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sane(7)                  SANE Scanner Access Now Easy                  sane(7)

       sane - Scanner Access Now Easy: API for accessing scanners

       SANE  is an application programming interface (API) that provides stan-
       dardized access(2,5) to any raster image scanner hardware. The  standardized
       interface  makes  it possible to write(1,2) just one driver for each scanner
       device instead of one driver for each scanner and application.

       While SANE is primarily targeted at a UNIX  environment,  the  standard
       has been carefully designed to make it possible to implement the API on
       virtually any hardware or operating system.

       This manual page provides a summary of the information available  about

       If  you  have  trouble getting your scanner detected, read(2,n,1 builtins) the PROBLEMS

       An application that uses the SANE interface is called a SANE  frontend.
       A  driver  that implements the SANE interface is called a SANE backend.
       A meta backend provides some means to manage one or  more  other  back-

       The  package  `sane-backends' contains a lot of backends, documentation
       (including the SANE standard), networking support, and the command line
       frontend   `scanimage'.    The   frontends  `xscanimage',  `xcam',  and
       `scanadf' are included in(1,8) the package `sane-frontends'.  Both  packages
       can       be      downloaded      from      the      SANE      homepage
       (  Information about other frontends  and
       backends      can     be     found     on     the     frontend     page

       The following sections provide short descriptions  and  links  to  more
       information  about  several  aspects  of SANE.  A name with a number in(1,8)
       parenthesis (e.g.  `sane-dll(5)') points to a manual page. In this case
       `man(1,5,7)    5    sane-dll'    will   display   the   page.   Entries   like
       `/usr/doc/sane-1.0.14/sane.tex' are references to text files that  were
       copied to the SANE documentation directory (/usr/doc/sane-1.0.14/) dur-
       ing installation. Everything else is a URL to a resource on the web.

       SANE homepage
         Information on all aspects of SANE including a tutorial and a link(1,2) to
         the    SANE    FAQ    can    be   found   on   the   SANE   homepage:

       SANE device lists
         The SANE device lists contain information about the  status  of  SANE
         support  for  a  specific device. If your scanner is not listed there
         (either supported or unsupported), please contact us. See section HOW
         CAN  YOU HELP SANE for details. There are lists for specific releases
         of SANE, for the current development version(1,3,5)  and  a  search  engine:   The  lists
         are also installed on your system at /usr/doc/sane-1.0.14/.

       SANE mailing list
         There is a mailing list for the purpose of discussing the SANE  stan-
         dard and its implementations: sane-devel.  Despite its name, the list
         is not only intended for developers, but also for users.  Since  this
         is currently the only mailing list devoted to SANE, it's perfectly OK
         to ask questions that are not strictly related to  SANE  development.
         How  to  subscribe and unsubscribe:

       SANE IRC channel
         The IRC (Internet Relay Chat) channel  #sane  can  be  found  on  the
         Freenode  network  ( It's for discussing SANE prob-
         lems, talking about development and general  SANE  related  chatting.
         Before asking for help, please read(2,n,1 builtins) the other documentation mentioned
         in(1,8) this manual page.

       Compiling and installing SANE
         Look at /usr/doc/sane-1.0.14/README and the os-dependent README files
         for information about compiling and installing SANE.

       SCSI configuration
         For  information  about  various  systems  and  SCSI  controllers see

       USB configuration
         For information about USB configuration see sane-usb(5).

         Command-line frontend. See scanimage(1).

         SANE network daemon that allows remote clients to access(2,5) image acqui-
         sition devices available on the local host. See saned(1).

         Command-line  tool  to find SCSI and USB scanners and determine their
         Unix device files. See sane-find-scanner(1).

       Also, have a look(1,8,3 Search::Dict) at the sane-frontends package (including  xscanimage,
       xcam,   and   scanadf)   and   the   frontend   information   page   at

         The SANE backend for Abaton flatbed scanners supports the Scan 300/GS
         (8bit,  256  levels  of  gray)  and  the Scan 300/S (black and white,
         untested). See sane-abaton(5) for details.

         This backend supports AGFA  Focus  scanners  and  the  Siemens  S9036
         (untested).  See sane-agfafocus(5) for details.

         The  SANE  backend  for Apple flatbed scanners supports the following
         scanners:   AppleScanner,   OneScanner   and   ColorOneScanner.   See
         sane-apple(5) for details.

         The  SANE  Artec  backend  supports several Artec/Ultima SCSI flatbed
         scanners as well as the BlackWidow BW4800SP and the  Plustek  19200S.
         See sane-artec(5) for details.

