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X(__miscmansuffix__)                                      X(__miscmansuffix__)



NAME
       X - a portable, network-transparent window system

SYNOPSIS
       The  X  Window System is a network transparent window system which runs
       on a wide range of computing and graphics machines.  It should be rela-
       tively straightforward to build the X.Org Foundation software distribu-
       tion on most ANSI C and POSIX compliant systems.  Commercial  implemen-
       tations are also available for a wide range of platforms.

       The  X.Org  Foundation  requests  that the following names be used when
       referring to this software:

                                          X
                                   X Window System
                                    X Version 11
                             X Window System, Version 11
                                         X11

       X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.

DESCRIPTION
       X Window System servers run on computers  with  bitmap  displays.   The
       server distributes user input to and accepts output requests from vari-
       ous client programs through a variety of different interprocess  commu-
       nication  channels.   Although  the  most common case is for the client
       programs to be running on the same machine as the server,  clients  can
       be  run transparently from other machines (including machines with dif-
       ferent architectures and operating systems) as well.

       X supports overlapping hierarchical subwindows and  text  and  graphics
       operations, on both monochrome and color displays.  For a full explana-
       tion of the functions that are available, see the Xlib - C  Language  X
       Interface  manual,  the  X  Window System Protocol specification, the X
       Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual, and  various  toolkit
       documents.

       The number of programs that use X is quite large.  Programs provided in(1,8)
       the core X.Org Foundation distribution include:  a  terminal  emulator,
       xterm;  a  window manager, twm; a display manager, xdm; a console(4,n) redi-
       rect program, xconsole; a mail(1,8) interface, xmh; a bitmap editor, bitmap;
       resource  listing/manipulation  tools,  appres, editres; access(2,5) control
       programs, xauth, xhost, and iceauth; user preference setting  programs,
       xrdb, xcmsdb, xset, xsetroot, xstdcmap, and xmodmap; clocks, xclock and
       oclock; a font displayer, (xfd; utilities for listing information about
       fonts, windows, and displays, xlsfonts, xwininfo, xlsclients, xdpyinfo,
       xlsatoms, and xprop; screen image manipulation  utilities,  xwd,  xwud,
       and  xmag; a performance measurement utility, x11perf; a font compiler,
       bdftopcf; a font server and related utilities, xfs, fsinfo,  fslsfonts,
       fstobdf;  a display server and related utilities, Xserver, rgb, mkfont-
       dir; a print server and related utilities, Xprt,  xplsprinters;  remote
       execution  utilities,  rstart and xon; a clipboard manager, xclipboard;
       keyboard description compiler and related utilities, xkbcomp, xkbprint,
       xkbbell,  xkbevd,  xkbvleds,  and  xkbwatch;  a  utility  to  terminate
       clients, xkill; an optimized X protocol  proxy,  lbxproxy;  a  firewall
       security  proxy,  xfwp;  a  proxy manager to control them, proxymngr; a
       utility to  find  proxies,  xfindproxy;  Netscape  Navigator  Plug-ins,
       libxrx.so and libxrxnest.so; an RX MIME-type helper program, xrx; and a
       utility to cause part or all of the screen to be redrawn, xrefresh.

       Many other  utilities,  window  managers,  games,  toolkits,  etc.  are
       included as user-contributed software in(1,8) the X.Org Foundation distribu-
       tion, or are available using anonymous ftp on the Internet.   See  your
       site administrator for details.

STARTING UP
       There  are  two main ways of getting the X server and an initial set(7,n,1 builtins) of
       client applications started.  The particular  method  used  depends  on
       what  operating system you are running and whether or not you use other
       window systems in(1,8) addition to X.

       xdm (the X Display Manager)
               If you want to always have X running on your display, your site
               administrator can set(7,n,1 builtins) your machine up to use the X Display Man-
               ager xdm.  This program is typically started by the  system  at
               boot time(1,2,n) and takes care of keeping the server running and get-
               ting users(1,5) logged in.  If you are running xdm, you will  see  a
               window on the screen welcoming you to the system and asking for
               your username and password.  Simply type them in(1,8) as  you  would
               at  a  normal terminal, pressing the Return key after each.  If
               you make a mistake, xdm will display an error(8,n) message  and  ask
               you  to  try again.  After you have successfully logged in(1,8), xdm
               will start up your X environment.  By default, if(3,n) you  have  an
               executable  file(1,n)  named(5,8)  .xsession  in(1,8) your home directory, xdm
               will treat it as a program (or shell script) to run to start up
               your  initial  clients  (such  as terminal emulators, clocks, a
               window manager, user settings for things like  the  background,
               the  speed  of the pointer, etc.).  Your site administrator can
               provide details.

       xinit (run manually from the shell)
               Sites that support more than one window system might choose  to
               use the xinit program for starting X manually.  If this is true
               for your machine, your site administrator  will  probably  have
               provided a program named(5,8) "x11", "startx", or "xstart" that will
               do site-specific initialization  (such  as  loading  convenient
               default  resources,  running  a  window  manager,  displaying a
               clock(3,n), and starting several terminal emulators) in(1,8) a nice(1,2)  way.
               If  not,  you  can build such a script using the xinit program.
               This utility simply runs one user-specified  program  to  start
               the  server,  runs another to start up any desired clients, and
               then waits for either to finish.  Since either or both  of  the
               user-specified  programs may be a shell script, this gives sub-
               stantial flexibility at the expense of a nice(1,2)  interface.   For
               this reason, xinit is not intended for end users.

DISPLAY NAMES
       From  the  user's perspective, every X server has a display name of the
       form:

                         hostname:displaynumber.screennumber

       This information is used by the application to determine how it  should
       connect  to  the  server  and which screen it should use by default (on
       displays with multiple monitors):

       hostname
               The hostname specifies the name of the  machine  to  which  the
               display is physically connected.  If the hostname is not given,
               the most efficient way of communicating to a server on the same
               machine will be used.

       displaynumber
               The  phrase "display" is usually used to refer to collection of
               monitors that share  a  common  keyboard  and  pointer  (mouse,
               tablet,  etc.).   Most  workstations tend to only have one key-
               board, and therefore, only  one  display.   Larger,  multi-user
               systems, however, frequently have several displays so that more
               than one person can be doing graphics work at once.   To  avoid
               confusion, each display on a machine is assigned a display num-
               ber (beginning at 0) when the X  server  for  that  display  is
               started.   The display number must always be given in(1,8) a display
               name.

       screennumber
               Some displays share a single keyboard and pointer among two  or
               more  monitors.  Since each monitor has its own set(7,n,1 builtins) of windows,
               each screen is assigned a screen number (beginning at  0)  when
               the X server for that display is started.  If the screen number
               is not given, screen 0 will be used.

