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terminfo(5) - terminfo, terminfo - terminal capability data base - man 5 terminfo

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TERMINFO(5)                      File Formats                      TERMINFO(5)

       terminfo - terminal capability data base


       Terminfo  is  a data base describing terminals, used by screen-oriented
       programs such as nvi(1), rogue(1) and  libraries  such  as  curses(3X).
       Terminfo describes terminals by giving a set(7,n,1 builtins) of capabilities which they
       have, by specifying how to perform screen operations, and by specifying
       padding requirements and initialization sequences.

       Entries  in(1,8)  terminfo  consist  of  a  sequence of `,' separated fields
       (embedded commas may be escaped with a backslash or notated  as  \054).
       White  space  after  the `,' separator is ignored.  The first entry for
       each terminal gives the names which are known for the  terminal,  sepa-
       rated  by  `|'  characters.   The  first  name given is the most common
       abbreviation for the terminal, the last name given  should  be  a  long
       name  fully  identifying the terminal, and all others are understood as
       synonyms for the terminal name.  All names but the last  should  be  in(1,8)
       lower  case and contain no blanks; the last name may well contain upper
       case and blanks for readability.

       Terminal names (except for the last, verbose entry)  should  be  chosen
       using the following conventions.  The particular piece of hardware mak-
       ing up the terminal should have a root  name,  thus  ``hp2621''.   This
       name should not contain hyphens.  Modes that the hardware can be in(1,8), or
       user preferences, should be indicated by appending a hyphen and a  mode
       suffix.   Thus,  a vt100 in(1,8) 132 column mode would be vt100-w.  The fol-
       lowing suffixes should be used where possible:

            Suffix                  Meaning                   Example
            -nn      Number of lines on the screen            aaa-60
            -np      Number of pages of memory                c100-4p
            -am      With automargins (usually the default)   vt100-am
            -m       Mono mode; suppress color                ansi-m
            -mc      Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting   wy30-mc
            -na      No arrow keys (leave them in(1,8) local)      c100-na
            -nam     Without automatic margins                vt100-nam
            -nl      No status line                           att4415-nl
            -ns      No status line                           hp2626-ns
            -rv      Reverse video                            c100-rv
            -s       Enable status line                       vt100-s
            -vb      Use visible bell instead of beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep)         wy370-vb
            -w       Wide mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)    vt100-w

       For more on terminal naming conventions, see the term(5,7)(7) manual page.

       The following is a complete table of the  capabilities  included  in(1,8)  a
       terminfo  description  block  and available to terminfo-using code.  In
       each line of the table,

       The variable is the name by  which  the  programmer  (at  the  terminfo
       level) accesses the capability.

       The  capname is the short name used in(1,8) the text of the database, and is
       used by a person updating the database.   Whenever  possible,  capnames
       are chosen to be the same as or similar to the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard
       (now superseded by  ECMA-48,  which  uses  identical  or  very  similar
       names).   Semantics  are also intended to match those of the specifica-

       The termcap code is the old termcap capability name (some  capabilities
       are new, and have names which termcap did not originate).

       Capability  names have no hard length limit, but an informal limit of 5
       characters has been adopted to keep them short and to allow the tabs in(1,8)
       the source file(1,n) Caps to line up nicely.

       Finally,  the description field attempts to convey the semantics of the
       capability.  You may find some codes in(1,8) the description field:

       (P)    indicates that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in(1,8) the description field indicates that  the  string(3,n)  is  passed
              through tparm with parms as given (#i).

       (P*)   indicates  that  padding may vary in(1,8) proportion to the number of
              lines affected

       (#i)   indicates the ith parameter.

       These are the boolean capabilities:

               Variable              Cap-       TCap          Description
               Booleans              name       Code
       auto_left_margin              bw         bw        cub1 wraps from col-
                                                          umn 0 to last column
       auto_right_margin             am         am        terminal has auto-
                                                          matic margins
       back_color_erase              bce        ut        screen erased with
                                                          background color
       can_change                    ccc        cc        terminal can re-
                                                          define existing col-
       ceol_standout_glitch          xhp        xs        standout not erased
                                                          by overwriting (hp)
       col_addr_glitch               xhpa       YA        only positive motion
                                                          for hpa/mhpa caps
       cpi_changes_res               cpix       YF        changing character
                                                          pitch changes reso-
       cr_cancels_micro_mode         crxm       YB        using cr turns off
                                                          micro mode
       dest_tabs_magic_smso          xt         xt        tabs destructive,
                                                          magic(4,5) so char
       eat_newline_glitch            xenl       xn        newline ignored
                                                          after 80 cols (con-
       erase_overstrike              eo         eo        can erase over-
                                                          strikes with a blank
       generic_type                  gn         gn        generic line type
       hard_copy                     hc         hc        hardcopy terminal
       hard_cursor                   chts       HC        cursor is hard to
       has_meta_key                  km         km        Has a meta key
                                                          (i.e., sets 8th-bit)
       has_print_wheel               daisy      YC        printer needs opera-
                                                          tor to change char-
                                                          acter set(7,n,1 builtins)

       has_status_line               hs         hs        has extra status
       hue_lightness_saturation      hls        hl        terminal uses only
                                                          HLS color notation
       insert_null_glitch            in(1,8)         in(1,8)        insert mode distin-
                                                          guishes nulls
       lpi_changes_res               lpix       YG        changing line pitch
                                                          changes resolution
       memory_above                  da         da        display may be
                                                          retained above the
       memory_below                  db         db        display may be
                                                          retained below the
       move_insert_mode              mir        mi        safe to move(3x,7,3x curs_move) while
                                                          in(1,8) insert mode
       move_standout_mode            msgr       ms        safe to move(3x,7,3x curs_move) while
                                                          in(1,8) standout mode
       needs_xon_xoff                nxon       nx        padding will not
                                                          work, xon/xoff
       no_esc_ctlc                   xsb        xb        beehive (f1=escape,
                                                          f2=ctrl C)
       no_pad_char                   npc        NP        pad character does
                                                          not exist
       non_dest_scroll_region        ndscr      ND        scrolling region is
       non_rev_rmcup                 nrrmc      NR        smcup does not
                                                          reverse rmcup
       over_strike                   os         os        terminal can over-
       prtr_silent                   mc5i       5i        printer will not
                                                          echo(1,3x,1 builtins) on screen
       row_addr_glitch               xvpa       YD        only positive motion
                                                          for vpa/mvpa caps
       semi_auto_right_margin        sam        YE        printing in(1,8) last
                                                          column causes cr
       status_line_esc_ok            eslok      es        escape can be used
                                                          on the status line
       tilde_glitch                  hz         hz        cannot print ~'s
       transparent_underline         ul         ul        underline character
       xon_xoff                      xon        xo        terminal uses
                                                          xon/xoff handshaking

