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SENDMAIL(8)                                                        SENDMAIL(8)

       sendmail(1,8) - an electronic mail(1,8) transport agent

       sendmail(1,8) [flags] [address ...]
       mailq [-v]

       Sendmail sends a message to one or more recipients, routing the message
       over whatever networks are necessary.  Sendmail does internetwork  for-
       warding as necessary to deliver the message to the correct place.

       Sendmail  is  not  intended as a user interface routine; other programs
       provide user-friendly front ends; sendmail(1,8) is used only to deliver pre-
       formatted messages.

       With  no  flags, sendmail(1,8) reads its standard input up to an end-of-file
       or a line consisting only of a single dot and sends a copy of the  mes-
       sage  found  there  to  all of the addresses listed.  It determines the
       network(s) to use based on the syntax and contents of the addresses.

       Local addresses are looked up in(1,8)  a  file(1,n)  and  aliased  appropriately.
       Aliasing  can  be  prevented by preceding the address with a backslash.
       Beginning with 8.10, the sender is included in(1,8)  any  alias  expansions,
       e.g.,  if(3,n)  `john'  sends to `group', and `group' includes `john' in(1,8) the
       expansion, then the letter will also be delivered to `john'.

       -Ac    Use even if(3,n) the operation mode does  not  indicate  an
              initial mail(1,8) submission.

       -Am    Use even if(3,n) the operation mode indicates an initial
              mail(1,8) submission.

       -Btype Set the body type to type.  Current legal  values  are  7BIT  or

       -ba    Go  into  ARPANET  mode.  All input lines must end with a CR-LF,
              and all messages will be generated with  a  CR-LF  at  the  end.
              Also,  the ``From:'' and ``Sender:'' fields are examined for the
              name of the sender.

       -bd    Run as a daemon.  Sendmail will fork and run in(1,8) background  lis-
              tening on socket(2,7,n) 25 for incoming SMTP connections.  This is nor-
              mally run from /etc/rc.

       -bD    Same as -bd except runs in(1,8) foreground.

       -bh    Print the persistent host(1,5) status database.

       -bH    Purge expired entries from the persistent host(1,5) status  database.

       -bi    Initialize the alias database.

       -bm    Deliver mail(1,8) in(1,8) the usual way (default).

       -bp    Print a listing of the queue(1,3)(s).

       -bP    Print  number  of  entries  in(1,8) the queue(1,3)(s); only available with
              shared memory support.

       -bs    Use the SMTP protocol as described in(1,8) RFC821 on  standard  input
              and  output.   This  flag  implies all the operations of the -ba
              flag that are compatible with SMTP.

       -bt    Run in(1,8) address test mode.  This mode reads addresses  and  shows
              the  steps  in(1,8)  parsing;  it is used for debugging configuration

       -bv    Verify names only - do not try to collect or deliver a  message.
              Verify  mode  is  normally  used for validating users(1,5) or mailing

       -Cfile(1,n) Use  alternate  configuration  file.   Sendmail  gives  up   any
              enhanced  (set-user-ID  or set-group-ID) privileges if(3,n) an alter-
              nate configuration file(1,n) is specified.

       -D logfile
              Send debugging output to the indicated log file(1,n) instead of  std-

              Set  the  debugging  flag  for  category  to level.  Category is
              either an integer or a name specifying the topic, and  level  an
              integer  specifying  the  level  of  debugging  output  desired.
              Higher levels generally mean more output.  More  than  one  flag
              can  be  specified  by  separating  them with commas.  A list of
              numeric debugging categories can be found in(1,8) the TRACEFLAGS file(1,n)
              in(1,8) the sendmail(1,8) source distribution.
              The  option -d0.1 prints the version(1,3,5) of sendmail(1,8) and the options
              it was compiled with.
              Most other categories are only useful with, and  documented  in(1,8),
              sendmail(1,8)'s source code.

              Set the full name of the sender.

       -fname Sets  the name of the ``from'' person (i.e., the envelope sender
              of the mail(1,8)).  This address may also be used in(1,8) the From: header
              if(3,n)  that header is missing during initial submission.  The enve-
              lope sender address is used as the recipient for delivery status
              notifications  and may also appear in(1,8) a Return-Path: header.  -f
              should only be used by ``trusted'' users(1,5) (normally root, daemon,
              and  network)  or  if(3,n) the person you are trying to become is the
              same as the person you  are.   Otherwise,  an  X-Authentication-
              Warning header will be added to the message.