       On POSIX systems, the default display name is stored  in(1,8)  your  DISPLAY
       environment  variable.  This variable is set(7,n,1 builtins) automatically by the xterm
       terminal emulator.  However, when you log into  another  machine  on  a
       network, you will need to set(7,n,1 builtins) DISPLAY by hand to point to your display.
       For example,

           % setenv DISPLAY myws:0
           $ DISPLAY=myws:0; export DISPLAY
       The xon script can be used to start an X program on a  remote  machine;
       it automatically sets the DISPLAY variable correctly.

       Finally,  most X programs accept(2,8) a command line option of -display dis-
       playname to temporarily override the contents of DISPLAY.  This is most
       commonly used to pop windows on another person's screen or as part of a
       "remote shell" command to start an xterm pointing back to your display.
       For example,

           % xeyes -display joesws:0 -geometry 1000x1000+0+0
           % rsh big xterm -display myws:0 -ls </dev/null &

       X  servers  listen(1,2,7) for connections on a variety of different communica-
       tions channels (network byte  streams,  shared  memory,  etc.).   Since
       there  can be more than one way of contacting a given server, The host-
       name part of the display name is used to determine the type of  channel
       (also  called  a transport layer) to be used.  X servers generally sup-
       port the following types of connections:

       local
               The hostname part of the  display  name  should  be  the  empty
               string.   For  example:   :0, :1, and :0.1.  The most efficient
               local transport will be chosen.

       TCPIP
               The hostname part of the display  name  should  be  the  server
               machine's  IP  address  name.  Full Internet names, abbreviated
               names,  and  IP  addresses  are  all  allowed.   For   example:
               x.org:0,  expo:0, 198.112.45.11:0, bigmachine:1, and hydra:0.1.

       DECnet
               The hostname part of the display  name  should  be  the  server
               machine's nodename, followed by two colons instead of one.  For
               example:  myws::0, big::1, and hydra::0.1.


ACCESS CONTROL
       An X server can use several types of access(2,5) control.   Mechanisms  pro-
       vided in(1,8) Release 6 are:
           Host Access                   Simple host-based access(2,5) control.
           MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1            Shared plain-text "cookies".
           XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1           Secure DES based private-keys.
           SUN-DES-1                     Based on Sun's secure rpc(3,5,8) system.
           MIT-KERBEROS-5                Kerberos Version 5 user-to-user.

       Xdm  initializes  access(2,5)  control for the server and also places autho-
       rization information in(1,8) a file(1,n) accessible to the user.   Normally,  the
       list  of  hosts  from  which  connections are always accepted should be
       empty, so that only clients with are explicitly authorized can  connect
       to  the  display.   When you add entries to the host(1,5) list (with xhost),
       the server no longer performs any  authorization  on  connections  from
       those machines.  Be careful with this.

       The  file(1,n)  from which Xlib extracts authorization data can be specified
       with the environment variable XAUTHORITY,  and  defaults  to  the  file(1,n)
       .Xauthority in(1,8) the home directory.  Xdm uses $HOME/.Xauthority and will
       create it or merge(1,8) in(1,8) authorization records if(3,n) it already exists when a
       user logs in.

       If  you  use  several machines and share a common home directory across
       all of the machines by means of a network file(1,n) system, you never really
       have  to  worry  about authorization files, the system should work cor-
       rectly by default.  Otherwise, as the authorization files are  machine-
       independent,  you  can  simply copy the files to share them.  To manage
       authorization files, use xauth.  This program  allows  you  to  extract
       records  and  insert  them  into other files.  Using this, you can send(2,n)
       authorization to remote machines when you login(1,3,5), if(3,n) the remote  machine
       does  not  share a common home directory with your local machine.  Note
       that authorization information transmitted ``in(1,8) the clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot)''  through  a
       network  file(1,n) system or using ftp or rcp can be ``stolen'' by a network
       eavesdropper, and as such may  enable  unauthorized  access.   In  many
       environments,  this  level  of security is not a concern, but if(3,n) it is,
       you need to know the exact semantics of  the  particular  authorization
       data to know if(3,n) this is actually a problem.

       For  more information on access(2,5) control, see the Xsecurity manual page.

GEOMETRY SPECIFICATIONS
       One of the advantages of using window systems instead of hardwired ter-
       minals is that applications don't have to be restricted to a particular
       size or location on the screen.  Although the layout of  windows  on  a
       display  is  controlled  by the window manager that the user is running
       (described below), most X programs accept(2,8) a command  line  argument  of
       the  form  -geometry WIDTHxHEIGHT+XOFF+YOFF (where WIDTH, HEIGHT, XOFF,
       and YOFF are numbers) for specifying a preferred size and location  for
       this application's main window.

       The  WIDTH  and  HEIGHT parts of the geometry specification are usually
       measured in(1,8) either pixels or characters, depending on the  application.
       The  XOFF and YOFF parts are measured in(1,8) pixels and are used to specify
       the distance of the window from the left or right and  top  and  bottom
       edges  of the screen, respectively.  Both types of offsets are measured
       from the indicated edge of the screen to the corresponding edge of  the
       window.  The X offset may be specified in(1,8) the following ways:

       +XOFF   The left edge of the window is to be placed XOFF pixels in(1,8) from
               the left edge of the screen (i.e., the X coordinate of the win-
               dow's  origin  will  be  XOFF).  XOFF may be negative, in(1,8) which
               case the window's left edge will be off the screen.

       -XOFF   The right edge of the window is to be  placed  XOFF  pixels  in(1,8)
               from  the  right  edge of the screen.  XOFF may be negative, in(1,8)
               which case the window's right edge will be off the screen.