       These are the numeric capabilities:

            Variable             Cap-         TCap            Description
             Numeric             name         Code
       columns                   cols         co          number of columns in(1,8)
                                                          a line
       init_tabs                 it           it          tabs initially every
                                                          # spaces
       label_height              lh           lh          rows in(1,8) each label
       label_width               lw           lw          columns in(1,8) each
       lines                     lines        li          number of lines on
                                                          screen or page
       lines_of_memory           lm           lm          lines of memory if(3,n) >
                                                          line. 0 means varies

       magic_cookie_glitch       xmc          sg          number of blank
                                                          characters left by
                                                          smso or rmso
       max_attributes            ma           ma          maximum combined
                                                          attributes terminal
                                                          can handle
       max_colors                colors       Co          maximum number of
                                                          colors on screen
       max_pairs                 pairs        pa          maximum number of
                                                          color-pairs on the
       maximum_windows           wnum         MW          maximum number of
                                                          defineable windows
       no_color_video            ncv          NC          video attributes
                                                          that cannot be used
                                                          with colors
       num_labels                nlab         Nl          number of labels on
       padding_baud_rate         pb           pb          lowest baud rate
                                                          where padding needed
       virtual_terminal          vt           vt          virtual(5,8) terminal
                                                          number (CB/unix)
       width_status_line         wsl          ws          number of columns in(1,8)
                                                          status line

       The  following  numeric  capabilities  are  present  in(1,8) the SVr4.0 term(5,7)
       structure, but are not yet documented in(1,8) the man(1,5,7) page.   They  came  in(1,8)
       with SVr4's printer support.

             Variable             Cap-         TCap           Description
             Numeric              name         Code
       bit_image_entwining        bitwin       Yo         number of passes for
                                                          each bit-image row
       bit_image_type             bitype       Yp         type of bit-image
       buffer_capacity            bufsz        Ya         numbers of bytes
                                                          buffered before
       buttons                    btns         BT         number of buttons on
       dot_horz_spacing           spinh        Yc         spacing of dots hor-
                                                          izontally in(1,8) dots
                                                          per inch
       dot_vert_spacing           spinv        Yb         spacing of pins ver-
                                                          tically in(1,8) pins per
       max_micro_address          maddr        Yd         maximum value in(1,8)
       max_micro_jump             mjump        Ye         maximum value in(1,8)
       micro_col_size             mcs          Yf         character step size
                                                          when in(1,8) micro mode
       micro_line_size            mls          Yg         line step size when
                                                          in(1,8) micro mode
       number_of_pins             npins        Yh         numbers of pins in(1,8)
       output_res_char            orc          Yi         horizontal resolu-
                                                          tion in(1,8) units(1,7) per
       output_res_horz_inch       orhi         Yk         horizontal resolu-
                                                          tion in(1,8) units(1,7) per
       output_res_line            orl          Yj         vertical resolution
                                                          in(1,8) units(1,7) per line

       output_res_vert_inch       orvi         Yl         vertical resolution
                                                          in(1,8) units(1,7) per inch
       print_rate                 cps          Ym         print rate in(1,8) char-
                                                          acters per second
       wide_char_size             widcs        Yn         character step size
                                                          when in(1,8) double wide

       These are the string(3,n) capabilities:

               Variable              Cap-       TCap          Description
                String               name       Code
       acs_chars                     acsc       ac        graphics charset
                                                          pairs, based on
       back_tab                      cbt        bt        back tab (P)
       bell                          bel        bl        audible signal(2,7)
                                                          (bell) (P)
       carriage_return               cr         cr        carriage return (P*)
       change_char_pitch             cpi        ZA        Change number of
                                                          characters per inch
                                                          to #1
       change_line_pitch             lpi        ZB        Change number of
                                                          lines per inch to #1
       change_res_horz               chr        ZC        Change horizontal
                                                          resolution to #1
       change_res_vert               cvr        ZD        Change vertical res-
                                                          olution to #1
       change_scroll_region          csr        cs        change region to
                                                          line #1 to line #2
       char_padding                  rmp        rP        like ip(7,8) but when in(1,8)
                                                          insert mode
       clear_all_tabs                tbc        ct        clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) all tab stops
       clear_margins                 mgc        MC        clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) right and left
                                                          soft margins
       clear_screen                  clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot)      cl        clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) screen and
                                                          home cursor (P*)
       clr_bol                       el1        cb        Clear to beginning
                                                          of line
       clr_eol                       el         ce        clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) to end of line
       clr_eos                       ed         cd        clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) to end of
                                                          screen (P*)
       column_address                hpa        ch        horizontal position
                                                          #1, absolute (P)
       command_character             cmdch      CC        terminal settable
                                                          cmd character in(1,8)
                                                          prototype !?
       create_window                 cwin       CW        define a window #1
                                                          from #2,#3 to #4,#5
       cursor_address                cup        cm        move(3x,7,3x curs_move) to row #1 col-
                                                          umns #2
       cursor_down                   cud1       do        down one line
       cursor_home                   home       ho        home cursor (if(3,n) no
       cursor_invisible              civis      vi        make cursor invisi-
       cursor_left                   cub1       le        move(3x,7,3x curs_move) left one space
       cursor_mem_address            mrcup      CM        memory relative cur-
                                                          sor addressing, move(3x,7,3x curs_move)
                                                          to row #1 columns #2