       -G     Relay  (gateway) submission of a message, e.g., when rmail calls
              sendmail(1,8) .

       -hN    Set the hop count to N.  The hop count is incremented every time(1,2,n)
              the  mail(1,8)  is  processed.   When it reaches a limit, the mail(1,8) is
              returned with an error(8,n) message, the victim of an aliasing  loop.
              If  not  specified,  ``Received:''  lines  in(1,8)  the  message  are

       -i     Ignore dots alone on lines by themselves in(1,8)  incoming  messages.
              This should be set(7,n,1 builtins) if(3,n) you are reading data from a file.

       -L tag Set  the identifier used in(1,8) syslog(2,3,5,3 Sys::Syslog) messages to the supplied tag.

       -N dsn Set delivery status notification conditions to dsn, which can be
              `never'  for  no  notifications or a comma separated list of the
              values `failure' to be notified if(3,n) delivery failed,  `delay'  to
              be notified if(3,n) delivery is delayed, and `success' to be notified
              when the message is successfully delivered.

       -n     Don't do aliasing.

       -O option=value
              Set option option to the specified value.  This form  uses  long
              names.  See below for more details.

       -ox value
              Set  option  x  to  the  specified value.  This form uses single
              character names only.  The short names are not described in(1,8) this
              manual  page;  see the Sendmail Installation and Operation Guide
              for details.

              Set the name of the protocol used to receive the message.   This
              can be a simple protocol name such as ``UUCP'' or a protocol and
              hostname, such as ``UUCP:ucbvax''.

              Process saved messages in(1,8) the queue(1,3) at given intervals.  If time(1,2,n)
              is  omitted,  process the queue(1,3) once.  Time is given as a tagged
              number, with `s' being seconds, `m' being minutes (default), `h'
              being  hours, `d' being days, and `w' being weeks.  For example,
              `-q1h30m' or `-q90m' would both set(7,n,1 builtins)  the  timeout(1,3x,3x cbreak)  to  one  hour
              thirty  minutes.   By  default,  sendmail(1,8)  will run in(1,8) the back-
              ground.  This option can be used safely with -bd.

              Similar to -qtime(1,2,n), except that instead of periodically forking a
              child  to  process the queue(1,3), sendmail(1,8) forks a single persistent
              child for each queue(1,3)  that  alternates  between  processing  the
              queue(1,3) and sleeping.  The sleep(1,3) time(1,2,n) is given as the argument; it
              defaults to 1 second.  The process will always sleep(1,3) at least  5
              seconds if(3,n) the queue(1,3) was empty in(1,8) the previous queue(1,3) run.

       -qf    Process  saved messages in(1,8) the queue(1,3) once and do not fork(), but
              run in(1,8) the foreground.

       -qG name
              Process jobs in(1,8) queue(1,3) group called name only.

              Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as  a  substring
              of the queue(1,3) id or not when !  is specified.

              Limit  processed jobs to quarantined jobs containing substr as a
              substring of the quarantine reason or not when !  is  specified.

              Limit  processed  jobs to those containing substr as a substring
              of one of the recipients or not when !  is specified.

              Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as  a  substring
              of the sender or not when !  is specified.

              Quarantine a normal queue(1,3) items with the given reason or unquar-
              antine quarantined queue(1,3) items if(3,n)  no  reason  is  given.   This
              should  only  be  used  with some sort(1,3) of item matching using as
              described above.

       -R return
              Set the amount of the message to  be  returned  if(3,n)  the  message
              bounces.   The  return  parameter  can  be  `full' to return the
              entire message or `hdrs' to return only  the  headers.   In  the
              latter case also local bounces return only the headers.

       -rname An alternate and obsolete form of the -f flag.

       -t     Read  message  for recipients.  To:, Cc:, and Bcc: lines will be
              scanned for recipient addresses.  The Bcc: line will be  deleted
              before transmission.

       -V envid
              Set the original envelope id.  This is propagated across SMTP to
              servers that support DSNs and is returned in(1,8) DSN-compliant error(8,n)

       -v     Go  into verbose mode.  Alias expansions will be announced, etc.