       The Y offset has similar meanings:

       +YOFF   The top edge of the window is to be YOFF pixels below  the  top
               edge of the screen (i.e., the Y coordinate of the window's ori-
               gin will be YOFF).  YOFF may be negative,  in(1,8)  which  case  the
               window's top edge will be off the screen.

       -YOFF   The  bottom  edge  of the window is to be YOFF pixels above the
               bottom edge of the screen.  YOFF may be negative, in(1,8) which case
               the window's bottom edge will be off the screen.

       Offsets  must  be  given  as pairs; in(1,8) other words, in(1,8) order to specify
       either XOFF or YOFF both must be present.  Windows can be placed in(1,8) the
       four corners of the screen using the following specifications:

       +0+0    upper left hand corner.

       -0+0    upper right hand corner.

       -0-0    lower right hand corner.

       +0-0    lower left hand corner.

       In the following examples, a terminal emulator is placed in(1,8) roughly the
       center of the screen and a load(7,n) average monitor, mailbox, and clock(3,n) are
       placed in(1,8) the upper right hand corner:

           xterm -fn 6x10 -geometry 80x24+30+200 &
           xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 &
           xload -geometry 48x48-96+0 &
           xbiff -geometry 48x48-48+0 &


WINDOW MANAGERS
       The  layout  of windows on the screen is controlled by special programs
       called window managers.  Although many window managers will honor geom-
       etry specifications as given, others may choose to ignore them (requir-
       ing the user to explicitly draw the window's region on the screen  with
       the pointer, for example).

       Since  window  managers are regular (albeit complex) client programs, a
       variety of different user interfaces can be built.  The  X.Org  Founda-
       tion  distribution comes with a window manager named(5,8) twm which supports
       overlapping windows,  popup  menus,  point-and-click  or  click-to-type
       input models, title bars, nice(1,2) icons (and an icon manager for those who
       don't like separate icon windows).

       See the user-contributed software in(1,8) the X.Org Foundation  distribution
       for other popular window managers.

FONT NAMES
       Collections  of  characters  for  displaying  text and symbols in(1,8) X are
       known as fonts.  A font typically contains images that share  a  common
       appearance  and  look(1,8,3 Search::Dict)  nice(1,2) together (for example, a single size, bold-
       ness, slant, and character set(7,n,1 builtins)).  Similarly, collections of fonts  that
       are  based  on  a  common  type face (the variations are usually called
       roman, bold, italic, bold italic, oblique, and bold oblique) are called
       families.

       Fonts  come  in(1,8)  various  sizes.  The X server supports scalable fonts,
       meaning it is possible to create a font of arbitrary size from a single
       source  for  the  font.  The server supports scaling from outline fonts
       and bitmap fonts.  Scaling from outline fonts usually produces signifi-
       cantly better results than scaling from bitmap fonts.

       An  X  server can obtain fonts from individual files stored in(1,8) directo-
       ries in(1,8) the file(1,n) system, or from one or more font servers,  or  from  a
       mixtures  of  directories  and  font  servers.   The list of places the
       server looks when trying to find a font is controlled by its font path.
       Although  most  installations  will  choose to have the server start up
       with all of the commonly used font directories in(1,8) the  font  path,  the
       font  path  can be changed at any time(1,2,n) with the xset program.  However,
       it is important to  remember  that  the  directory  names  are  on  the
       server's machine, not on the application's.

       Bitmap  font  files  are  usually  created  by compiling a textual font
       description into binary form, using bdftopcf.  Font databases are  cre-
       ated  by  running the mkfontdir program in(1,8) the directory containing the
       source or compiled versions of the fonts.  Whenever fonts are added  to
       a  directory, mkfontdir should be rerun so that the server can find the
       new fonts.  To make the server reread the font database, reset(1,7,1 tput) the font
       path  with  the  xset program.  For example, to add a font to a private
       directory, the following commands could be used:

           % cp newfont.pcf ~/myfonts
           % mkfontdir ~/myfonts
           % xset fp rehash

       The xfontsel and xlsfonts programs can be used to  browse  through  the
       fonts available on a server.  Font names tend to be fairly long as they
       contain all of the information needed to uniquely  identify  individual
       fonts.   However,  the  X server supports wildcarding of font names, so
       the full specification

           -adobe-courier-medium-r-normal--10-100-75-75-m-60-iso8859-1

       might be abbreviated as:

           -*-courier-medium-r-normal--*-100-*-*-*-*-iso8859-1

       Because the shell also has special meanings for  *  and  ?,  wildcarded
       font names should be quoted:

           % xlsfonts -fn '-*-courier-medium-r-normal--*-100-*-*-*-*-*-*'

       The  xlsfonts program can be used to list all of the fonts that match a
       given pattern.  With no arguments, it lists all available fonts.   This
       will  usually  list the same font at many different sizes.  To see just
       the base scalable font names, try using one of the following patterns:

           -*-*-*-*-*-*-0-0-0-0-*-0-*-*
           -*-*-*-*-*-*-0-0-75-75-*-0-*-*
           -*-*-*-*-*-*-0-0-100-100-*-0-*-*

       To convert one of the resulting names into a font at a  specific  size,
       replace  one  of  the  first two zeros with a nonzero value.  The field
       containing the first zero is for the pixel size; replace it with a spe-
       cific height in(1,8) pixels to name a font at that size.  Alternatively, the
       field containing the second zero is for the point size; replace it with
       a  specific size in(1,8) decipoints (there are 722.7 decipoints to the inch)
       to name a font at that size.  The last zero is an average width  field,
       measured in(1,8) tenths of pixels; some servers will anamorphically scale if(3,n)
       this value is specified.

FONT SERVER NAMES
       One of the following forms can be used  to  name  a  font  server  that
       accepts TCP connections:

           tcp/hostname:port
           tcp/hostname:port/cataloguelist

       The  hostname  specifies  the  name (or decimal numeric address) of the
       machine on which the font server is running.  The port is  the  decimal
       TCP  port  on  which the font server is listening for connections.  The
       cataloguelist specifies a list of catalogue names, with '+' as a  sepa-
       rator.

       Examples: tcp/x.org:7100, tcp/198.112.45.11:7100/all.

