     the window, relative to the text as a whole (0.5 means it
                     is halfway through the text, for  example).   The  second
                     element  gives  the  position of the character just after
                     the last one in(1,8) the bottom line of the  window,  relative
                     to the text as a whole.  These are the same values passed
                     to scrollbars via the -yscrollcommand option.

              pathName yview moveto fraction
                     Adjusts the view in(1,8) the  window  so  that  the  character
                     given  by fraction appears on the top line of the window.
                     Fraction is a fraction between 0 and 1;  0 indicates  the
                     first character in(1,8) the text, 0.33 indicates the character
                     one-third the way through the text, and so on.

              pathName yview scroll number what
                     This command adjust the view in(1,8) the  window  up  or  down
                     according to number and what.  Number must be an integer.
                     What must be either units(1,7) or pages.  If  what  is  units(1,7),
                     the  view  adjusts up or down by number lines on the dis-
                     play;  if(3,n) it is pages then the  view  adjusts  by  number
                     screenfuls.  If number is negative then earlier positions
                     in(1,8) the text become visible;  if(3,n) it is positive then later
                     positions in(1,8) the text become visible.

              pathName yview ?-pickplace? index
                     Changes  the  view  in(1,8)  the widget's window to make index
                     visible.  If the -pickplace option isn't  specified  then
                     index  will  appear  at the top of the window.  If -pick-
                     place is specified then the widget  chooses  where  index
                     appears in(1,8) the window:

                     [1]    If  index is already visible somewhere in(1,8) the win-
                            dow then the command does nothing.

                     [2]    If index is only a few lines off-screen above  the
                            window  then  it  will be positioned at the top of
                            the window.

                     [3]    If index is only a few lines off-screen below  the
                            window then it will be positioned at the bottom of
                            the window.

                     [4]    Otherwise, index will be centered in(1,8) the window.

                     The -pickplace option has been obsoleted by the see  wid-
                     get  command  (see handles both x- and y-motion to make a
                     location visible, whereas -pickplace only handles  motion
                     in(1,8) y).

              pathName yview number
                     This  command makes the first character on the line after
                     the one given by number visible at the top of the window.
                     Number  must be an integer.  This command used to be used
                     for scrolling, but now it is obsolete.


BINDINGS
       Tk automatically creates class bindings for texts that  give  them  the
       following  default  behavior.   In  the descriptions below, ``word'' is
       dependent on the value of the tcl_wordchars variable.  See  tclvars(n).

       [1]    Clicking  mouse  button  1  positions  the insertion cursor just
              before the character underneath the mouse cursor, sets the input
              focus  to  this  widget, and clears any selection in(1,8) the widget.
              Dragging with mouse button 1 strokes out a selection between the
              insertion cursor and the character under the mouse.

       [2]    Double-clicking  with  mouse button 1 selects the word under the
              mouse and positions the insertion cursor at the end of the word.
              Dragging  after  a double click will stroke out a selection con-
              sisting of whole words.

       [3]    Triple-clicking with mouse button 1 selects the line  under  the
              mouse and positions the insertion cursor at the end of the line.
              Dragging after a triple click will stroke out a  selection  con-
              sisting of whole lines.

       [4]    The ends of the selection can be adjusted by dragging with mouse
              button 1 while the Shift key is down;  this will adjust the  end
              of  the selection that was nearest to the mouse cursor when but-
              ton 1 was pressed.  If the button is double-clicked before drag-
              ging  then  the  selection  will  be  adjusted in(1,8) units(1,7) of whole
              words;  if(3,n) it is  triple-clicked  then  the  selection  will  be
              adjusted in(1,8) units(1,7) of whole lines.

       [5]    Clicking  mouse  button 1 with the Control key down will reposi-
              tion the insertion cursor without affecting the selection.

       [6]    If any normal printing characters are typed, they  are  inserted
              at the point of the insertion cursor.