       cursor_normal                 cnorm      ve        make cursor appear
                                                          normal (undo
       cursor_right                  cuf1       nd        non-destructive
                                                          space (move(3x,7,3x curs_move) right
                                                          one space)
       cursor_to_ll                  ll         ll        last line, first
                                                          column (if(3,n) no cup)
       cursor_up                     cuu1       up        up one line
       cursor_visible                cvvis      vs        make cursor very
       define_char                   defc       ZE        Define a character
                                                          #1, #2 dots wide,
                                                          descender #3
       delete_character              dch1       dc        delete character
       delete_line                   dl1        dl        delete line (P*)
       dial_phone                    dial       DI        dial number #1
       dis_status_line               dsl        ds        disable status line
       display_clock                 dclk       DK        display clock(3,n)
       down_half_line                hd         hd        half a line down
       ena_acs                       enacs      eA        enable alternate
                                                          char set(7,n,1 builtins)
       enter_alt_charset_mode        smacs      as        start alternate
                                                          character set(7,n,1 builtins) (P)
       enter_am_mode                 smam       SA        turn on automatic
       enter_blink_mode              blink      mb        turn on blinking
       enter_bold_mode               bold       md        turn on bold (extra
                                                          bright) mode
       enter_ca_mode                 smcup      ti        string(3,n) to start pro-
                                                          grams using cup
       enter_delete_mode             smdc       dm        enter delete mode
       enter_dim_mode                dim        mh        turn on half-bright
       enter_doublewide_mode         swidm      ZF        Enter double-wide
       enter_draft_quality           sdrfq      ZG        Enter draft-quality
       enter_insert_mode             smir       im        enter insert mode
       enter_italics_mode            sitm       ZH        Enter italic mode
       enter_leftward_mode           slm        ZI        Start leftward car-
                                                          riage motion
       enter_micro_mode              smicm      ZJ        Start micro-motion
       enter_near_letter_quality     snlq       ZK        Enter NLQ mode
       enter_normal_quality          snrmq      ZL        Enter normal-quality
       enter_protected_mode          prot       mp        turn on protected
       enter_reverse_mode            rev        mr        turn on reverse
                                                          video mode
       enter_secure_mode             invis      mk        turn on blank mode
                                                          (characters invisi-
       enter_shadow_mode             sshm       ZM        Enter shadow-print
       enter_standout_mode           smso       so        begin standout mode
       enter_subscript_mode          ssubm      ZN        Enter subscript mode
       enter_superscript_mode        ssupm      ZO        Enter superscript
       enter_underline_mode          smul       us        begin underline mode
       enter_upward_mode             sum        ZP        Start upward car-
                                                          riage motion

       enter_xon_mode                smxon      SX        turn on xon/xoff
       erase_chars                   ech        ec        erase #1 characters
       exit_alt_charset_mode         rmacs      ae        end alternate char-
                                                          acter set(7,n,1 builtins) (P)
       exit_am_mode                  rmam       RA        turn off automatic
       exit_attribute_mode           sgr0       me        turn off all
       exit_ca_mode                  rmcup      te        strings to end pro-
                                                          grams using cup
       exit_delete_mode              rmdc       ed        end delete mode
       exit_doublewide_mode          rwidm      ZQ        End double-wide mode
       exit_insert_mode              rmir       ei        exit(3,n,1 builtins) insert mode
       exit_italics_mode             ritm       ZR        End italic mode
       exit_leftward_mode            rlm        ZS        End left-motion mode
       exit_micro_mode               rmicm      ZT        End micro-motion
       exit_shadow_mode              rshm       ZU        End shadow-print
       exit_standout_mode            rmso       se        exit(3,n,1 builtins) standout mode
       exit_subscript_mode           rsubm      ZV        End subscript mode
       exit_superscript_mode         rsupm      ZW        End superscript mode
       exit_underline_mode           rmul       ue        exit(3,n,1 builtins) underline mode
       exit_upward_mode              rum        ZX        End reverse charac-
                                                          ter motion
       exit_xon_mode                 rmxon      RX        turn off xon/xoff
       fixed_pause                   pause      PA        pause for 2-3 sec-
       flash_hook                    hook       fh        flash switch(1,n) hook
       flash_screen                  flash      vb        visible bell (may
                                                          not move(3x,7,3x curs_move) cursor)
       form_feed                     ff         ff        hardcopy terminal
                                                          page eject (P*)
       from_status_line              fsl        fs        return from status
       goto_window                   wingo      WG        go to window #1
       hangup                        hup        HU        hang-up phone
       init_1string                  is1        i1        initialization
       init_2string                  is2        is        initialization
       init_3string                  is3        i3        initialization
       init_file                     if(3,n)         if(3,n)        name of initializa-
                                                          tion file(1,n)
       init_prog                     iprog      iP        path name of program
                                                          for initialization
       initialize_color              initc      Ic        initialize color #1
                                                          to (#2,#3,#4)
       initialize_pair               initp      Ip        Initialize color
                                                          pair #1 to
       insert_character              ich1       ic        insert character (P)
       insert_line                   il1        al        insert line (P*)
       insert_padding                ip(7,8)         ip(7,8)        insert padding after
                                                          inserted character
       key_a1                        ka1        K1        upper left of keypad
       key_a3                        ka3        K3        upper right of key-
       key_b2                        kb2        K2        center of keypad
       key_backspace                 kbs        kb        backspace key