       One  of  the  following  forms  can  be used to name a font server that
       accepts DECnet connections:

           decnet/nodename::font$objname
           decnet/nodename::font$objname/cataloguelist

       The nodename specifies the name (or decimal  numeric  address)  of  the
       machine  on which the font server is running.  The objname is a normal,
       case-insensitive DECnet object name.   The  cataloguelist  specifies  a
       list of catalogue names, with '+' as a separator.

       Examples:  DECnet/SRVNOD::FONT$DEFAULT, decnet/44.70::font$special/sym-
       bols.

COLOR NAMES
       Most applications provide ways of tailoring (usually through  resources
       or  command  line arguments) the colors of various elements in(1,8) the text
       and graphics they display.  A color  can  be  specified  either  by  an
       abstract color name, or by a numerical color specification.  The numer-
       ical specification can identify  a  color  in(1,8)  either  device-dependent
       (RGB) or device-independent terms.  Color strings are case-insensitive.

       X supports the use of abstract color names, for example, "red", "blue".
       A  value  for  this  abstract name is obtained by searching one or more
       color name databases.  Xlib first searches  zero  or  more  client-side
       databases;  the  number,  location,  and  content of these databases is
       implementation dependent.  If the name  is  not  found,  the  color  is
       looked  up  in(1,8) the X server's database.  The text form of this database
       is commonly stored in(1,8) the file(1,n) __projectroot__/lib/X11/rgb.txt.

       A numerical color specification consists of a color space  name  and  a
       set(7,n,1 builtins) of values in(1,8) the following syntax:

           <color_space_name>:<value>/.../<value>

       An  RGB Device specification is identified by the prefix "rgb:" and has
       the following syntax:

           rgb:<red>/<green>/<blue>

               <red>, <green>, <blue> := h | hh | hhh | hhhh
               h := single hexadecimal digits
       Note that h indicates the value scaled in(1,8) 4 bits, hh the  value  scaled
       in(1,8)  8  bits, hhh the value scaled in(1,8) 12 bits, and hhhh the value scaled
       in(1,8) 16 bits, respectively.  These values are passed directly  to  the  X
       server, and are assumed to be gamma corrected.

       The eight primary colors can be represented as:

           black                rgb:0/0/0
           red                  rgb:ffff/0/0
           green                rgb:0/ffff/0
           blue                 rgb:0/0/ffff
           yellow               rgb:ffff/ffff/0
           magenta              rgb:ffff/0/ffff
           cyan                 rgb:0/ffff/ffff
           white                rgb:ffff/ffff/ffff

       For  backward  compatibility,  an  older  syntax for RGB Device is sup-
       ported, but its continued use is not encouraged.  The syntax is an ini-
       tial  sharp  sign character followed by a numeric specification, in(1,8) one
       of the following formats:

           #RGB                      (4 bits each)
           #RRGGBB                   (8 bits each)
           #RRRGGGBBB                (12 bits each)
           #RRRRGGGGBBBB             (16 bits each)

       The R, G, and B represent single hexadecimal digits.  When  fewer  than
       16 bits each are specified, they represent the most-significant bits of
       the value (unlike the "rgb:" syntax, in(1,8) which values are scaled).   For
       example, #3a7 is the same as #3000a0007000.

       An  RGB intensity specification is identified by the prefix "rgbi:" and
       has the following syntax:

           rgbi:<red>/<green>/<blue>

       The red, green, and blue are floating point values between 0.0 and 1.0,
       inclusive.  They represent linear intensity values, with 1.0 indicating
       full intensity, 0.5 half intensity, and so on.  These  values  will  be
       gamma  corrected  by Xlib before being sent to the X server.  The input
       format for these values is an optional sign, a string(3,n) of numbers possi-
       bly containing a decimal point, and an optional exponent field contain-
       ing an E or e followed by a possibly signed integer string.

       The standard device-independent string(3,n) specifications have the  follow-
       ing syntax:

           CIEXYZ:<X>/<Y>/<Z>             (none, 1, none)
           CIEuvY:<u>/<v>/<Y>             (~.6, ~.6, 1)
           CIExyY:<x>/<y>/<Y>             (~.75, ~.85, 1)
           CIELab:<L>/<a>/<b>             (100, none, none)
           CIELuv:<L>/<u>/<v>             (100, none, none)
           TekHVC:<H>/<V>/<C>             (360, 100, 100)

       All  of  the  values  (C, H, V, X, Y, Z, a, b, u, v, y, x) are floating
       point values.  Some of the values are constrained to  be  between  zero
       and  some upper bound; the upper bounds are given in(1,8) parentheses above.
       The syntax for these values is an optional '+' or '-' sign, a string(3,n) of
       digits  possibly  containing  a decimal point, and an optional exponent
       field consisting of an 'E' or 'e' followed by an optional  '+'  or  '-'
       followed by a string(3,n) of digits.

       For  more  information on device independent color, see the Xlib refer-
       ence manual.

KEYBOARDS
       The X keyboard model is broken into two layers:  server-specific  codes
       (called  keycodes)  which represent the physical keys, and server-inde-
       pendent symbols (called keysyms) which represent the letters  or  words
       that  appear  on  the keys.  Two tables are kept in(1,8) the server for con-
       verting keycodes to keysyms:

       modifier list
               Some keys (such as Shift, Control, and Caps Lock) are known  as
               modifier  and  are  used  to  select(2,7,2 select_tut) different symbols that are
               attached to a single key (such as Shift-a generates  a  capital
               A, and Control-l generates a control character ^L).  The server
               keeps a list of keycodes corresponding to the various  modifier
               keys.  Whenever a key is pressed or released, the server gener-
               ates an event that contains the keycode of the indicated key as
               well  as  a  mask that specifies which of the modifier keys are
               currently pressed.  Most servers set(7,n,1 builtins) up this list to  initially
               contain  the various shift, control, and shift lock keys on the
               keyboard.

       keymap table
               Applications translate event keycodes and modifier  masks  into
               keysyms  using  a  keysym table which contains one row for each
               keycode and one column for various modifier states.  This table
               is initialized by the server to correspond to normal typewriter
               conventions.  The exact semantics of how the  table  is  inter-
               preted  to  produce  keysyms depends on the particular program,
               libraries, and language input method used,  but  the  following
               conventions  for  the first four keysyms in(1,8) each row are gener-
               ally adhered to:

       The first four elements of the  list  are  split(1,n)  into  two  groups  of
       keysyms.   Group  1 contains the first and second keysyms; Group 2 con-
       tains the third and fourth keysyms.  Within each group,  if(3,n)  the  first
       element  is alphabetic and the the second element is the special keysym
       NoSymbol, then the group is treated as equivalent to a group  in(1,8)  which
       the first element is the lowercase letter and the second element is the
       uppercase letter.

