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setkey(8) - setkey, setkey - manually manipulate the IPsec SA/SP database - man 8 setkey

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SETKEY(8)                 BSD System Manager's Manual                SETKEY(8)

     setkey -- manually manipulate the IPsec SA/SP database

     setkey [-nvrk] file(1,n) ...
     setkey [-nvrk] -c
     setkey [-vrk] -f filename
     setkey [-aPlvrk] -D
     setkey [-Pv] -F
     setkey [-H] -x
     setkey [-h] [-V]

     setkey adds, updates, dumps, or flushes Security Association Database
     (SAD) entries as well as Security Policy Database (SPD) entries in(1,8) the

     setkey takes a series of operations from the standard input (if(3,n) invoked
     with -c) or the file(1,n) named(5,8) filename (if(3,n) invoked with -f filename).

     (no flag)
             Dump the SAD entries or SPD entries contained in(1,8) the specified

     -D      Dump the SAD entries.  If with -P, the SPD entries are dumped.

     -F      Flush the SAD entries.  If with -P, the SPD entries are flushed.

     -a      setkey usually does not display dead SAD entries with -D.  If
             with -a, the dead SAD entries will be displayed as well.  A dead
             SAD entry means that it has been expired but remains in(1,8) the sys-
             tem because it is referenced by some SPD entries.

     -H      Add hexadecimal dump on -x mode.

     -l      Loop forever with short output on -D.

     -v      Be verbose.  The program will dump messages exchanged on PF_KEY
             socket(2,7,n), including messages sent from other processes to the ker-

     -n      No action.  The program will check validity of input, but no
             changes to the SPD will be made.

     -r      Use semantics described in(1,8) IPSec RFCs. This mode is default. For
             details see section RFC(vs) Linux kernel semantics. Available
             only in(1,8) Linux.

     -k      Use semantics used in(1,8) kernel. Available only in(1,8) Linux.

     -x      Loop forever and dump all the messages transmitted to PF_KEY
             socket.  -xx makes each timestamps unformatted.

     -h      Print short help.

     -V      Print version(1,3,5) string.

   Configuration syntax
     With -c or -f on the command line, setkey accepts the following configu-
     ration syntax.  Lines starting with hash signs ('#') are treated as com-
     ment lines.

     add [-46n] src dst protocol spi(5,8) [extensions] algorithm ... ;
             Add an SAD entry.  add can fail with multiple reasons, including
             when the key length does not match the specified algorithm.

     get [-46n] src dst protocol spi(5,8) ;
             Show an SAD entry.

     delete [-46n] src dst protocol spi(5,8) ;
             Remove an SAD entry.

     deleteall [-46n] src dst protocol ;
             Remove all SAD entries that match the specification.

     flush(8,n) [protocol] ;
             Clear all SAD entries matched by the options.  -F on the command
             line achieves the same functionality.

     dump [protocol] ;
             Dumps all SAD entries matched by the options.  -D on the command
             line achieves the same functionality.

     spdadd [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec policy ;
             Add an SPD entry.

     spdadd tagged tag policy ;
             Add an SPD entry based on PF tag.  tag must be a string(3,n) sur-
             rounded by doublequote.

     spddelete [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec -P direction ;
             Delete an SPD entry.

     spdflush ;
             Clear all SPD entries.  -FP on the command line achieves the same

     spddump ;
             Dumps all SPD entries.  -DP on the command line achieves the same

     Meta-arguments are as follows:

     dst     Source/destination of the secure communication is specified as
             IPv4/v6 address.  setkey can resolve a FQDN into numeric
             addresses.  If the FQDN resolves into multiple addresses, setkey
             will install multiple SAD/SPD entries into the kernel by trying
             all possible combinations.  -4, -6 and -n restricts the address
             resolution of FQDN in(1,8) certain ways.  -4 and -6 restrict results
             into IPv4/v6 addresses only, respectively.  -n avoids FQDN reso-
             lution and requires addresses to be numeric addresses.

             protocol is one of following:
             esp         ESP based on rfc2406
             esp-old     ESP based on rfc1827
             ah          AH based on rfc2402
             ah-old      AH based on rfc1826
             ipcomp      IPComp

     spi(5,8)     Security Parameter Index (SPI) for the SAD and the SPD.  spi(5,8) must
             be a decimal number, or a hexadecimal number with ``0x'' prefix.
             SPI values between 0 and 255 are reserved for future use by IANA
             and they cannot be used.

             take some of the following:
             -m mode     Specify a security protocol mode for use.  mode is
                         one of following: transport, tunnel or any.  The
                         default value is any.
             -r size     Specify window size of bytes for replay prevention.
                         size must be decimal number in(1,8) 32-bit word.  If size
                         is zero or not specified, replay check don't take
             -u id       Specify the identifier of the policy entry in(1,8) SPD.
                         See policy.
             -f pad_option
                         defines the content of the ESP padding.  pad_option
                         is one of following:
                         zero-pad    All of the padding are zero.
                         random-pad  A series of randomized values are set.
                         seq-pad     A series of sequential increasing numbers
                                     started from 1 are set.
             -f nocyclic-seq
                         Don't allow cyclic sequence number.
             -lh time(1,2,n)
             -ls time(1,2,n)    Specify hard/soft life time(1,2,n) duration of the SA mea-
                         sured in(1,8) seconds.
             -bh bytes
             -bs bytes   Specify hard/soft life time(1,2,n) duration of the SA mea-
                         sured in(1,8) bytes transported.