       key_beg                       kbeg       @1        begin key
       key_btab                      kcbt       kB        back-tab key
       key_c1                        kc1        K4        lower left of keypad
       key_c3                        kc3        K5        lower right of key-
       key_cancel                    kcan       @2        cancel key
       key_catab                     ktbc       ka        clear-all-tabs key
       key_clear                     kclr       kC        clear-screen or
                                                          erase key
       key_close                     kclo       @3        close(2,7,n) key
       key_command                   kcmd       @4        command key
       key_copy                      kcpy       @5        copy key
       key_create                    kcrt       @6        create key
       key_ctab                      kctab      kt        clear-tab key
       key_dc                        kdch1      kD        delete-character key
       key_dl                        kdl1       kL        delete-line key
       key_down                      kcud1      kd        down-arrow key
       key_eic                       krmir      kM        sent by rmir or smir
                                                          in(1,8) insert mode
       key_end                       kend       @7        end key
       key_enter                     kent       @8        enter/send(2,n) key
       key_eol                       kel        kE        clear-to-end-of-line
       key_eos                       ked        kS        clear-to-end-of-
                                                          screen key
       key_exit                      kext       @9        exit(3,n,1 builtins) key
       key_f0                        kf0        k0        F0 function key
       key_f1                        kf1        k1        F1 function key
       key_f10                       kf10       k;        F10 function key
       key_f11                       kf11       F1        F11 function key
       key_f12                       kf12       F2        F12 function key
       key_f13                       kf13       F3        F13 function key
       key_f14                       kf14       F4        F14 function key
       key_f15                       kf15       F5        F15 function key
       key_f16                       kf16       F6        F16 function key
       key_f17                       kf17       F7        F17 function key
       key_f18                       kf18       F8        F18 function key
       key_f19                       kf19       F9        F19 function key
       key_f2                        kf2        k2        F2 function key
       key_f20                       kf20       FA        F20 function key
       key_f21                       kf21       FB        F21 function key
       key_f22                       kf22       FC        F22 function key
       key_f23                       kf23       FD        F23 function key
       key_f24                       kf24       FE        F24 function key
       key_f25                       kf25       FF        F25 function key
       key_f26                       kf26       FG        F26 function key
       key_f27                       kf27       FH        F27 function key
       key_f28                       kf28       FI        F28 function key
       key_f29                       kf29       FJ        F29 function key
       key_f3                        kf3        k3        F3 function key
       key_f30                       kf30       FK        F30 function key
       key_f31                       kf31       FL        F31 function key
       key_f32                       kf32       FM        F32 function key
       key_f33                       kf33       FN        F33 function key
       key_f34                       kf34       FO        F34 function key
       key_f35                       kf35       FP        F35 function key
       key_f36                       kf36       FQ        F36 function key
       key_f37                       kf37       FR        F37 function key
       key_f38                       kf38       FS        F38 function key
       key_f39                       kf39       FT        F39 function key
       key_f4                        kf4        k4        F4 function key
       key_f40                       kf40       FU        F40 function key
       key_f41                       kf41       FV        F41 function key
       key_f42                       kf42       FW        F42 function key
       key_f43                       kf43       FX        F43 function key

       key_f44                       kf44       FY        F44 function key
       key_f45                       kf45       FZ        F45 function key
       key_f46                       kf46       Fa        F46 function key
       key_f47                       kf47       Fb        F47 function key
       key_f48                       kf48       Fc        F48 function key
       key_f49                       kf49       Fd        F49 function key
       key_f5                        kf5        k5        F5 function key
       key_f50                       kf50       Fe        F50 function key
       key_f51                       kf51       Ff        F51 function key
       key_f52                       kf52       Fg        F52 function key
       key_f53                       kf53       Fh        F53 function key
       key_f54                       kf54       Fi        F54 function key
       key_f55                       kf55       Fj        F55 function key
       key_f56                       kf56       Fk        F56 function key
       key_f57                       kf57       Fl        F57 function key
       key_f58                       kf58       Fm        F58 function key
       key_f59                       kf59       Fn        F59 function key
       key_f6                        kf6        k6        F6 function key
       key_f60                       kf60       Fo        F60 function key
       key_f61                       kf61       Fp        F61 function key
       key_f62                       kf62       Fq        F62 function key
       key_f63                       kf63       Fr        F63 function key
       key_f7                        kf7        k7        F7 function key
       key_f8                        kf8        k8        F8 function key
       key_f9                        kf9        k9        F9 function key
       key_find                      kfnd       @0        find key
       key_help                      khlp       %1        help key
       key_home                      khome      kh        home key
       key_ic                        kich1      kI        insert-character key
       key_il                        kil1       kA        insert-line key
       key_left                      kcub1      kl        left-arrow key
       key_ll                        kll        kH        lower-left key (home
       key_mark                      kmrk       %2        mark key
       key_message                   kmsg       %3        message key
       key_move                      kmov       %4        move(3x,7,3x curs_move) key
       key_next                      knxt       %5        next key
       key_npage                     knp        kN        next-page key
       key_open                      kopn       %6        open(2,3,n) key
       key_options                   kopt       %7        options key
       key_ppage                     kpp        kP        previous-page key
       key_previous                  kprv       %8        previous key
       key_print                     kprt       %9        print key
       key_redo                      krdo       %0        redo key
       key_reference                 kref       &1        reference key
       key_refresh                   krfr       &2        refresh key
       key_replace                   krpl       &3        replace key
       key_restart                   krst       &4        restart key
       key_resume                    kres       &5        resume key
       key_right                     kcuf1      kr        right-arrow key
       key_save                      ksav       &6        save key
       key_sbeg                      kBEG       &9        shifted begin key
       key_scancel                   kCAN       &0        shifted cancel key
       key_scommand                  kCMD       *1        shifted command key
       key_scopy                     kCPY       *2        shifted copy key
       key_screate                   kCRT       *3        shifted create key
       key_sdc                       kDC        *4        shifted delete-char-
                                                          acter key
       key_sdl                       kDL        *5        shifted delete-line
       key_select                    kslt       *6        select(2,7,2 select_tut) key
       key_send                      kEND       *7        shifted end key
       key_seol                      kEOL       *8        shifted clear-to-
                                                          end-of-line key
       key_sexit                     kEXT       *9        shifted exit(3,n,1 builtins) key