       Switching between groups is controlled by the keysym named(5,8) MODE SWITCH,
       by  attaching that keysym to some key and attaching that key to any one
       of the modifiers Mod1  through  Mod5.   This  modifier  is  called  the
       ``group  modifier.''   Group  1 is used when the group modifier is off,
       and Group 2 is used when the group modifier is on.

       Within a group, the modifier state determines which keysym to use.  The
       first  keysym  is  used when the Shift and Lock modifiers are off.  The
       second keysym is used when the Shift modifier is on, when the Lock mod-
       ifier  is on and the second keysym is uppercase alphabetic, or when the
       Lock modifier is on and is interpreted as ShiftLock.   Otherwise,  when
       the  Lock  modifier  is on and is interpreted as CapsLock, the state of
       the Shift modifier is applied first to select(2,7,2 select_tut) a  keysym;  but  if(3,n)  that
       keysym is lowercase alphabetic, then the corresponding uppercase keysym
       is used instead.

OPTIONS
       Most X programs attempt to use the same names for command line  options
       and  arguments.  All applications written with the X Toolkit Intrinsics
       automatically accept(2,8) the following options:

       -display display
               This option specifies the name of the X server to use.

       -geometry geometry
               This option specifies the initial size and location of the win-
               dow.

       -bg color, -background color
               Either  option  specifies the color to use for the window back-
               ground.

       -bd color, -bordercolor color
               Either option specifies the color to use for the window border.

       -bw number, -borderwidth number
               Either  option specifies the width in(1,8) pixels of the window bor-
               der.

       -fg color, -foreground color
               Either option specifies the color to use for text or  graphics.

       -fn font, -font font
               Either option specifies the font to use for displaying text.

       -iconic
               This  option  indicates  that  the  user  would prefer that the
               application's windows initially not be visible as if(3,n)  the  win-
               dows had be immediately iconified by the user.  Window managers
               may choose not to honor the application's request.

       -name
               This option specifies the name under which  resources  for  the
               application  should  be  found.  This option is useful in(1,8) shell
               aliases to distinguish between invocations of  an  application,
               without  resorting  to  creating  links to alter the executable
               file(1,n) name.

       -rv, -reverse
               Either  option  indicates  that  the  program  should  simulate
               reverse video if(3,n) possible, often by swapping the foreground and
               background colors.  Not all programs honor this or implement it
               correctly.  It is usually only used on monochrome displays.

       +rv
               This  option  indicates  that  the  program should not simulate
               reverse video.  This is used to  override  any  defaults  since
               reverse video doesn't always work properly.

       -selectionTimeout
               This  option specifies the timeout(1,3x,3x cbreak) in(1,8) milliseconds within which
               two communicating applications must respond to one another  for
               a selection request.

       -synchronous
               This  option  indicates that requests to the X server should be
               sent synchronously, instead of asynchronously.  Since Xlib nor-
               mally buffers requests to the server, errors do not necessarily
               get reported immediately after they occur.  This  option  turns
               off  the buffering so that the application can be debugged.  It
               should never be used with a working program.

       -title string(3,n)
               This option specifies the title to be  used  for  this  window.
               This  information is sometimes used by a window manager to pro-
               vide some sort(1,3) of header identifying the window.

       -xnllanguage language[_territory][.codeset]
               This option specifies the language, territory, and codeset  for
               use in(1,8) resolving resource and other filenames.

       -xrm resourcestring
               This option specifies a resource name and value to override any
               defaults.  It is also very useful for  setting  resources  that
               don't have explicit command line arguments.

RESOURCES
       To make the tailoring of applications to personal preferences easier, X
       provides a mechanism for storing default values for  program  resources
       (e.g. background color, window title, etc.)  Resources are specified as
       strings that are read(2,n,1 builtins) in(1,8) from various places  when  an  application  is
       run.  Program components are named(5,8) in(1,8) a hierarchical fashion, with each
       node in(1,8) the hierarchy identified by a class and an instance  name.   At
       the top level is the class and instance name of the application itself.
       By convention, the class name of the application is  the  same  as  the
       program  name,  but  with  the first letter capitalized (e.g. Bitmap or
       Emacs) although some programs that begin with  the  letter  ``x''  also
       capitalize the second letter for historical reasons.

       The precise syntax for resources is:

       ResourceLine      = Comment | IncludeFile | ResourceSpec | <empty line>
       Comment           = "!" {<any character except null or newline>}
       IncludeFile       = "#" WhiteSpace "include" WhiteSpace FileName WhiteSpace
       FileName          = <valid filename for operating system>
       ResourceSpec      = WhiteSpace ResourceName WhiteSpace ":" WhiteSpace Value
       ResourceName      = [Binding] {Component Binding} ComponentName
       Binding           = "." | "*"
       WhiteSpace        = {<space> | <horizontal tab>}
       Component         = "?" | ComponentName
       ComponentName     = NameChar {NameChar}
       NameChar          = "a"-"z" | "A"-"Z" | "0"-"9" | "_" | "-"
       Value             = {<any character except null or unescaped newline>}

       Elements  separated by vertical bar (|) are alternatives.  Curly braces
       ({...}) indicate zero or more repetitions  of  the  enclosed  elements.
       Square brackets ([...]) indicate that the enclosed element is optional.
       Quotes ("...") are used around literal characters.

       IncludeFile lines are interpreted by replacing the line with  the  con-
       tents  of the specified file.  The word "include" must be in(1,8) lowercase.
       The filename is interpreted relative to the directory of  the  file(1,n)  in(1,8)
       which  the line occurs (for example, if(3,n) the filename contains no direc-
       tory or contains a relative directory specification).

       If a ResourceName contains a contiguous sequence of two or more Binding
       characters,  the sequence will be replaced with single "." character if(3,n)
       the sequence contains only "." characters, otherwise the sequence  will
       be replaced with a single "*" character.