       -X logfile
              Log all traffic in(1,8) and out of mailers in(1,8) the indicated log file.
              This  should  only be used as a last resort for debugging mailer
              bugs.  It will log a lot of data very quickly.

       --     Stop processing command flags and use the rest of the  arguments
              as addresses.

       There  are  also  a number of processing options that may be set.  Nor-
       mally these will only be used by a system administrator.   Options  may
       be  set(7,n,1 builtins) either on the command line using the -o flag (for short names),
       the -O flag (for long names), or in(1,8) the configuration file.  This is  a
       partial  list  limited to those options that are likely to be useful on
       the command line and only shows the long names;  for  a  complete  list
       (and  details),  consult the Sendmail Installation and Operation Guide.
       The options are:

              Use alternate alias file.

              On mailers that are  considered  ``expensive''  to  connect  to,
              don't initiate immediate connection.  This requires queueing.

              Checkpoint  the  queue(1,3)  file(1,n) after every N successful deliveries
              (default 10).  This avoids excessive duplicate  deliveries  when
              sending to long mailing lists interrupted by system crashes.

              Set the delivery mode to x.  Delivery modes are `i' for interac-
              tive (synchronous) delivery, `b' for  background  (asynchronous)
              delivery, `q' for queue(1,3) only - i.e., actual delivery is done the
              next time(1,2,n) the queue(1,3) is run, and `d' for deferred - the  same  as
              `q'  except that database lookups for maps which have set(7,n,1 builtins) the -D
              option (default for the host(1,5) map) are avoided.

              Set error(8,n) processing to mode x.  Valid modes  are  `m'  to  mail(1,8)
              back  the error(8,n) message, `w' to ``write(1,2)'' back the error(8,n) message
              (or mail(1,8) it back if(3,n) the sender is not logged in(1,8)), `p'  to  print
              the  errors  on  the terminal (default), `q' to throw away error(8,n)
              messages (only exit(3,n,1 builtins) status is returned), and `e' to  do  special
              processing  for  the BerkNet.  If the text of the message is not
              mailed back by modes `m' or `w' and if(3,n) the sender  is  local  to
              this  machine,  a  copy  of  the message is appended to the file(1,n)
              dead.letter in(1,8) the sender's home directory.

              Save UNIX-style From lines at the front of messages.

              The maximum number of times a  message  is  allowed  to  ``hop''
              before we decide it is in(1,8) a loop.

              Do  not  take dots on a line by themselves as a message termina-

              Send error(8,n) messages in(1,8) MIME format.  If not set(7,n,1 builtins), the DSN (Deliv-
              ery Status Notification) SMTP extension is disabled.

       ConnectionCacheTimeout=timeout(1,3x,3x cbreak)
              Set connection cache timeout.

              Set connection cache size.

              The log level.

              Don't send(2,n) to ``me'' (the sender) if(3,n) I am in(1,8) an alias expansion.

              Validate the right hand side of aliases during  a  newaliases(1)

              If  set(7,n,1 builtins),  this  message may have old style headers.  If not set(7,n,1 builtins),
              this message is guaranteed to have new style headers (i.e., com-
              mas  instead  of spaces between addresses).  If set(7,n,1 builtins), an adaptive
              algorithm is used that will correctly determine the header  for-
              mat in(1,8) most cases.

              Select the directory in(1,8) which to queue(1,3) messages.

              Save statistics in(1,8) the named(5,8) file.

              Set  the  timeout(1,3x,3x cbreak)  on  undelivered  messages in(1,8) the queue(1,3) to the
              specified time.  After delivery has failed (e.g., because  of  a
              host(1,5)  being  down) for this amount of time(1,2,n), failed messages will
              be returned to the sender.  The default is five days.

              If set(7,n,1 builtins), a user database is consulted to get forwarding  informa-
              tion.   You  can consider this an adjunct to the aliasing mecha-
              nism, except that the database is intended  to  be  distributed;
              aliases  are local to a particular host.  This may not be avail-
              able if(3,n) your sendmail(1,8) does not have the USERDB  option  compiled

              Fork  each  job during queue(1,3) runs.  May be convenient on memory-
              poor machines.

              Strip incoming messages to seven bits.