             -E ealgo key
                         Specify a encryption algorithm ealgo for ESP.
             -E ealgo key -A aalgo key
                         Specify a encryption algorithm ealgo, as well as a
                         payload authentication algorithm aalgo, for ESP.
             -A aalgo key
                         Specify an authentication algorithm for AH.
             -C calgo [-R]
                         Specify a compression algorithm for IPComp.  If -R is
                         specified, spi(5,8) field value will be used as the IPComp
                         CPI (compression parameter index) on wire as is.  If
                         -R is not specified, the kernel will use well-known
                         CPI on wire, and spi(5,8) field will be used only as an
                         index for kernel internal usage.

             key must be double-quoted character string(3,n), or a series of hexa-
             decimal digits preceded by ``0x''.

             Possible values for ealgo, aalgo and calgo are specified in(1,8) sepa-
             rate section.

             These are selections of the secure communication specified as
             IPv4/v6 address or IPv4/v6 address range, and it may accompany
             TCP/UDP port specification.  This takes the following form:


             prefixlen and port must be decimal number.  The square bracket
             around port is really necessary.  They are not manpage metachar-
             acters.  For FQDN resolution, the rules applicable to src and dst
             apply here as well.

             Upper-layer protocol to be used.  You can use one of words in(1,8)
             /etc/protocols as upperspec.  Or icmp6, ip4, and any can be spec-
             ified.  any stands for ``any protocol''.  Also you can use the
             protocol number.  You can specify a type and/or a code of ICMPv6
             when Upper-layer protocol is ICMPv6.  the specification can be
             placed after icmp6.  A type is separated with a code by single
             comma.  A code must be specified anytime.  When a zero is speci-
             fied, the kernel deals with it as a wildcard.  Note that the ker-
             nel can not distinguish a wildcard from that a type of ICMPv6 is
             zero.  For example, the following means the policy doesn't
             require IPsec for any inbound Neighbor Solicitation.
                   spdadd ::/0 ::/0 icmp6 135,0 -P in(1,8) none;

             NOTE: upperspec does not work against forwarding case at this
             moment, as it requires extra reassembly at forwarding node (not
             implemented at this moment).  We have many protocols in(1,8)
             /etc/protocols, but protocols except of TCP, UDP and ICMP may not
             be suitable to use with IPsec.  You have to consider and be care-
             ful to use them.

     policy  policy is the one of the following three formats:

           -P direction [priority specification] discard
           -P direction [priority specification] none
           -P direction [priority specification] ipsec(5,8)
                   protocol/mode/src-dst/level [...]

             You must specify the direction of its policy as direction.
             Either out , in(1,8) or fwd are used.

             priority specification is used to control the placement of the
             policy within the SPD. Policy position is determined by a signed
             integer where higher priorities indicate the policy is placed
             closer to the beginning of the list and lower priorities indicate
             the policy is placed closer to the end of the list. Policies with
             equal priorities are added at the end of the group of such poli-

             Priority can only be specified when setkey has been compiled
             against kernel headers that support policy priorities (>= 2.6.6).
             If the kernel does not support priorities, a warning message will
             be printed the first time(1,2,n) a priority specification is used.  Pol-
             icy priority takes one of the following formats:

             {priority,prio} offset
                      offset is an integer in(1,8) ranges -2147483647 .. 214783648.

             {priority,prio} base {+,-} offset
                      base is either low (-1073741824), def (0), or high

                      offset is an unsigned integer. It can be up to
                      1073741824 for positive offsets, and up to 1073741823
                      for negative offsets.