       A  resource  database  never  contains  more than one entry for a given
       ResourceName.  If a resource file(1,n) contains multiple lines with the same
       ResourceName, the last line in(1,8) the file(1,n) is used.

       Any  whitespace  character  before  or  after  the  name  or colon in(1,8) a
       ResourceSpec are ignored.  To allow a Value to begin  with  whitespace,
       the  two-character sequence ``\space'' (backslash followed by space) is
       recognized and replaced by a space  character,  and  the  two-character
       sequence  ``\tab'' (backslash followed by horizontal tab) is recognized
       and replaced by a horizontal tab character.  To allow a Value  to  con-
       tain  embedded newline characters, the two-character sequence ``\n'' is
       recognized and replaced by a newline character.  To allow a Value to be
       broken across multiple lines in(1,8) a text file(1,n), the two-character sequence
       ``\newline'' (backslash followed by newline) is recognized and  removed
       from the value.  To allow a Value to contain arbitrary character codes,
       the four-character sequence ``\nnn'', where each n is a digit character
       in(1,8)  the  range of ``0''-``7'', is recognized and replaced with a single
       byte that contains the octal value specified by the sequence.  Finally,
       the  two-character  sequence  ``\\''  is recognized and replaced with a
       single backslash.

       When an application looks for the value of a resource, it  specifies  a
       complete  path  in(1,8)  the  hierarchy, with both class and instance names.
       However, resource values are usually given with only  partially  speci-
       fied names and classes, using pattern matching constructs.  An asterisk
       (*) is a loose binding and is used to represent any number of interven-
       ing components, including none.  A period (.) is a tight binding and is
       used to separate immediately adjacent components.  A question mark  (?)
       is  used to match any single component name or class.  A database entry
       cannot end in(1,8) a loose binding; the final  component  (which  cannot  be
       "?")  must  be  specified.   The lookup algorithm searches the resource
       database for the entry that most closely matches (is most specific for)
       the  full  name  and  class being queried.  When more than one database
       entry matches the full name and class, precedence  rules  are  used  to
       select(2,7,2 select_tut) just one.

       The  full  name  and class are scanned from left to right (from highest
       level in(1,8) the hierarchy to lowest), one component at a  time.   At  each
       level,  the  corresponding  component  and/or  binding of each matching
       entry is determined, and these matching  components  and  bindings  are
       compared  according  to precedence rules.  Each of the rules is applied
       at each level, before moving to the next level, until a rule selects  a
       single entry over all others.  The rules (in(1,8) order of precedence) are:

       1.   An  entry that contains a matching component (whether name, class,
            or "?")  takes precedence over entries that elide the level  (that
            is, entries that match the level in(1,8) a loose binding).

       2.   An  entry  with a matching name takes precedence over both entries
            with a matching class and entries that match using "?".  An  entry
            with  a  matching  class  takes precedence over entries that match
            using "?".

       3.   An entry preceded by a tight binding takes precedence over entries
            preceded by a loose binding.

       Programs  based  on  the  X Tookit Intrinsics obtain resources from the
       following sources (other programs usually support some subset of  these
       sources):

       RESOURCE_MANAGER root window property
               Any global resources that should be available to clients on all
               machines should be stored in(1,8) the RESOURCE_MANAGER  property  on
               the  root  window  of  the first screen using the xrdb program.
               This is frequently taken care of when  the  user  starts  up  X
               through the display manager or xinit.

       SCREEN_RESOURCES root window property
               Any  resources  specific  to  a given screen (e.g. colors) that
               should be available to clients on all machines should be stored
               in(1,8)  the  SCREEN_RESOURCES  property  on the root window of that
               screen.  The xrdb program will sort(1,3) resources automatically and
               place  them  in(1,8) RESOURCE_MANAGER or SCREEN_RESOURCES, as appro-
               priate.

       application-specific files
               Directories named(5,8) by the environment variable  XUSERFILESEARCH-
               PATH  or  the  environment  variable XAPPLRESDIR (which names a
               single directory and should end with a '/' on  POSIX  systems),
               plus  directories in(1,8) a standard place (usually under __project-
               root__/lib/X11/, but this can be  overridden  with  the  XFILE-
               SEARCHPATH  environment variable) are searched for for applica-
               tion-specific  resources.   For  example,  application  default
               resources  are  usually  kept  in(1,8)  __projectroot__/lib/X11/app-
               defaults/.  See the X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface
               manual for details.

       XENVIRONMENT
               Any  user-  and  machine-specific resources may be specified by
               setting the XENVIRONMENT environment variable to the name of  a
               resource  file(1,n) to be loaded by all applications.  If this vari-
               able is not defined, a file(1,n) named(5,8) $HOME/.Xdefaults-hostname  is
               looked  for  instead,  where  hostname  is the name of the host(1,5)
               where the application is executing.

       -xrm resourcestring
               Resources can also be specified from  the  command  line.   The
               resourcestring  is  a  single  resource name and value as shown
               above.  Note that if(3,n) the string(3,n) contains characters interpreted
               by the shell (e.g., asterisk), they must be quoted.  Any number
               of -xrm arguments may be given on the command line.

       Program resources are organized into groups  called  classes,  so  that
       collections   of   individual  resources  (each  of  which  are  called
       instances) can be set(7,n,1 builtins) all at once.  By convention, the instance name of
       a  resource begins with a lowercase letter and class name with an upper
       case letter.  Multiple word resources are concatenated with  the  first
       letter  of the succeeding words capitalized.  Applications written with
       the X Toolkit Intrinsics will have at least the following resources:


       background (class Background)
               This resource specifies the color to use for the  window  back-
               ground.


       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
               This  resource specifies the width in(1,8) pixels of the window bor-
               der.


       borderColor (class BorderColor)
               This resource specifies the color to use for the window border.

       Most applications using the X Toolkit Intrinsics also have the resource
       foreground (class Foreground), specifying the color to use for text and
       graphics within the window.