       key_sf                        kind       kF        scroll-forward key
       key_sfind                     kFND       *0        shifted find key
       key_shelp                     kHLP       #1        shifted help key
       key_shome                     kHOM       #2        shifted home key
       key_sic                       kIC        #3        shifted insert-char-
                                                          acter key
       key_sleft                     kLFT       #4        shifted left-arrow
       key_smessage                  kMSG       %a        shifted message key
       key_smove                     kMOV       %b        shifted move(3x,7,3x curs_move) key
       key_snext                     kNXT       %c        shifted next key
       key_soptions                  kOPT       %d        shifted options key
       key_sprevious                 kPRV       %e        shifted previous key
       key_sprint                    kPRT       %f        shifted print key
       key_sr                        kri        kR        scroll-backward key
       key_sredo                     kRDO       %g        shifted redo key
       key_sreplace                  kRPL       %h        shifted replace key
       key_sright                    kRIT       %i        shifted right-arrow
       key_srsume                    kRES       %j        shifted resume key
       key_ssave                     kSAV       !1        shifted save key
       key_ssuspend                  kSPD       !2        shifted suspend key
       key_stab                      khts       kT        set-tab key
       key_sundo                     kUND       !3        shifted undo key
       key_suspend                   kspd       &7        suspend key
       key_undo                      kund       &8        undo key
       key_up                        kcuu1      ku        up-arrow key
       keypad_local                  rmkx       ke        leave 'key-
                                                          board_transmit' mode
       keypad_xmit                   smkx       ks        enter 'key-
                                                          board_transmit' mode
       lab_f0                        lf0        l0        label on function
                                                          key f0 if(3,n) not f0
       lab_f1                        lf1        l1        label on function
                                                          key f1 if(3,n) not f1
       lab_f10                       lf10       la        label on function
                                                          key f10 if(3,n) not f10
       lab_f2                        lf2        l2        label on function
                                                          key f2 if(3,n) not f2
       lab_f3                        lf3        l3        label on function
                                                          key f3 if(3,n) not f3
       lab_f4                        lf4        l4        label on function
                                                          key f4 if(3,n) not f4
       lab_f5                        lf5        l5        label on function
                                                          key f5 if(3,n) not f5
       lab_f6                        lf6        l6        label on function
                                                          key f6 if(3,n) not f6
       lab_f7                        lf7        l7        label on function
                                                          key f7 if(3,n) not f7
       lab_f8                        lf8        l8        label on function
                                                          key f8 if(3,n) not f8
       lab_f9                        lf9        l9        label on function
                                                          key f9 if(3,n) not f9
       label_format                  fln        Lf        label format
       label_off                     rmln       LF        turn off soft labels
       label_on                      smln       LO        turn on soft labels
       meta_off                      rmm        mo        turn off meta mode
       meta_on                       smm        mm        turn on meta mode
                                                          (8th-bit on)
       micro_column_address          mhpa       ZY        Like column_address
                                                          in(1,8) micro mode
       micro_down                    mcud1      ZZ        Like cursor_down in(1,8)
                                                          micro mode
       micro_left                    mcub1      Za        Like cursor_left in(1,8)
                                                          micro mode

       micro_right                   mcuf1      Zb        Like cursor_right in(1,8)
                                                          micro mode
       micro_row_address             mvpa       Zc        Like row_address #1
                                                          in(1,8) micro mode
       micro_up                      mcuu1      Zd        Like cursor_up in(1,8)
                                                          micro mode
       newline                       nel        nw        newline (behave like
                                                          cr followed by lf)
       order_of_pins                 porder     Ze        Match software bits
                                                          to print-head pins
       orig_colors                   oc         oc        Set all color pairs
                                                          to the original ones
       orig_pair                     op         op        Set default pair to
                                                          its original value
       pad_char                      pad        pc        padding char
                                                          (instead of null)
       parm_dch                      dch        DC        delete #1 characters
       parm_delete_line              dl         DL        delete #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_cursor              cud        DO        down #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_micro               mcud       Zf        Like parm_down_cur-
                                                          sor in(1,8) micro mode
       parm_ich                      ich        IC        insert #1 characters
       parm_index                    indn       SF        scroll forward #1
                                                          lines (P)
       parm_insert_line              il         AL        insert #1 lines (P*)
       parm_left_cursor              cub        LE        move(3x,7,3x curs_move) #1 characters
                                                          to the left (P)
       parm_left_micro               mcub       Zg        Like parm_left_cur-
                                                          sor in(1,8) micro mode
       parm_right_cursor             cuf        RI        move(3x,7,3x curs_move) #1 characters
                                                          to the right (P*)
       parm_right_micro              mcuf       Zh        Like parm_right_cur-
                                                          sor in(1,8) micro mode
       parm_rindex                   rin        SR        scroll back #1 lines
       parm_up_cursor                cuu        UP        up #1 lines (P*)
       parm_up_micro                 mcuu       Zi        Like parm_up_cursor
                                                          in(1,8) micro mode
       pkey_key                      pfkey      pk        program function key
                                                          #1 to type string(3,n) #2
       pkey_local                    pfloc      pl        program function key
                                                          #1 to execute string(3,n)
       pkey_xmit                     pfx        px        program function key
                                                          #1 to transmit
                                                          string(3,n) #2
       plab_norm                     pln        pn        program label #1 to
                                                          show string(3,n) #2
       print_screen                  mc0        ps        print contents of
       prtr_non                      mc5p       pO        turn on printer for
                                                          #1 bytes
       prtr_off                      mc4        pf        turn off printer
       prtr_on                       mc5        po        turn on printer
       pulse                         pulse      PU        select(2,7,2 select_tut) pulse dialing
       quick_dial                    qdial      QD        dial number #1 with-
                                                          out checking
       remove_clock                  rmclk      RC        remove clock(3,n)
       repeat_char                   rep        rp        repeat char #1 #2
                                                          times (P*)
       req_for_input                 rfi        RF        send(2,n) next input char
                                                          (for ptys)
       reset_1string                 rs1        r1        reset(1,7,1 tput) string(3,n)

       reset_2string                 rs2        r2        reset(1,7,1 tput) string(3,n)
       reset_3string                 rs3        r3        reset(1,7,1 tput) string(3,n)
       reset_file                    rf         rf        name of reset(1,7,1 tput) file(1,n)
       restore_cursor                rc         rc        restore cursor to
                                                          position of last
       row_address                   vpa        cv        vertical position #1
                                                          absolute (P)
       save_cursor                   sc         sc        save current cursor
                                                          position (P)
       scroll_forward                ind        sf        scroll text up (P)
       scroll_reverse                ri         sr        scroll text down (P)
       select_char_set               scs        Zj        Select character
                                                          set(7,n,1 builtins), #1
       set_attributes                sgr        sa        define video
                                                          attributes #1-#9
       set_background                setb       Sb        Set background color
       set_bottom_margin             smgb       Zk        Set bottom margin at
                                                          current line
       set_bottom_margin_parm        smgbp      Zl        Set bottom margin at
                                                          line #1 or (if(3,n) smgtp
                                                          is not given) #2
                                                          lines from bottom
       set_clock                     sclk       SC        set(7,n,1 builtins) clock(3,n), #1 hrs #2
                                                          mins #3 secs
       set_color_pair                scp        sp        Set current color
                                                          pair to #1
       set_foreground                setf       Sf        Set foreground color
       set_left_margin               smgl       ML        set(7,n,1 builtins) left soft margin
                                                          at current col-
                                                          umn.       See smgl.
                                                          (ML is not in(1,8) BSD
       set_left_margin_parm          smglp      Zm        Set left (right)
                                                          margin at column #1
       set_right_margin              smgr       MR        set(7,n,1 builtins) right soft mar-
                                                          gin at current col-
       set_right_margin_parm         smgrp      Zn        Set right margin at
                                                          column #1
       set_tab                       hts        st        set(7,n,1 builtins) a tab in(1,8) every
                                                          row, current columns
       set_top_margin                smgt       Zo        Set top margin at
                                                          current line
       set_top_margin_parm           smgtp      Zp        Set top (bottom)
                                                          margin at row #1
       set_window                    wind       wi        current window is
                                                          lines #1-#2 cols
       start_bit_image               sbim       Zq        Start printing bit
                                                          image graphics
       start_char_set_def            scsd       Zr        Start character set(7,n,1 builtins)
                                                          definition #1, with
                                                          #2 characters in(1,8) the
                                                          set(7,n,1 builtins)
       stop_bit_image                rbim       Zs        Stop printing bit
                                                          image graphics
       stop_char_set_def             rcsd       Zt        End definition of
                                                          character set(7,n,1 builtins) #1
       subscript_characters          subcs      Zu        List of subscript-
                                                          able characters