              Set the handling of eight bit input to seven bit destinations to
              mode: m (mimefy) will convert to seven-bit MIME format, p (pass)
              will pass it as eight  bits  (but  violates  protocols),  and  s
              (strict) will bounce the message.

       MinQueueAge=timeout(1,3x,3x cbreak)
              Sets  how  long a job must ferment in(1,8) the queue(1,3) between attempts
              to send(2,n) it.

              Sets the default character set(7,n,1 builtins) used to label 8-bit data that  is
              not otherwise labelled.

              If  opening  a connection fails, sleep(1,3) for sleeptime seconds and
              try again.  Useful on dial-on-demand sites.

              Set the behaviour when there are no recipient headers (To:,  Cc:
              or  Bcc:)  in(1,8)  the  message  to  action: none leaves the message
              unchanged, add-to adds a To: header with  the  envelope  recipi-
              ents,  add-apparently-to  adds an Apparently-To: header with the
              envelope recipients, add-bcc adds an empty Bcc: header, and add-
              to-undisclosed  adds  a  header reading `To: undisclosed-recipi-

              Sets the maximum number of children that an incoming SMTP daemon
              will allow to spawn at any time(1,2,n) to N.

              Sets  the  maximum  number of connections per second to the SMTP
              port to N.

       In aliases, the first character of a name may  be  a  vertical  bar  to
       cause  interpretation  of the rest of the name as a command to pipe(2,8) the
       mail(1,8) to.  It may be necessary to quote the name to keep  sendmail(1,8)  from
       suppressing  the  blanks from between arguments.  For example, a common
       alias is:

              msgs: "|/usr/bin/msgs -s"

       Aliases may also have the syntax ``:include:filename'' to ask  sendmail(1,8)
       to read(2,n,1 builtins) the named(5,8) file(1,n) for a list of recipients.  For example, an alias
       such as:

              poets: ":include:/usr/local/lib/poets.list"

       would read(2,n,1 builtins) /usr/local/lib/poets.list for the list of  addresses  making
       up the group.

       Sendmail  returns an exit(3,n,1 builtins) status describing what it did.  The codes are
       defined in(1,8) <sysexits.h>:

       EX_OK  Successful completion on all addresses.

              User name not recognized.

              Catchall meaning necessary resources were not available.

              Syntax error(8,n) in(1,8) address.

              Internal software error(8,n), including bad arguments.

              Temporary operating system error(8,n), such as ``cannot fork''.

              Host name not recognized.

              Message could not be sent immediately, but was queued.

       If invoked as newaliases, sendmail(1,8) will rebuild the alias database.  If
       invoked  as  mailq, sendmail(1,8) will print the contents of the mail(1,8) queue.
       If invoked as hoststat, sendmail(1,8) will print the persistent host(1,5)  status
       database.  If invoked as purgestat, sendmail(1,8) will purge expired entries
       from the persistent host(1,5) status database.  If invoked as  smtpd,  send-
       mail(1,8) will act as a daemon, as if(3,n) the -bd option were specified.

       sendmail(1,8)  often  gets(3,n)  blamed  for  many problems that are actually the
       result of other problems, such as overly permissive modes  on  directo-
       ries.  For this reason, sendmail(1,8) checks the modes on system directories
       and files to determine if(3,n) they can be trusted.  Although  these  checks
       can be turned off and your system security reduced by setting the Dont-
       BlameSendmail option, the permission problems  should  be  fixed.   For
       more information, see:

       Except  for  the  file(1,n) /etc/mail(1,8)/ itself the following path-
       names are all specified in(1,8) /etc/mail(1,8)/  Thus,  these  values
       are only approximations.

              raw(3x,7,8,3x cbreak) data for alias names

              data base of alias names

              configuration file(1,n)

              help file(1,n)

              collected statistics

              temp files

       binmail(1),  mail(1,8)(1),  rmail(1),  syslog(2,3,5,3 Sys::Syslog)(3),  aliases(5),  mailaddr(7),

       DARPA Internet Request For Comments RFC819, RFC821,  RFC822.   Sendmail
       Installation and Operation Guide, No. 8, SMM.

       The sendmail(1,8) command appeared in(1,8) 4.2BSD.

                         $Date: 2003/12/01 17:02:41 $              SENDMAIL(8)

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