         The SANE artec_eplus48u backend supports the scanner Artec E+ 48U and
         re-badged models like Tevion MD 9693, Medion MD 9693, Medion MD  9705
         and Trust Easy Webscan 19200. See sane-artec_eplus48u(5) for details.

         This is a SANE backend for using the Artec AS6E parallel port  inter-
         face scanner. See sane-as6e(5) for details.

         This  backend  supports several Avision based scanners. This includes
         the original Avision scanners (like AV 630, AV 620, ...) as  well  as
         the  HP  ScanJet 53xx and 74xx series, Fujitsu ScanPartner, some Mit-
         subishi and Minolta film-scanners.  See sane-avision(5) for  details.

         The bh backend provides access(2,5) to Bell+Howell Copiscan II series doc-
         ument scanners. See sane-bh(5) for details.

         The canon backend  supports  the  CanoScan  300,  CanoScan  600,  and
         CanoScan  2700F SCSI flatbed scanners. See sane-canon(5) for details.

         The canon630u backend supports the CanoScan 630u and 636u  USB  scan-
         ners.  See sane-canon630u(5) for details.

         The  canon_pp backend supports the CanoScan FB330P, FB630P, N340P and
         N640P parallel port scanners.  See sane-canon_pp(5) for details.

         This  is  a  SANE  backend  for  Nikon  Coolscan  film-scanners.  See
         sane-coolscan(5) for details.

         This  is  a  SANE  backend  for  Nikon  Coolscan  film-scanners.  See
         sane-coolscan2(5) or for details.

         The SANE epson backend provides support for Epson SCSI, parallel port
         and USB flatbed scanners. See sane-epson(5) for details.

         The fujitsu backend provides support for Fujitsu 3091, 3093, 3096 and
         fi-4340 SCSI scanners. See sane-fujitsu(5) for details.

         The gt68xx  backend  provides  support  for  scanners  based  on  the
         Grandtech  GT-6801  and  GT-6816 chips like the Artec Ultima 2000 and
         several Mustek BearPaw  CU  and  TA  models.  Some  Genius,  Lexmark,
         Medion, Packard Bell, Plustek, and Trust scanners are also supported.
         See sane-gt68xx(5) for details.

         The SANE hp backend provides access(2,5) to Hewlett-Packard ScanJet  scan-
         ners  which  support  SCL  (Scanner  Control  Language  by  HP).  See
         sane-hp(5) for details.

         The SANE backend for the  Hewlett-Packard  ScanJet  5S  scanner.  See
         sane-hpsj5s(5) for details.

         The  SANE  backend  for the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 54XXC series. See
         sane-hp5400(5) for details.

         The  SANE  backend  for  some  IBM  and  Ricoh  SCSI  scanners.   See
         sane-ibm(5) for details.

         This  backend  supports the Leo S3 and the Across FS-1130, which is a
         re-badged LEO FS-1130 scanner. See sane-leo(5) for details.

         The ma1509 backend supports the  Mustek  BearPaw  1200F  USB  flatbed
         scanner. See sane-ma1509(5) for details.

         This  backend  supports  some Panasonic KVSS high speed scanners. See
         sane-matsushita(5) for details.

         The microtek backend  provides  access(2,5)  to  the  "second  generation"
         Microtek  scanners  with SCSI-1 command set. See sane-microtek(5) for

         The microtek2 backend provides access(2,5) to some Microtek scanners  with
         a SCSI-2 command set. See sane-microtek2(5) for details.

         The  SANE  mustek  backend supports most Mustek SCSI flatbed scanners
         including the Paragon and ScanExpress series and the 600 II N and 600
         II  EP  (non-SCSI).  Some  Trust  scanners  are  also  supported. See
         sane-mustek(5) for details.

         The mustek_pp backend provides access(2,5) to Mustek parallel port flatbed
         scannersr. See sane-mustek_pp(5) for details.

         The mustek_usb backend provides access(2,5) to some Mustek ScanExpress USB
         flatbed scanners. See sane-mustek_usb(5) for details.

         The SANE nec backend supports the NEC PC-IN500/4C SCSI  scanner.  See
         sane-nec(5) for details.

         The  pie  backend  provides access(2,5) to Pacific Image Electronics (PIE)
         and Devcom SCSI flatbed scanners. See sane-pie(5) for details.