       [7]    The  view  in(1,8)  the widget can be adjusted by dragging with mouse
              button 2.  If mouse button  2  is  clicked  without  moving  the
              mouse,  the selection is copied into the text at the position of
              the mouse cursor.  The Insert key also  inserts  the  selection,
              but at the position of the insertion cursor.

       [8]    If  the  mouse  is  dragged  out of the widget while button 1 is
              pressed, the entry will automatically scroll to make  more  text
              visible  (if(3,n) there is more text off-screen on the side where the
              mouse left the window).

       [9]    The Left and Right keys move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the insertion cursor one  character
              to  the  left  or  right;   they also clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) any selection in(1,8) the
              text.  If Left or Right is typed with the Shift key  down,  then
              the  insertion  cursor  moves  and  the selection is extended to
              include the new character.  Control-Left and Control-Right  move(3x,7,3x curs_move)
              the  insertion  cursor by words, and Control-Shift-Left and Con-
              trol-Shift-Right move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the insertion cursor  by  words  and  also
              extend  the  selection.  Control-b and Control-f behave the same
              as Left and Right, respectively.  Meta-b and Meta-f  behave  the
              same as Control-Left and Control-Right, respectively.

       [10]   The  Up  and  Down keys move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the insertion cursor one line up or
              down and clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) any selection in(1,8) the text.  If  Up  or  Right  is
              typed  with  the Shift key down, then the insertion cursor moves
              and the selection is extended  to  include  the  new  character.
              Control-Up  and  Control-Down move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the insertion cursor by para-
              graphs (groups of lines separated by blank lines), and  Control-
              Shift-Up  and  Control-Shift-Down  move(3x,7,3x curs_move)  the insertion cursor by
              paragraphs and also extend the selection.   Control-p  and  Con-
              trol-n behave the same as Up and Down, respectively.

       [11]   The  Next  and  Prior  keys move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the insertion cursor forward or
              backwards by one screenful and clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) any selection in(1,8) the  text.
              If the Shift key is held down while Next or Prior is typed, then
              the selection is extended to include the  new  character.   Con-
              trol-v  moves  the  view  down  one screenful without moving the
              insertion cursor or adjusting the selection.

       [12]   Control-Next and Control-Prior scroll the view right or left  by
              one  page  without  moving the insertion cursor or affecting the
              selection.

       [13]   Home and Control-a move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the insertion cursor to the beginning of
              its  line  and  clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot)  any  selection in(1,8) the widget.  Shift-Home
              moves the insertion cursor to the beginning of the line and also
              extends the selection to that point.

       [14]   End  and  Control-e  move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the insertion cursor to the end of the
              line and clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) any selection in(1,8) the widget.  Shift-End moves the
              cursor  to the end of the line and extends the selection to that
              point.

       [15]   Control-Home and Meta-< move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the insertion cursor to the  begin-
              ning  of  the  text and clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) any selection in(1,8) the widget.  Con-
              trol-Shift-Home moves the insertion cursor to the  beginning  of
              the text and also extends the selection to that point.

       [16]   Control-End  and  Meta-> move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the insertion cursor to the end of
              the text and clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) any selection in(1,8) the widget.   Control-Shift-
              End  moves  the  cursor  to  the end of the text and extends the
              selection to that point.

       [17]   The Select key and Control-Space set(7,n,1 builtins) the selection anchor to the
              position of the insertion cursor.  They don't affect the current
              selection.   Shift-Select  and  Control-Shift-Space  adjust  the
              selection  to  the  current  position  of  the insertion cursor,
              selecting from the anchor to the insertion cursor if(3,n)  there  was
              not any selection previously.

       [18]   Control-/ selects the entire contents of the widget.

       [19]   Control-\ clears any selection in(1,8) the widget.

       [20]   The  F16  key (labelled Copy on many Sun workstations) or Meta-w
              copies the selection in(1,8) the widget to the clipboard, if(3,n) there is
              a  selection.   This  action  is  carried  out  by  the  command
              tk_textCopy.

