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file(1,n)(n)                      Tcl Built-In Commands                     file(1,n)(n)



NAME
       file(1,n) - Manipulate file(1,n) names and attributes

SYNOPSIS
       file(1,n) option name ?arg arg ...?


DESCRIPTION
       This   command   provides  several  operations  on  a  file(1,n)'s  name  or
       attributes.  Name is the name of a file(1,n); if(3,n) it  starts  with  a  tilde,
       then  tilde  substitution is done before executing the command (see the
       manual entry for filename for details).  Option indicates  what  to  do
       with  the file(1,n) name.  Any unique abbreviation for option is acceptable.
       The valid options are:

       file(1,n) atime name ?time(1,2,n)?
              Returns a decimal string(3,n) giving the time(1,2,n) at which file(1,n) name  was
              last  accessed.   If  time(1,2,n) is specified, it is an access(2,5) time(1,2,n) to
              set(7,n,1 builtins) for the file.  The time(1,2,n) is measured in(1,8)  the  standard  POSIX
              fashion  as seconds from a fixed starting time(1,2,n) (often January 1,
              1970).  If the file(1,n) doesn't exist or its access(2,5) time(1,2,n)  cannot  be
              queried or set(7,n,1 builtins) then an error(8,n) is generated.  On Windows, FAT file(1,n)
              systems do not support access(2,5) time.

       file(1,n) attributes name

       file(1,n) attributes name ?option?

       file(1,n) attributes name ?option value option value...?
              This subcommand returns or sets platform specific values associ-
              ated  with a file. The first form returns a list of the platform
              specific flags and their values. The  second  form  returns  the
              value  for  the specific option. The third form sets one or more
              of the values. The values are as follows:

              On Unix, -group gets(3,n) or sets the group  name  for  the  file.  A
              group  id  can  be  given to the command, but it returns a group
              name. -owner gets(3,n) or sets the user name  of  the  owner  of  the
              file.  The  command returns the owner name, but the numerical id
              can be passed when  setting  the  owner.  -permissions  sets  or
              retrieves  the octal code that chmod(1,2)(1) uses.  This command does
              also  has  limited  support  for  setting  using  the   symbolic
              attributes for chmod(1,2)(1), of the form [ugo]?[[+-=][rwxst],[...]],
              where multiple symbolic attributes can be  separated  by  commas
              (example:  u+s,go-rw  add  sticky  bit for user, remove read(2,n,1 builtins) and
              write(1,2) permissions for group and other).  A simplified  ls  style
              string(3,n),  of  the  form rwxrwxrwx (must be 9 characters), is also
              supported (example: rwxr-xr-t is equivalent to 01755).

              On Windows, -archive gives the value or sets or clears  the  ar-
              chive  attribute of the file. -hidden gives the value or sets or
              clears the hidden attribute of the file. -longname  will  expand
              each  path element to its long version. This attribute cannot be
              set. -readonly gives the value or sets or  clears  the  readonly
              attribute  of  the  file.  -shortname gives a string(3,n) where every
              path element is replaced with its short  (8.3)  version(1,3,5)  of  the
              name.  This  attribute  cannot  be set. -system gives or sets or
              clears the value of the system attribute of the file.

              On Macintosh, -creator gives or sets the Finder creator type  of
              the  file.  -hidden gives or sets or clears the hidden attribute
              of the file. -readonly gives or  sets  or  clears  the  readonly
              attribute  of the file. Note that directories can only be locked
              if(3,n) File Sharing is turned on. -type gives  or  sets  the  Finder
              file(1,n) type for the file.

       file(1,n) channels ?pattern?
              If  pattern isn't specified, returns a list of names of all reg-
              istered open(2,3,n) channels in(1,8) this interpreter.  If pattern is speci-
              fied,  only those names matching pattern are returned.  Matching
              is determined using the same rules as for string(3,n) match.

       file(1,n) copy ?-force? ?--? source target

       file(1,n) copy ?-force? ?--? source ?source ...? targetDir
              The first form makes a copy of  the  file(1,n)  or  directory  source
              under  the  pathname target. If target is an existing directory,
              then the second form is used.  The  second  form  makes  a  copy
              inside  targetDir of each source file(1,n) listed.  If a directory is
              specified as a source, then the contents of the  directory  will
              be recursively copied into targetDir. Existing files will not be
              overwritten unless the -force option is specified.  When copying
              within a single filesystem, file(1,n) copy will copy soft links (i.e.
              the links themselves are copied, not the things they point  to).
              Trying to overwrite a non-empty directory, overwrite a directory
              with a file(1,n), or a file(1,n) with  a  directory  will  all  result  in(1,8)
              errors even if(3,n) -force was specified.  Arguments are processed in(1,8)
              the order specified, halting at the first error(8,n), if(3,n) any.   A  --
              marks the end of switches; the argument following the -- will be
              treated as a source even if(3,n) it starts with a -.