         The SANE plustek backend supports USB flatbed scanners that  use  the
         National  Semiconductor  LM983[1/2/3]-chipset  aka  Merlin.  Scanners
         using this LM983x chips include some models from Plustek, KYE/Genius,
         Hewlett-Packard,  Mustek, Umax, Epson, and Canon. See sane-plustek(5)
         for details.

         The SANE plustek_pp backend supports Plustek  parallel  port  flatbed
         scanners.  Scanners using the Plustek ASIC P96001, P96003, P98001 and
         P98003 include some models  from  Plustek,  KYE/Genius,  Primax.  See
         sane-plustek_pp(5) for details.

         The  ricoh  backend  provides  access(2,5)  to the following Ricoh flatbed
         scanners: IS50 and IS60. See sane-ricoh(5) for details.

         The s9036 backend provides access(2,5) to Siemens 9036  flatbed  scanners.
         See sane-s9036(5) for details.

         The  sceptre  backend  provides  access(2,5)  to the Sceptre S1200 flatbed
         scanner. See sane-sceptre(5)
          for details.

         The  SANE  sharp  backend   supports   Sharp   SCSI   scanners.   See
         sane-sharp(5) for details.

         The  SANE  sm3600  backend  supports  the Microtek ScanMaker 3600 USB
         scanner. See sane-sm3600(5) for details.

         The snapscan backend supports AGFA  SnapScan  flatbed  scanners.  See
         sane-snapscan(5) for details.

         This  backend supports the Fujitsu FCPA ScanPartner 15C flatbed scan-
         ner. See sane-sp15c(5) for details.

         The sane-st400 backend provides access(2,5) to Siemens  ST400  and  ST800.
         See sane-st400(5) for details.

         The  SANE  tamarack  backend supports Tamarack Artiscan flatbed scan-
         ners. See sane-tamarack(5) for details.

       teco1 teco2 teco3
         The SANE teco1, teco2 and teco3 backends support some TECO  scanners,
         usually sold under the Relisys, Trust, Primax, Piotech, Dextra names.
         See sane-teco1(5), sane-teco2(5) and sane-teco3(5) for details.

         The sane-umax backend provides access(2,5) to  several  UMAX-SCSI-scanners
         and some Linotype Hell SCSI-scanners. See sane-umax(5) for details.

         The  sane-umax_pp  backend  provides  access(2,5)  to  Umax  parallel port
         flatbed scanners and the HP 3200C. See sane-umax_pp(5) for details.

         The sane-umax1220u  backend  supports  the  UMAX  Astra  1220U  (USB)
         flatbed  scanner  (and  also  the  UMAX  Astra  2000U,  sort(1,3) of). See
         sane-umax1220u(5) for details.

       Also,   have   a   look(1,8,3 Search::Dict)   at   the   backend   information   page    at and the list of
       projects in(1,8) /usr/doc/sane-1.0.14/PROJECTS.

         Backend for Kodak DC210 Digital Camera. See sane-dc210(5).

         Backend for Kodak DC240 Digital Camera. See sane-dc240(5).

         Backend for Kodak DC20/DC25 Digital Cameras. See sane-dc25(5).

         Backend for the Polaroid Digital Microscope Camera. See  sane-dmc(5).

         Backend for digital cameras supported by the gphoto2 library package.
         (See for more information and a  list  of  sup-
         ported  cameras.)  Gphoto2 supports over 140 different camera models.
         However, please note that more  development  and  testing  is  needed
         before  all  of these cameras will be supported by SANE backend.  See

         Backend for Connectix QuickCam cameras. See sane-qcam(5).

       Also,   have   a   look(1,8,3 Search::Dict)   at   the   backend   information   page    at and the list of
       projects in(1,8) /usr/doc/sane-1.0.14/PROJECTS.

         The sane-dll library implements a SANE backend that  provides  access(2,5)
         to an arbitrary number of other SANE backends by dynamic loading. See

         The SANE network daemon saned provides access(2,5) to scanners located  on
         different   computers   in(1,8)  connection  with  the  net  backend.  See
         sane-net(5) and saned(1).

         PNM image reader pseudo-backend. The purpose of this backend is  pri-
         marily to aid in(1,8) debugging of SANE frontends. See sane-pnm(5).

         Backend  for  scanners  that  use the PINT (Pint Is Not Twain) device
         driver.  The PINT driver is being actively developed on  the  OpenBSD
         platform, and has been ported to a few other *nix-like operating sys-
         tems. See sane-pint(5).