       superscript_characters        supcs      Zv        List of superscript-
                                                          able characters
       tab                           ht         ta        tab to next 8-space
                                                          hardware tab stop
       these_cause_cr                docr       Zw        Printing any of
                                                          these characters
                                                          causes CR
       to_status_line                tsl        ts        move(3x,7,3x curs_move) to status line,
                                                          column #1
       tone                          tone       TO        select(2,7,2 select_tut) touch tone
       underline_char                uc         uc        underline char and
                                                          move(3x,7,3x curs_move) past it
       up_half_line                  hu         hu        half a line up
       user0                         u0         u0        User string(3,n) #0
       user1                         u1         u1        User string(3,n) #1
       user2                         u2         u2        User string(3,n) #2
       user3                         u3         u3        User string(3,n) #3
       user4                         u4         u4        User string(3,n) #4
       user5                         u5         u5        User string(3,n) #5
       user6                         u6         u6        User string(3,n) #6
       user7                         u7         u7        User string(3,n) #7
       user8                         u8         u8        User string(3,n) #8
       user9                         u9         u9        User string(3,n) #9
       wait_tone                     wait       WA        wait for dial-tone
       xoff_character                xoffc      XF        XOFF character
       xon_character                 xonc       XN        XON character
       zero_motion                   zerom      Zx        No motion for subse-
                                                          quent character

       The following string(3,n) capabilities are present in(1,8) the SVr4.0 term(5,7) struc-
       ture, but were originally not documented in(1,8) the man(1,5,7) page.

               Variable              Cap-         TCap         Description
                String               name         Code
       alt_scancode_esc              scesa        S8        Alternate escape
                                                            for scancode emu-
       bit_image_carriage_return     bicr         Yv        Move to beginning
                                                            of same row
       bit_image_newline             binel        Zz        Move to next row
                                                            of the bit image
       bit_image_repeat              birep        Xy        Repeat bit image
                                                            cell #1 #2 times
       char_set_names                csnm         Zy        Produce #1'th item
                                                            from list of char-
                                                            acter set(7,n,1 builtins) names
       code_set_init                 csin         ci        Init sequence for
                                                            multiple codesets
       color_names                   colornm      Yw        Give name for
                                                            color #1
       define_bit_image_region       defbi        Yx        Define rectan-
                                                            gualar bit image
       device_type                   devt         dv        Indicate lan-
                                                            guage/codeset sup-
       display_pc_char               dispc        S1        Display PC charac-
                                                            ter #1
       end_bit_image_region          endbi        Yy        End a bit-image
       enter_pc_charset_mode         smpch        S2        Enter PC character
                                                            display mode

       enter_scancode_mode           smsc         S4        Enter PC scancode
       exit_pc_charset_mode          rmpch        S3        Exit PC character
                                                            display mode
       exit_scancode_mode            rmsc         S5        Exit PC scancode
       get_mouse                     getm         Gm        Curses should get
                                                            button events,
                                                            parameter #1 not
       key_mouse                     kmous        Km        Mouse event has
       mouse_info                    minfo        Mi        Mouse status
       pc_term_options               pctrm        S6        PC terminal
       pkey_plab                     pfxl         xl        Program function
                                                            key #1 to type
                                                            string(3,n) #2 and show
                                                            string(3,n) #3
       req_mouse_pos                 reqmp        RQ        Request mouse
       scancode_escape               scesc        S7        Escape for scan-
                                                            code emulation
       set0_des_seq                  s0ds         s0        Shift to codeset 0
                                                            (EUC set(7,n,1 builtins) 0, ASCII)
       set1_des_seq                  s1ds         s1        Shift to codeset 1
       set2_des_seq                  s2ds         s2        Shift to codeset 2
       set3_des_seq                  s3ds         s3        Shift to codeset 3
       set_a_background              setab        AB        Set background
                                                            color to #1, using
                                                            ANSI escape
       set_a_foreground              setaf        AF        Set foreground
                                                            color to #1, using
                                                            ANSI escape
       set_color_band                setcolor     Yz        Change to ribbon
                                                            color #1
       set_lr_margin                 smglr        ML        Set both left and
                                                            right margins to
                                                            #1, #2.  (ML is
                                                            not in(1,8) BSD term-
       set_page_length               slines       YZ        Set page length to
                                                            #1 lines
       set_tb_margin                 smgtb        MT        Sets both top and
                                                            bottom margins to
                                                            #1, #2

        The  XSI Curses standard added these.  They are some post-4.1 versions
        of System V curses, e.g., Solaris 2.5 and IRIX 6.x.  The ncurses term-
        cap names for them are invented; according to the XSI Curses standard,
        they have no termcap names.  If your  compiled  terminfo  entries  use
        these,  they  may  not  be  binary-compatible  with  System V terminfo
        entries after SVr4.1; beware!