             discard means the packet matching indexes will be discarded.
             none means that IPsec operation will not take place onto the
             packet.  ipsec(5,8) means that IPsec operation will take place onto
             the packet.  The part of protocol/mode/src-dst/level specifies
             the rule how to process the packet.  Either ah, esp or ipcomp is
             to be set(7,n,1 builtins) as protocol.  mode is either transport or tunnel.  If
             mode is tunnel, you must specify the end-points addresses of the
             SA as src and dst with `-' between these addresses which is used
             to specify the SA to use.  If mode is transport, both src and dst
             can be omitted.  level is to be one of the following: default,
             use, require or unique.  If the SA is not available in(1,8) every
             level, the kernel will request getting SA to the key exchange
             daemon.  default means the kernel consults to the system wide
             default against protocol you specified, e.g.  esp_trans_deflev
             sysctl(2,5,8) variable, when the kernel processes the packet.  use means
             that the kernel use a SA if(3,n) it's available, otherwise the kernel
             keeps normal operation.  require means SA is required whenever
             the kernel sends a packet matched with the policy.  unique is the
             same to require, in(1,8) addition, it allows the policy to bind(2,n,1 builtins) with
             the unique out-bound SA.  You just specify the policy level
             unique, racoon(5,8)(8) will configure the SA for the policy.  If you
             configure the SA by manual keying for that policy, you can put
             the decimal number as the policy identifier after unique sepa-
             rated by colon `:' like the following; unique:number.  in(1,8) order
             to bind(2,n,1 builtins) this policy to the SA.  number must be between 1 and
             32767.  It corresponds to extensions -u of the manual SA configu-
             ration.  When you want to use SA bundle, you can define multiple
             rules.  For example, if(3,n) an IP header was followed by AH header
             followed by ESP header followed by an upper layer protocol
             header, the rule would be:
                   esp/transport//require ah/transport//require;
             The rule order is very important.

             Note that ``discard'' and ``none'' are not in(1,8) the syntax
             described in(1,8) ipsec_set_policy(3).  There are little differences
             in(1,8) the syntax.  See ipsec_set_policy(3) for detail.

     The following list shows the supported algorithms.  protocol and
     algorithm are almost orthogonal.  Followings are the list of authentica-
     tion algorithms that can be used as aalgo in(1,8) -A aalgo of protocol parame-

           algorithm       keylen (bits)
           hmac-md5        128             ah: rfc2403
                           128             ah-old: rfc2085
           hmac-sha1       160             ah: rfc2404
                           160             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           keyed-md5       128             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           128             ah-old: rfc1828
           keyed-sha1      160             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           160             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           null            0 to 2048       for debugging
           hmac-sha2-256   256             ah: 96bit ICV
                           256             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           hmac-sha2-384   384             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           384             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           hmac-sha2-512   512             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           512             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           hmac-ripemd160  160             ah: 96bit ICV (RFC2857)
                                           ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           aes-xcbc-mac    128             ah: 96bit ICV (RFC3566)
                           128             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)

     Followings are the list of encryption algorithms that can be used as
     ealgo in(1,8) -E ealgo of protocol parameter:

           algorithm       keylen (bits)
           des-cbc         64              esp-old: rfc1829, esp: rfc2405
           3des-cbc        192             rfc2451
           null            0 to 2048       rfc2410
           blowfish-cbc    40 to 448       rfc2451
           cast128-cbc     40 to 128       rfc2451
           des-deriv       64              ipsec-ciph-des-derived-01
           3des-deriv      192             no document
           rijndael-cbc    128/192/256     rfc3602
           twofish-cbc     0 to 256        draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-aes-cbc-01
           aes-ctr         160/224/288     draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-aes-ctr-03

     Note that the first 128 bits of a key for aes-ctr will be used as AES
     key, and remaining 32 bits will be used as nonce.

     Followings are the list of compression algorithms that can be used as
     calgo in(1,8) -C calgo of protocol parameter:

           deflate         rfc2394

   RFC vs Linux kernel semantics
     Linux kernel uses fwd policy instead of in(1,8) policy for packets what are
     forwarded through that particular box.

     In kernel mode setkey manages and shows policies and SAs exactly as they
     are stored in(1,8) the kernel.

     In RFC mode setkey

     creates fwd policies for every in(1,8) policy inserted.
     (not implemented yet) filters out all fwd policies

     The command exits with 0 on success, and non-zero on errors.

     add 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 esp 123457
             -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff ;

     add -6 ah 123456
             -A hmac-sha1 "AH SA configuration!" ;

     add esp 0x10001
             -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff
             -A hmac-md5 "authentication!!" ;

     get 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 ah 123456 ;

     flush(8,n) ;

     dump esp ;

     spdadd[21][any] any
             -P out ipsec(5,8) esp/tunnel/ ;

     ipsec_set_policy(3), racoon(5,8)(8), sysctl(2,5,8)(8)

     Changed manual key configuration for IPsec, October 1999,

     The setkey command first appeared in(1,8) WIDE Hydrangea IPv6 protocol stack
     kit.  The command was completely re-designed in(1,8) June 1998.

     setkey should report and handle syntax errors better.

     For IPsec gateway configuration, src_range and dst_range with TCP/UDP
     port number do not work, as the gateway does not reassemble packets
     (cannot inspect upper-layer headers).

KAME                            March 19, 2004                            KAME

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