         The SANE test backend is for testing frontends and the SANE installa-
         tion.   It  provides  test  pictures  and  various  test options. See

         The sane-v4l library implements a SANE backend that provides  generic
         access(2,5)  to  video  cameras and similar equipment using the V4L (Video
         for Linux) API. See sane-v4l(5).

       Also,   have   a   look(1,8,3 Search::Dict)   at   the   backend   information   page    at and the list of
       projects in(1,8) /usr/doc/sane-1.0.14/PROJECTS.

       By default, all SANE backends (drivers) are loaded dynamically  by  the
       sane-dll  meta  backend.  If  you  have any questions about the dynamic
       loading, read(2,n,1 builtins) sane-dll(5).  SANE frontend can also be linked  to  other
       backends  directly  by  copying  or  linking a backend to in(1,8)

       It's not hard to write(1,2) a SANE backend. It can take some time(1,2,n),  however.
       You  should  have  basic  knowledge  of  C  and enough patience to work
       through the documentation and find out how your scanner works. Appended
       is  a list of some documents that help to write(1,2) backends and frontends.

       The SANE standard defines the application programming  interface  (API)
       that  is  used to communicate between frontends and backends. It can be
       found at /usr/doc/sane-1.0.14/ (if(3,n) latex is  installed  on  your
       system)  and  on  the  SANE  website:
       (HTML), or (Postscript).

       There    is    some    more    information    for    programmers     in(1,8)
       /usr/doc/sane-1.0.14/backend-writing.txt.   Most  of  the internal SANE
       routines  (sanei)  are  documented  using   doxygen:   http://www.sane-   Before  a  new  backend  or  frontend  project is
       started, have a look(1,8,3 Search::Dict) at /usr/doc/sane-1.0.14/PROJECTS for projects that
       are  planned  or not yet included into the SANE distribution and at our
       bug-tracking system:  http://www.

       There  are  some links on how to find out about the protocol of a scan-

       If you start writing a backend or frontend or any other part  of  SANE,
       please contact the sane-devel mailing list for coordination so the same
       work isn't done twice.

              The backend configuration files.

              The static libraries implementing the backends.

              The shared libraries implementing the backends (present on  sys-
              tems that support dynamic loading).

              SANE  documentation: The standard, READMEs, text files for back-
              ends etc.

       If your device isn't found but you know that it is supported, make sure
       that  it  is  detected by your operating system. For SCSI and USB scan-
       ners, use the  sane-find-scanner  tool  (see  sane-find-scanner(1)  for
       details).  It prints one line for each scanner it has detected and some
       comments (#). If sane-find-scanner finds your scanner only as root  but
       not  as  normal  user,  the  permissions  for  the device files are not
       adjusted correctly. If the scanner isn't found at  all,  the  operating
       system hasn't detected it and may need some help. Depending on the type
       of your scanner, read(2,n,1 builtins) sane-usb(5) or sane-scsi(5).  If your scanner (or
       other device) is not connected over the SCSI bus or USB, read(2,n,1 builtins) the back-
       end's manual page for details on how to set(7,n,1 builtins) it up.

       Now your scanner is detected by the operating system but not  by  SANE?
       Try  scanimage  -L.   If the scanner is not found, check that the back-
       end's name is mentioned in(1,8)  /etc/sane.d/dll.conf.   Some  backends  are
       commented  out  by default. Remove the comment sign for your backend in(1,8)
       this case. Also some backends aren't compiled at all if(3,n)  one  of  their
       prerequisites  are  missing.  Examples  include dc210, dc240, canon_pp,
       hpsj5s, gphoto2, pint, qcam, v4l, net, sm3600, snapscan,  pnm.  If  you
       need  one  of  these backends and they aren't available, read(2,n,1 builtins) the build
       instructions in(1,8) the README file(1,n) and the individual manual pages of  the

       Another  reason for not being detected by scanimage -L may be a missing
       or wrong configuration in(1,8) the backend's configuration file. While  SANE
       tries  to  automatically  find  most scanners, some can't be setup(2,8) cor-
       rectly without the intervention of  the  administrator.  Also  on  some
       operating systems auto-detection may not work. Check the backend's man-
       ual page for details.