       file(1,n) delete ?-force? ?--? pathname ?pathname ... ?
              Removes the file(1,n) or directory specified by each  pathname  argu-
              ment.   Non-empty directories will be removed only if(3,n) the -force
              option is specified.  When  operating  on  symbolic  links,  the
              links themselves will be deleted, not the objects they point to.
              Trying to delete a non-existent file(1,n) is not considered an error.
              Trying  to  delete  a  read-only  file(1,n) will cause the file(1,n) to be
              deleted, even if(3,n) the -force flags  is  not  specified.   If  the
              -force option is specified on a directory, Tcl will attempt both
              to change permissions and move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the current directory  'pwd(1,n,1 builtins)'  out
              of  the given path if(3,n) that is necessary to allow the deletion to
              proceed.  Arguments are processed in(1,8) the order specified,  halt-
              ing at the first error(8,n), if(3,n) any.  A -- marks the end of switches;
              the argument following the -- will be treated as a pathname even
              if(3,n) it starts with a -.

       file(1,n) dirname name
              Returns  a  name comprised of all of the path components in(1,8) name
              excluding the last element.  If name is a relative file(1,n) name and
              only  contains one path element, then returns ``.'' (or ``:'' on
              the Macintosh).  If name refers to a root  directory,  then  the
              root directory is returned.  For example,
              file(1,n) dirname c:/ returns c:/.

              Note  that  tilde  substitution  will only be performed if(3,n) it is
              necessary to complete the command.  For  example,  file(1,n)  dirname
              ~/src/foo.c  returns ~/src, whereas file(1,n) dirname ~ returns /home
              (or something similar).

       file(1,n) executable name
              Returns 1 if(3,n) file(1,n) name is executable by the current user, 0 oth-
              erwise.

       file(1,n) exists name
              Returns  1  if(3,n)  file(1,n) name exists and the current user has search
              privileges for the directories leading to it, 0 otherwise.

       file(1,n) extension name
              Returns all of the characters in(1,8) name after  and  including  the
              last dot in(1,8) the last element of name.  If there is no dot in(1,8) the
              last element of name then returns the empty string.

       file(1,n) isdirectory name
              Returns 1 if(3,n) file(1,n) name is a directory, 0 otherwise.

       file(1,n) isfile name
              Returns 1 if(3,n) file(1,n) name is a regular file(1,n), 0 otherwise.

       file(1,n) join(1,n) name ?name ...?
              Takes one or more file(1,n) names and combines them, using  the  cor-
              rect  path  separator for the current platform.  If a particular
              name is relative, then it will be joined to  the  previous  file(1,n)
              name  argument.   Otherwise,  any earlier arguments will be dis-
              carded, and joining will proceed from the current argument.  For
              example,
              file(1,n) join(1,n) a b /foo bar returns /foo/bar.

              Note  that any of the names can contain separators, and that the
              result is always canonical for the current platform: / for  Unix
              and Windows, and : for Macintosh.

       file(1,n) link(1,2) ?-linktype? linkName ?target?
              If  only  one  argument is given, that argument is assumed to be
              linkName, and this command returns the value of the  link(1,2)  given
              by  linkName  (i.e.  the  name  of  the  file(1,n) it points to).  If
              linkName isn't a link(1,2) or its value cannot be read(2,n,1 builtins) (as, for exam-
              ple,  seems to be the case with hard links, which look(1,8,3 Search::Dict) just like
              ordinary files), then an error(8,n) is returned.  If 2 arguments  are
              given,  then  these  are  assumed  to be linkName and target. If
              linkName already exists, or if(3,n) target doesn't  exist,  an  error(8,n)
              will  be  returned.   Otherwise,  Tcl  creates a new link(1,2) called
              linkName which points to the existing filesystem object at  tar-
              get,  where the type of the link(1,2) is platform-specific (on Unix a
              symbolic link(1,2) will be the default).  This is useful for the case
              where  the user wishes to create a link(1,2) in(1,8) a cross-platform way,
              and doesn't care what type of link(1,2)  is  created.   If  the  user
              wishes  to  make  a link(1,2) of a specific type only, (and signal(2,7) an
              error(8,n) if(3,n) for  some  reason  that  is  not  possible),  then  the
              optional  -linktype  argument  should be given.  Accepted values
              for -linktype are "-symbolic" and "-hard".  When creating  links
              on  filesystems  that either do not support any links, or do not
              support the specific type requested, an error(8,n)  message  will  be
              returned.   In  particular  Windows 95, 98 and ME do not support
              any links at present, but most Unix platforms support both  sym-
              bolic and hard links (the latter for files only), MacOS supports
              symbolic links and Windows NT/2000/XP (on NTFS  drives)  support
              symbolic directory links and hard file(1,n) links.