       [21]   The F20 key (labelled Cut on many Sun workstations) or Control-w
              copies  the selection in(1,8) the widget to the clipboard and deletes
              the selection.  This  action  is  carried  out  by  the  command
              tk_textCut.   If  there is no selection in(1,8) the widget then these
              keys have no effect.

       [22]   The F18 key (labelled Paste on many Sun  workstations)  or  Con-
              trol-y  inserts the contents of the clipboard at the position of
              the insertion cursor.  This action is carried out by the command
              tk_textPaste.

       [23]   The  Delete  key  deletes  the selection, if(3,n) there is one in(1,8) the
              widget.  If there is no selection, it deletes the  character  to
              the right of the insertion cursor.

       [24]   Backspace and Control-h delete the selection, if(3,n) there is one in(1,8)
              the widget.  If there is no selection, they delete the character
              to the left of the insertion cursor.

       [25]   Control-d  deletes  the  character to the right of the insertion
              cursor.

       [26]   Meta-d deletes the word to the right of the insertion cursor.

       [27]   Control-k deletes from the insertion cursor to the  end  of  its
              line;  if(3,n)  the insertion cursor is already at the end of a line,
              then Control-k deletes the newline character.

       [28]   Control-o opens a new line by inserting a newline  character  in(1,8)
              front  of the insertion cursor without moving the insertion cur-
              sor.

       [29]   Meta-backspace and Meta-Delete delete the word to  the  left  of
              the insertion cursor.

       [30]   Control-x deletes whatever is selected in(1,8) the text widget.

       [31]   Control-t  reverses the order of the two characters to the right
              of the insertion cursor.

       [32]   Control-z (and Control-underscore on UNIX when tk_strictMotif is
              true)  undoes  the last edit action if(3,n) the -undo option is true.
              Does nothing otherwise.

       [33]   Control-Z (or Control-y on Windows) reapplies  the  last  undone
              edit action if(3,n) the -undo option is true. Does nothing otherwise.

       If the widget is disabled using the -state option, then  its  view  can
       still be adjusted and text can still be selected, but no insertion cur-
       sor will be displayed and no text modifications will take place.

       The behavior of texts can be changed by defining new bindings for indi-
       vidual widgets or by redefining the class bindings.


PERFORMANCE ISSUES
       Text widgets should run efficiently under a variety of conditions.  The
       text widget uses about 2-3 bytes of main memory for each byte of  text,
       so  texts  containing  a  megabyte  or more should be practical on most
       workstations.  Text is represented internally with  a  modified  B-tree
       structure  that  makes  operations relatively efficient even with large
       texts.  Tags are included in(1,8) the B-tree structure in(1,8) a way that  allows
       tags  to span large ranges or have many disjoint smaller ranges without
       loss of efficiency.  Marks are also implemented in(1,8) a  way  that  allows
       large numbers of marks.  In most cases it is fine to have large numbers
       of unique tags, or a tag that has many distinct ranges.

       One performance problem can arise if(3,n) you have hundreds or thousands  of
       different  tags  that all have the following characteristics: the first
       and last ranges of each tag are near the beginning and end of the text,
       respectively,  or  a  single  tag range covers most of the text widget.
       The cost of adding and deleting tags like this is proportional  to  the
       number  of  other tags with the same properties.  In contrast, there is
       no problem with having thousands of  distinct  tags  if(3,n)  their  overall
       ranges are localized and spread uniformly throughout the text.

       Very  long  text  lines  can be expensive, especially if(3,n) they have many
       marks and tags within them.

       The display line with the insert cursor is redrawn each time(1,2,n) the cursor
       blinks,  which  causes  a  steady  stream of graphics traffic.  Set the
       insertOffTime attribute to 0 avoid this.

KEYWORDS
       text, widget, tkvars



Tk                                    8.4                              text(n)

References for this manual (incoming links)