       If your scanner is still not found, try setting the various environment
       variables  that  are available to assist in(1,8) debugging.  The environment
       variables are documented in(1,8) the relevant manual pages.  For example, to
       get  the maximum amount of debug information when testing a Mustek SCSI
       scanner, set(7,n,1 builtins) environment variables  SANE_DEBUG_DLL,  SANE_DEBUG_MUSTEK,
       and  SANE_DEBUG_SANEI_SCSI  to  128 and then invoke scanimage -L .  The
       debug messages for the dll backend tell if(3,n) the mustek backend was found
       and  loaded at all. The mustek messages explain what the mustek backend
       is doing while the SCSI debugging shows the low level handling. If  you
       can't find out what's going on by checking the messages carefully, con-
       tact the sane-devel mailing list for help (see REPORTING BUGS below).

       Now that your scanner is found by scanimage -L, try to do a scan: scan-
       image  >image.pnm.   This command starts a scan for the default scanner
       with default settings. All the available options are listed by  running
       scanimage  --help.   If  scanning aborts with an error(8,n) message, turn on
       debugging as mentioned above. Maybe the configuration file(1,n)  needs  some
       tuning,  e.g.  to  setup(2,8)  the path to a firmware that is needed by some
       scanners. See the backend's manual page for details. If you can't  find
       out what's wrong, contact sane-devel.

       To  check  that  the SANE libraries are installed correctly you can use
       the test backend, even if(3,n) you  don't  have  a  scanner  or  other  SANE

              scanimage -d test -T

       You  should  get  a list of PASSed tests. You can do the same with your
       backend by changing "test" to your backend's name.

       So now scanning with scanimage works and you want to  use  one  of  the
       graphical  frontends  like  xsane, xscanimage, or quiteinsane but those
       frontends don't detect  your  scanner?  One  reason  may  be  that  you
       installed two versions of SANE.  E.g. the version(1,3,5) that was installed by
       your distribution  in(1,8)  /usr  and  one  you  installed  from  source  in(1,8)
       /usr/local/.   Make  sure  that  only one version(1,3,5) is installed. Another
       possible reason is, that your system's dynamic loader  can't  find  the
       SANE  libraries.  For  Linux,  make  sure that /etc/ contains
       /usr/local/lib and does not contain /usr/local/lib/sane.  See also  the
       documentation of the frontends.

       We  appreciate  any  help we can get. Please have alook at our web page
       about contributing to SANE:

       For reporting bugs or requesting new  features,  please  use  our  bug-
       tracking  system:  You can also
       contact the author of your backend directly. Usually the email  address
       can  be found in(1,8) the /usr/doc/sane-1.0.14/AUTHORS file(1,n) or the backend's
       manpage. For general discussion about SANE, please use the SANE mailing
       list sane-devel (see for

       saned(1),    sane-find-scanner(1),    scanimage(1),     sane-abaton(5),
       sane-agfafocus(5),             sane-apple(5),            sane-artec(5),
       sane-artec_eplus48u(5),  sane-as6e(5),   sane-avision(5),   sane-bh(5),
       sane-canon(5),  sane-canon630u(5), sane-canon_pp(5), sane-coolscan2(5),
       sane-coolscan(5),    sane-dc210(5),    sane-dc240(5),     sane-dc25(5),
       sane-dll(5),      sane-dmc(5),      sane-epson(5),     sane-fujitsu(5),
       sane-gphoto2(5),    sane-gt68xx(5),     sane-hp(5),     sane-hpsj5s(5),
       sane-hp5400(5)   sane-ibm(5),  sane-leo(5),  sane-ma1509(5),  sane-mat-
       sushita(5),   sane-microtek2(5),   sane-microtek(5),    sane-mustek(5),
       sane-mustek_pp(5),    sane-mustek_usb(5),   sane-nec(5),   sane-net(5),
       sane-pie(5),   sane-pint(5),    sane-plustek(5),    sane-plustek_pp(5),
       sane-pnm(5),  sane-qcam(5),  sane-ricoh(5),  sane-s9036(5),  sane-scep-
       tre(5), sane-scsi(5), sane-sharp(5), sane-sm3600(5),  sane-snapscan(5),
       sane-sp15c(5),    sane-st400(5),    sane-tamarack(5),    sane-teco1(5),
       sane-teco2(5),      sane-teco3(5),      sane-test(5),      sane-u12(5),
       sane-umax1220u(5),    sane-umax(5),    sane-umax_pp(5),    sane-usb(5),

       David     Mosberger-Tang     and     many      many      more      (see
       /usr/doc/sane-1.0.14/AUTHORS  for  details).  This man(1,5,7) page was written
       by Henning Meier-Geinitz. Quite a lot of text was taken from  the  SANE
       standard, several man(1,5,7) pages, and README files.

sane-backends 1.0.14              06 Jan 2004                          sane(7)

References for this manual (incoming links)