       file(1,n) lstat name varName
              Same  as  stat(1,2)  option  (see below) except uses the lstat kernel
              call instead of stat(1,2).  This means that if(3,n) name refers to a  sym-
              bolic  link(1,2)  the information returned in(1,8) varName is for the link(1,2)
              rather than the file(1,n) it refers to.  On systems that  don't  sup-
              port  symbolic links this option behaves exactly the same as the
              stat(1,2) option.

       file(1,n) mkdir(1,2) dir ?dir ...?
              Creates each directory specified.  For each pathname dir  speci-
              fied,  this command will create all non-existing parent directo-
              ries as well as dir itself.  If an existing directory is  speci-
              fied,  then no action is taken and no error(8,n) is returned.  Trying
              to overwrite an existing file(1,n) with a directory will result in(1,8) an
              error.   Arguments are processed in(1,8) the order specified, halting
              at the first error(8,n), if(3,n) any.

       file(1,n) mtime name ?time(1,2,n)?
              Returns a decimal string(3,n) giving the time(1,2,n) at which file(1,n) name  was
              last  modified.  If time(1,2,n) is specified, it is a modification time(1,2,n)
              to set(7,n,1 builtins) for the file(1,n) (equivalent to Unix  touch).   The  time(1,2,n)  is
              measured  in(1,8)  the standard POSIX fashion as seconds from a fixed
              starting time(1,2,n) (often January 1,  1970).   If  the  file(1,n)  doesn't
              exist  or  its  modified  time(1,2,n)  cannot be queried or set(7,n,1 builtins) then an
              error(8,n) is generated.

       file(1,n) nativename name
              Returns the platform-specific name of the file. This  is  useful
              if(3,n)  the  filename is needed to pass to a platform-specific call,
              such as exec(3,n,1 builtins) under Windows or AppleScript on the Macintosh.

       file(1,n) normalize name
              Returns a unique normalised path representation  for  the  file-
              system  object  (file(1,n), directory, link(1,2), etc), whose string(3,n) value
              can be used as a unique identifier for it.  A normalized path is
              an  absolute path which has all '../', './' removed.  Also it is
              one which is in(1,8) the ``standard'' format for the native platform.
              On  MacOS,  Unix, this means the segments leading up to the path
              must be free of symbolic links/aliases (but the very  last  path
              component  may be a symbolic link(1,2)), and on Windows it also means
              means we want the long form  with  that  form's  case-dependence
              (which  gives us a unique, case-dependent path).  The one excep-
              tion concerning the last link(1,2) in(1,8) the path is necessary,  because
              Tcl  or the user may wish to operate on the actual symbolic link(1,2)
              itself (for example 'file(1,n) delete', 'file(1,n)  rename(1,2,n)',  'file(1,n)  copy'
              are defined to operate on symbolic links, not on the things that
              they point to).

       file(1,n) owned name
              Returns 1 if(3,n) file(1,n) name is owned by the current  user,  0  other-
              wise.

       file(1,n) pathtype name
              Returns  one  of  absolute,  relative,  volumerelative.  If name
              refers to a specific file(1,n) on a specific volume,  the  path  type
              will be absolute.  If name refers to a file(1,n) relative to the cur-
              rent working directory, then the path type will be relative.  If
              name  refers to a file(1,n) relative to the current working directory
              on a specified volume, or to a  specific  file(1,n)  on  the  current
              working volume, then the file(1,n) type is volumerelative.

       file(1,n) readable name
              Returns 1 if(3,n) file(1,n) name is readable by the current user, 0 other-
              wise.

       file(1,n) readlink(1,2) name
              Returns the value of the symbolic link(1,2) given by name  (i.e.  the
              name  of  the file(1,n) it points to).  If name isn't a symbolic link(1,2)
              or its value cannot be read(2,n,1 builtins), then an error(8,n) is returned.  On sys-
              tems that don't support symbolic links this option is undefined.

       file(1,n) rename(1,2,n) ?-force? ?--? source target

       file(1,n) rename(1,2,n) ?-force? ?--? source ?source ...? targetDir
              The first form takes the file(1,n) or directory specified by pathname
              source and renames it to target, moving the file(1,n) if(3,n) the pathname
              target specifies a name in(1,8) a different directory.  If target  is
              an existing directory, then the second form is used.  The second
              form moves each source file(1,n) or directory into the directory tar-
              getDir. Existing files will not be overwritten unless the -force
              option is specified.  When operating inside a single filesystem,
              Tcl  will rename(1,2,n) symbolic links rather than the things that they
              point to.  Trying to overwrite a non-empty directory,  overwrite
              a  directory  with  a  file(1,n), or a file(1,n) with a directory will all
              result in(1,8) errors.  Arguments are processed in(1,8) the  order  speci-
              fied, halting at the first error(8,n), if(3,n) any.  A -- marks the end of
              switches; the argument following the -- will  be  treated  as  a
              source even if(3,n) it starts with a -.