                Variable             Cap-        TCap         Description
                 String              name        Code
        enter_horizontal_hl_mode     ehhlm       Xh       Enter horizontal
                                                          highlight mode
        enter_left_hl_mode           elhlm       Xl       Enter left highlight
        enter_low_hl_mode            elohlm      Xo       Enter low highlight

        enter_right_hl_mode          erhlm       Xr       Enter right high-
                                                          light mode
        enter_top_hl_mode            ethlm       Xt       Enter top highlight
        enter_vertical_hl_mode       evhlm       Xv       Enter vertical high-
                                                          light mode
        set_a_attributes             sgr1        sA       Define second set(7,n,1 builtins) of
                                                          video attributes
        set_pglen_inch               slength     sL       YI Set page length
                                                          to #1 hundredth of
                                                          an inch

   A Sample Entry
       The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard terminal, is represen-
       tative  of  what a terminfo entry for a modern terminal typically looks

     ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
             colors#8, ncv#3, pairs#64,
             cub=\E[%p1%dD, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cuf=\E[%p1%dC,
             cuu=\E[%p1%dA, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dl=\E[%p1%dM,
             ech=\E[%p1%dX, el1=\E[1K, hpa=\E[%p1%dG, ht=\E[I,
             ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, indn=\E[%p1%dS, .indn=\E[%p1%dT,
             kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D, kcud1=\E[B,
             kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, kf1=\E[M, kf10=\E[V,
             kf11=\E[W, kf12=\E[X, kf2=\E[N, kf3=\E[O, kf4=\E[P,
             kf5=\E[Q, kf6=\E[R, kf7=\E[S, kf8=\E[T, kf9=\E[U,
             kich1=\E[L, mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S,
             op=\E[37;40m, rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db,
             rin=\E[%p1%dT, s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B,
             s3ds=\E+B, setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
             sgr0=\E[0;10m, tbc=\E[2g, u6=\E[%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
             u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%p1%dd,

       Entries may continue onto multiple lines by placing white space at  the
       beginning  of  each line except the first.  Comments may be included on
       lines beginning with ``#''.  Capabilities  in(1,8)  terminfo  are  of  three
       types:  Boolean  capabilities which indicate that the terminal has some
       particular feature, numeric capabilities giving the size of the  termi-
       nal  or  the  size of particular delays, and string(3,n) capabilities, which
       give a sequence which can be used to perform particular terminal opera-

   Types of Capabilities
       All capabilities have names.  For instance, the fact that ANSI-standard
       terminals have automatic margins (i.e., an automatic return  and  line-
       feed  when the end of a line is reached) is indicated by the capability
       am.  Hence the description of ansi includes am.   Numeric  capabilities
       are  followed  by  the  character  `#' and then a positive value.  Thus
       cols, which indicates the number of columns the terminal has, gives the
       value  `80' for ansi.  Values for numeric capabilities may be specified
       in(1,8) decimal, octal or hexadecimal, using the C programming language con-
       ventions (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally,  string(3,n)  valued capabilities, such as el (clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) to end of line
       sequence) are given by the two-character  code,  an  `=',  and  then  a
       string(3,n) ending at the next following `,'.

       A number of escape sequences are provided in(1,8) the string(3,n) valued capabil-
       ities for easy encoding(3,n) of characters there.  Both \E and \e map to  an
       ESCAPE character, ^x maps to a control-x for any appropriate x, and the
       sequences \n \l \r \t \b \f \s give a newline, line-feed, return,  tab,
       backspace,  form-feed,  and  space.  Other escapes include \^ for ^, \\
       for \, \, for comma, \: for :, and \0 for null.  (\0 will produce \200,
       which  does  not  terminate a string(3,n) but behaves as a null character on
       most terminals, providing CS7 is specified.   See  stty(1).)   Finally,
       characters may be given as three octal digits after a \.

       A  delay  in(1,8)  milliseconds  may appear anywhere in(1,8) a string(3,n) capability,
       enclosed in(1,8) $<..> brackets, as in(1,8) el=\EK$<5>,  and  padding  characters
       are  supplied by tputs to provide this delay.  The delay must be a num-
       ber with at most one decimal place of precision; it may be followed  by
       suffixes `*' or '/' or both.  A `*' indicates that the padding required
       is proportional to the number of lines affected by the  operation,  and
       the  amount  given  is the per-affected-unit padding required.  (In the
       case of insert character, the factor(1,6)  is  still  the  number  of  lines
       affected.)   Normally,  padding  is  advisory if(3,n) the device has the xon
       capability; it is used  for  cost  computation  but  does  not  trigger
       delays.   A  `/'  suffix  indicates  that  the padding is mandatory and
       forces a delay of the given number of milliseconds even on devices  for
       which xon is present to indicate flow control.

       Sometimes  individual  capabilities must be commented out.  To do this,
       put a period before the capability name.  For example, see  the  second
       ind in(1,8) the example above.

   Fetching Compiled Descriptions
       If  the  environment variable TERMINFO is set(7,n,1 builtins), it is interpreted as the
       pathname of a directory containing the  compiled  description  you  are
       working on.  Only that directory is searched.

       If TERMINFO is not set(7,n,1 builtins), the ncurses version(1,3,5) of the terminfo reader code
       will instead look(1,8,3 Search::Dict) in(1,8)  the  directory  $HOME/.terminfo  for  a  compiled
       description.   If it fails to find one there, and the environment vari-
       able TERMINFO_DIRS is set(7,n,1 builtins), it will interpret the contents of that vari-
       able as a list of colon- separated directories to be searched (an empty
       entry is interpreted as a command to search  /usr/share/terminfo).   If
       no  description  is  found in(1,8) any of the TERMINFO_DIRS directories, the
       fetch fails.

       If neither TERMINFO nor TERMINFO_DIRS is set(7,n,1 builtins), the last place tried will
       be the system terminfo directory, /usr/share/terminfo.

       (Neither  the  $HOME/.terminfo lookups nor TERMINFO_DIRS extensions are
       supported under stock System V terminfo/curses.)

   Preparing Descriptions
       We now outline how to prepare  descriptions  of  terminals.   The  most
       effective  way  to  prepare  a terminal description is by imitating the
       description of a similar  terminal  in(1,8)  terminfo  and  to  build  up  a
       description gradually, using partial descriptions with vi or some other
       screen-oriented program to check that they are correct.  Be aware  that
       a  very  unusual terminal may expose deficiencies in(1,8) the ability of the
       terminfo file(1,n) to describe it or bugs in(1,8) the screen-handling code of the
       test program.