       By combining class and instance specifications, application preferences
       can be set(7,n,1 builtins) quickly and easily.  Users of color displays will frequently
       want  to  set(7,n,1 builtins) Background and Foreground classes to particular defaults.
       Specific color instances such as text cursors can  then  be  overridden
       without having to define all of the related resources.  For example,

           bitmap*Dashed:  off
           XTerm*cursorColor:  gold
           XTerm*multiScroll:  on
           XTerm*jumpScroll:  on
           XTerm*reverseWrap:  on
           XTerm*curses:  on
           XTerm*Font:  6x10
           XTerm*scrollBar: on
           XTerm*scrollbar*thickness: 5
           XTerm*multiClickTime: 500
           XTerm*charClass:  33:48,37:48,45-47:48,64:48
           XTerm*cutNewline: off
           XTerm*cutToBeginningOfLine: off
           XTerm*titeInhibit:  on
           XTerm*ttyModes:  intr ^c erase ^? kill(1,2,1 builtins) ^u
           XLoad*Background: gold
           XLoad*Foreground: red
           XLoad*highlight: black
           XLoad*borderWidth: 0
           emacs*Geometry:  80x65-0-0
           emacs*Background:  rgb:5b/76/86
           emacs*Foreground:  white
           emacs*Cursor:  white
           emacs*BorderColor:  white
           emacs*Font:  6x10
           xmag*geometry: -0-0
           xmag*borderColor:  white

       If  these  resources  were  stored in(1,8) a file(1,n) called .Xresources in(1,8) your
       home directory, they could be added to any existing  resources  in(1,8)  the
       server with the following command:

           % xrdb -merge $HOME/.Xresources

       This  is  frequently  how user-friendly startup scripts merge(1,8) user-spe-
       cific defaults into any site-wide defaults.  All sites  are  encouraged
       to  set(7,n,1 builtins)  up convenient ways of automatically loading resources. See the
       Xlib manual section Resource Manager Functions for more information.

ENVIRONMENT
       DISPLAY
              This is the only mandatory environment variable. It  must  point
              to an X server. See section "Display Names" above.

       XAUTHORITY
              This  must point to a file(1,n) that contains authorization data. The
              default is $HOME/.Xauthority. See  Xsecurity(__miscmansuffix__),
              xauth(1), xdm(1), Xau(3).

       ICEAUTHORITY
              This  must point to a file(1,n) that contains authorization data. The
              default is $HOME/.ICEauthority.

       LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LANG
              The first non-empty value among these three determines the  cur-
              rent  locale(3,5,7)'s  facet  for character handling, and in(1,8) particular
              the default text encoding. See locale(3,5,7)(__miscmansuffix__), setlo-
              cale(3), locale(3,5,7)(1).

       XMODIFIERS
              This  variable  can  be  set(7,n,1 builtins)  to  contain additional information
              important for the  current  locale(3,5,7)  setting.  Typically  set(7,n,1 builtins)  to
              @im=<input-method>  to  enable  a  particular  input method. See
              XSetLocaleModifiers(3).

       XLOCALEDIR
              This must point to a directory containing the locale.alias  file(1,n)
              and Compose and XLC_LOCALE file(1,n) hierarchies for all locales. The
              default value is __projectroot__/lib/X11/locale(3,5,7).

       XENVIRONMENT
              This must point to a file(1,n) containing X resources. The default is
              $HOME/.Xdefaults-<hostname>. Unlike __projectroot__/lib/X11/Xre-
              sources, it is consulted each time(1,2,n) an X application starts.

       XFILESEARCHPATH
              This must contain a colon  separated  list  of  path  templates,
              where  libXt  will  search for resource files. The default value
              consists of

                  __projectroot__/lib/X11/%L/%T/%N%C%S:\
                  __projectroot__/lib/X11/%l/%T/%N%C%S:\
                  __projectroot__/lib/X11/%T/%N%C%S:\
                  __projectroot__/lib/X11/%L/%T/%N%S:\
                  __projectroot__/lib/X11/%l/%T/%N%S:\
                  __projectroot__/lib/X11/%T/%N%S

              A path template is transformed to a pathname by substituting:

                  %N => name (basename(1,3,3 File::Basename)) being searched for
                  %T => type (dirname) being searched for
                  %S => suffix being searched for
                  %C => value of the resource "customization"
                        (class "Customization")
                  %L => the locale(3,5,7) name
                  %l => the locale(3,5,7)'s language (part before '_')
                  %t => the locale(3,5,7)'s territory (part after '_` but before '.')
                  %c => the locale(3,5,7)'s encoding(3,n) (part after '.')

       XUSERFILESEARCHPATH
              This must contain a colon  separated  list  of  path  templates,
              where  libXt  will search for user dependent resource files. The
              default value is:

                  $XAPPLRESDIR/%L/%N%C:\
                  $XAPPLRESDIR/%l/%N%C:\
                  $XAPPLRESDIR/%N%C:\
                  $HOME/%N%C:\
                  $XAPPLRESDIR/%L/%N:\
                  $XAPPLRESDIR/%l/%N:\
                  $XAPPLRESDIR/%N:\
                  $HOME/%N

              $XAPPLRESDIR defaults to $HOME, see below.

              A path template is transformed to a pathname by substituting:

                  %N => name (basename(1,3,3 File::Basename)) being searched for
                  %T => type (dirname) being searched for
                  %S => suffix being searched for
                  %C => value of the resource "customization"
                        (class "Customization")
                  %L => the locale(3,5,7) name
                  %l => the locale(3,5,7)'s language (part before '_')
                  %t => the locale(3,5,7)'s territory (part after '_` but before '.')
                  %c => the locale(3,5,7)'s encoding(3,n) (part after '.')

       XAPPLRESDIR
              This must point to a base directory where the  user  stores  his
              application  dependent  resource  files.  The  default  value is
              $HOME. Only used if(3,n) XUSERFILESEARCHPATH is not set.

       XKEYSYMDB
              This must point to a file(1,n) containing nonstandard keysym  defini-
              tions.   The default value is __projectroot__/lib/X11/XKeysymDB.

       XCMSDB This must point to a color name database file. The default value
              is __projectroot__/lib/X11/Xcms.txt.

       XFT_CONFIG
              This must point to a configuration file(1,n) for the Xft library. The
              default value is __projectroot__/lib/X11/XftConfig.

       RESOURCE_NAME
              This serves as main identifier for resources  belonging  to  the
              program  being executed. It defaults to the basename(1,3,3 File::Basename) of pathname
              of the program.

       SESSION_MANAGER
              Denotes the session manager the application should connect.  See
              xsm(1), rstart(1).