       file(1,n) rootname name
              Returns  all  of  the characters in(1,8) name up to but not including
              the last ``.'' character in(1,8) the last component of name.  If  the
              last component of name doesn't contain a dot, then returns name.

       file(1,n) separator ?name?
              If no argument is given, returns the character which is used  to
              separate  path segments for native files on this platform.  If a
              path is given, the filesystem responsible for that path is asked
              to  return  its  separator character.  If no file(1,n) system accepts
              name, an error(8,n) is generated.

       file(1,n) size name
              Returns a decimal string(3,n) giving the size of file(1,n) name in(1,8)  bytes.
              If  the file(1,n) doesn't exist or its size cannot be queried then an
              error(8,n) is generated.

       file(1,n) split(1,n) name
              Returns a list whose elements are the path components  in(1,8)  name.
              The  first  element  of the list will have the same path type as
              name.  All other elements will  be  relative.   Path  separators
              will  be discarded unless they are needed ensure that an element
              is unambiguously relative.  For example, under Unix
              file(1,n) split(1,n) /foo/~bar/baz returns /  foo  ./~bar  baz  to  ensure
              that  later commands that use the third component do not attempt
              to perform tilde substitution.

       file(1,n) stat(1,2)  name varName
              Invokes the stat(1,2) kernel call on  name,  and  uses  the  variable
              given  by  varName  to hold information returned from the kernel
              call.  VarName is treated as an array variable, and the  follow-
              ing  elements  of that variable are set: atime, ctime, dev, gid,
              ino, mode, mtime, nlink, size, type, uid.  Each  element  except
              type  is  a  decimal  string(3,n) with the value of the corresponding
              field from the stat(1,2) return structure; see the manual  entry  for
              stat(1,2)  for  details on the meanings of the values.  The type ele-
              ment gives the type of the file(1,n) in(1,8) the same form returned by the
              command file(1,n) type.  This command returns an empty string.

       file(1,n) system name
              Returns  a  list of two elements, the first of which is the name
              of the filesystem to use for the file(1,n), and the second  an  arbi-
              trary string(3,n) representing the filesystem-specific nature or type
              of the location within that filesystem.  If  a  filesystem  only
              supports  one type of file(1,n), the second element may be null.  For
              example the native files have a first element  'native',  and  a
              second  element  which  is a platform-specific type name for the
              file(1,n)'s system (e.g. 'NTFS', 'FAT', etc), or possibly  the  empty
              string(3,n)  if(3,n) no further information is available or if(3,n) this is not
              implemented.  A generic virtual(5,8) file(1,n)  system  might  return  the
              list  'vfs ftp' to represent a file(1,n) on a remote ftp site mounted
              as a virtual(5,8) filesystem through an extension called  'vfs'.   If
              the  file(1,n)  does not belong to any filesystem, an error(8,n) is gener-
              ated.

       file(1,n) tail name
              Returns all of the characters in(1,8) name after the  last  directory
              separator.  If name contains no separators then returns name.

       file(1,n) type name
              Returns a string(3,n) giving the type of file(1,n) name, which will be one
              of file(1,n), directory, characterSpecial, blockSpecial, fifo,  link(1,2),
              or socket(2,7,n).

       file(1,n) volumes
              Returns the absolute paths to the volumes mounted on the system,
              as a proper Tcl list.  On the Macintosh, this will be a list  of
              the  mounted drives, both local and network.  N.B. if(3,n) two drives
              have the same name, they will both appear on  the  volume  list,
              but  there  is currently no way, from Tcl, to access(2,5) any but the
              first of these drives.  On UNIX, the command will always  return
              "/",  since all filesystems are locally mounted.  On Windows, it
              will return a list of the  available  local  drives  (e.g.  {a:/
              c:/}).

       file(1,n) writable name
              Returns 1 if(3,n) file(1,n) name is writable by the current user, 0 other-
              wise.

PORTABILITY ISSUES
       Unix
              These commands always operate using  the  real  user  and  group
              identifiers, not the effective ones.


SEE ALSO
       filename(n),  open(2,3,n)(n),  close(2,7,n)(n),  eof(n),  gets(3,n)(n),  tell(n), seek(n),
       fblocked(n), flush(8,n)(n)


KEYWORDS
       attributes, copy files, delete  files,  directory,  file(1,n),  move(3x,7,3x curs_move)  files,
       name, rename(1,2,n) files, stat(1,2)



Tcl                                   8.3                              file(1,n)(n)

References for this manual (incoming links)