       XF86BIGFONT_DISABLE
              Setting   this  variable  to  a  non-empty  value  disables  the
              XFree86-Bigfont extension. This  extension  is  a  mechanism  to
              reduce the memory consumption of big fonts by use of shared mem-
              ory.

       XKB_FORCE
       XKB_DISABLE
       XKB_DEBUG
       _XKB_CHARSET
       _XKB_LOCALE_CHARSETS
       _XKB_OPTIONS_ENABLE
       _XKB_LATIN1_LOOKUP
       _XKB_CONSUME_LOOKUP_MODS
       _XKB_CONSUME_SHIFT_AND_LOCK
       _XKB_IGNORE_NEW_KEYBOARDS
       _XKB_CONTROL_FALLBACK
       _XKB_COMP_LED _XKB_COMP_FAIL_BEEP

              These variables influence the X Keyboard Extension.

EXAMPLES
       The following is a collection of sample command lines for some  of  the
       more  frequently  used  commands.  For more information on a particular
       command, please refer to that command's manual page.

           %  xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
           %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
           %  mkfontdir /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
           %  xset fp+ /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
           %  xmodmap $HOME/.keymap.km
           %  xsetroot -solid 'rgbi:.8/.8/.8'
           %  xset b 100 400 c 50 s 1800 r on
           %  xset q
           %  twm
           %  xmag
           %  xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 -bg blue -fg white
           %  xeyes -geometry 48x48-48+0
           %  xbiff -update 20
           %  xlsfonts '*helvetica*'
           %  xwininfo -root
           %  xdpyinfo -display joesworkstation:0
           %  xhost -joesworkstation
           %  xrefresh
           %  xwd | xwud
           %  bitmap companylogo.bm 32x32
           %  xcalc -bg blue -fg magenta
           %  xterm -geometry 80x66-0-0 -name myxterm $*
           %  xon filesysmachine xload

DIAGNOSTICS
       A wide variety of error(8,n) messages are generated from  various  programs.
       The  default  error(8,n)  handler  in(1,8) Xlib (also used by many toolkits) uses
       standard resources to construct diagnostic messages when errors  occur.
       The  defaults  for  these  messages  are  usually  stored in(1,8) __project-
       root__/lib/X11/XErrorDB.  If this file(1,n) is not present,  error(8,n)  messages
       will be rather terse and cryptic.

       When  the  X  Toolkit  Intrinsics  encounter errors converting resource
       strings to the appropriate internal format, no error(8,n) messages are  usu-
       ally  printed.  This is convenient when it is desirable to have one set(7,n,1 builtins)
       of resources across a variety of displays (e.g. color  vs.  monochrome,
       lots  of  fonts  vs. very few, etc.), although it can pose problems for
       trying to determine why an application might be failing.  This behavior
       can be overridden by the setting the StringConversionsWarning resource.

       To force the X Toolkit Intrinsics to  always  print  string(3,n)  conversion
       error(8,n)  messages,  the  following  resource should be placed in(1,8) the file(1,n)
       that gets(3,n) loaded onto the RESOURCE_MANAGER property using the xrdb pro-
       gram  (frequently called .Xresources or .Xres in(1,8) the user's home direc-
       tory):

           *StringConversionWarnings: on

       To have conversion messages printed for just a particular  application,
       the appropriate instance name can be placed before the asterisk:

           xterm*StringConversionWarnings: on

SEE ALSO
       XProjectTeam(__miscmansuffix__),  XStandards(__miscmansuffix__), Xsecu-
       rity(__miscmansuffix__),     Xprint(__miscmansuffix__),      appres(1),
       bdftopcf(1),    bitmap(1),    editres(1),    fsinfo(1),   fslsfonts(1),
       fstobdf(1), iceauth(1),  imake(1),  lbxproxy(1),  kbd_mode(1),  makede-
       pend(1),  mkfontdir(1),  oclock(1),  proxymngr(1),  rgb(1),  resize(1),
       rstart(1), smproxy(1), twm(1),  x11perf(1),  x11perfcomp(1),  xauth(1),
       xclipboard(1),  xclock(1), xcmsdb(1), xconsole(1), xdm(1), xdpyinfo(1),
       xfd(1), xfindproxy(1), xfs(1), xfwp(1), xhost(1), xinit(1), xkbbell(1),
       xkbcomp(1), xkbevd(1), xkbprint(1), xkbvleds(1), xkbwatch(1), xkill(1),
       xlogo(1), xlsatoms(1),  xlsclients(1),  xlsfonts(1),  xmag(1),  xmh(1),
       xmodmap(1),  xon(1),  xplsprinters(1),  xprop(1), xrdb(1), xrefresh(1),
       xrx(1), xset(1), xsetroot(1), xsm(1),  xstdcmap(1),  xterm(1),  xwd(1),
       xwininfo(1),   xwud(1).    Xserver(1),   Xdec(1),  XmacII(1),  Xsun(1),
       Xnest(1), Xvfb(1), Xorg(1), XDarwin(1), Xprt(1).  Xlib - C  Language  X
       Interface, and X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface

TRADEMARKS
       X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.

AUTHORS
       A  cast  of  thousands,  literally.   The  Release  6.7 distribution is
       brought to you by the X.Org Foundation, LLC. The names  of  all  people
       who  made  it  a  reality will be found in(1,8) the individual documents and
       source files.

       Releases 6.6 and 6.5 were done by The X.Org  Group.   Release  6.4  was
       done  by The X Project Team.  The Release 6.3 distribution was from The
       X Consortium, Inc.  The staff members at the X  Consortium  responsible
       for that release were: Donna Converse (emeritus), Stephen Gildea (emer-
       itus), Kaleb Keithley, Matt Landau (emeritus),  Ralph  Mor  (emeritus),
       Janet  O'Halloran, Bob Scheifler, Ralph Swick, Dave Wiggins (emeritus),
       and Reed Augliere.

       The X Window System standard was originally developed at the Laboratory
       for  Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and
       all rights thereto were assigned to the  X  Consortium  on  January  1,
       1994.   X  Consortium, Inc. closed its doors on December 31, 1996.  All
       rights to the X Window System have been assigned to The Open Group.



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References for this manual (incoming links)