       To  get the padding for insert line right (if(3,n) the terminal manufacturer
       did not document it) a severe test is to edit  a  large  file(1,n)  at  9600
       baud, delete 16 or so lines from the middle of the screen, then hit the
       `u' key several times quickly.  If the terminal messes up, more padding
       is usually needed.  A similar test can be used for insert character.

   Basic Capabilities
       The  number  of  columns  on each line for the terminal is given by the
       cols numeric capability.  If the terminal is a CRT, then the number  of
       lines  on the screen is given by the lines capability.  If the terminal
       wraps around to the beginning of the next  line  when  it  reaches  the
       right  margin,  then it should have the am capability.  If the terminal
       can clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) its screen, leaving the cursor in(1,8)  the  home  position,  then
       this  is  given  by the clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) string(3,n) capability.  If the terminal over-
       strikes (rather than clearing a position when  a  character  is  struck
       over)  then  it  should  have  the os capability.  If the terminal is a
       printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.  (os
       applies  to  storage scope terminals, such as TEKTRONIX 4010 series, as
       well as hard copy and APL terminals.)  If there is a code to  move(3x,7,3x curs_move)  the
       cursor to the left edge of the current row, give this as cr.  (Normally
       this will be carriage return, control M.)  If there is a code  to  pro-
       duce an audible signal(2,7) (bell, beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep), etc) give this as bel.

       If there is a code to move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the cursor one position to the left (such as
       backspace) that capability should be given as cub1.   Similarly,  codes
       to  move(3x,7,3x curs_move)  to the right, up, and down should be given as cuf1, cuu1, and
       cud1.  These local cursor motions should not alter the text  they  pass
       over,  for  example,  you  would  not normally use `cuf1= ' because the
       space would erase the character moved over.

       A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in(1,8)
       terminfo  are  undefined  at  the left and top edges of a CRT terminal.
       Programs should never attempt to backspace around the left edge, unless
       bw  is given, and never attempt to go up locally off the top.  In order
       to scroll text up, a program will go to the bottom left corner  of  the
       screen and send(2,n) the ind (index) string.

       To  scroll  text  down,  a  program  goes to the top left corner of the
       screen and sends the ri (reverse index) string.  The strings ind and ri
       are undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen.

       Parameterized  versions  of  the  scrolling  sequences are indn and rin
       which have the same semantics as ind and ri except that they  take  one
       parameter,  and scroll that many lines.  They are also undefined except
       at the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge  of
       the  screen when text is output, but this does not necessarily apply to
       a cuf1 from the last column.  The only local motion  which  is  defined
       from  the  left  edge is if(3,n) bw is given, then a cub1 from the left edge
       will move(3x,7,3x curs_move) to the right edge of the previous row.  If bw is  not  given,
       the  effect  is undefined.  This is useful for drawing a box around the
       edge of the screen, for example.  If the terminal has switch(1,n) selectable
       automatic  margins,  the terminfo file(1,n) usually assumes that this is on;
       i.e., am.  If the terminal has a command which moves to the first  col-
       umn  of  the next line, that command can be given as nel (newline).  It
       does not matter if(3,n) the command clears  the  remainder  of  the  current
       line,  so  if(3,n) the terminal has no cr and lf it may still be possible to
       craft a working nel out of one or both of them.

       These capabilities suffice to describe hard-copy and "glass-tty" termi-
       nals.  Thus the model 33 teletype is described as

     33|tty33|tty(1,4)|model 33 teletype,
     bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

     adm3|3|lsi adm3,
     am, bel=^G, clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot)=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
     ind=^J, lines#24,

   Parameterized Strings
       Cursor  addressing and other strings requiring parameters in(1,8) the termi-
       nal are described by a parameterized string(3,n) capability, with printf(1,3,1 builtins)(3S)
       like  escapes  %x  in(1,8)  it.  For example, to address the cursor, the cup
       capability is given, using  two  parameters:  the  row  and  column  to
       address  to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero and refer to the
       physical screen visible to the user, not to any unseen memory.)  If the
       terminal  has  memory relative cursor addressing, that can be indicated
       by mrcup.

       The parameter mechanism uses a stack and special % codes to  manipulate
       it.   Typically  a  sequence  will  push one of the parameters onto the
       stack and then print it in(1,8) some format.  Print (e.g., "%d") is  a  spe-
       cial case.  Other operations, including "%t" pop their operand from the
       stack.  It is noted that more complex operations are  often  necessary,
       e.g., in(1,8) the sgr string.

       The % encodings have the following meanings:

       %%   outputs `%'

            as in(1,8) printf(1,3,1 builtins), flags are [-+#] and space

       %c   print pop() like %c in(1,8) printf(1,3,1 builtins)

       %s   print pop() like %s in(1,8) printf(1,3,1 builtins)

            push i'th parameter

            set(7,n,1 builtins) dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()

            get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it

            set(7,n,1 builtins) static variable [a-z] to pop()

            get static variable [a-z] and push it

            The  terms  "static"  and "dynamic" are misleading.  Historically,
            these are simply two different sets of variables, whose values are
            not reset(1,7,1 tput) between calls to tparm.  However, that fact is not docu-
            mented in(1,8) other implementations.  Relying  on  it  will  adversely
            impact portability to other implementations.

       %'c' char constant c

            integer constant nn

       %l   push strlen(pop)

       %+ %- %* %/ %m
            arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

       %& %| %^
            bit operations: push(pop() op pop())

       %= %> %<
            logical operations: push(pop() op pop())

       %A, %O
            logical and & or operations (for conditionals)

       %! %~
            unary operations push(op pop())

       %i   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       %? expr(1,3,n) %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
            if-then-else,  %e  elsepart is optional.  else-if's are possible a
            la Algol 68:
            %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;
            ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

       Binary operations are in(1,8) postfix form with the operands  in(1,8)  the  usual
       order.  That is, to get x-5 one would use "%gx%{5}%-".  %P and %g vari-
       ables are persistent across escape-string evaluations.

       Consider the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs to  be
       sent  \E&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note that the order of the
       rows and columns is inverted here, and that  the  row  and  column  are
       printed    as    two    digits.     Thus    its   cup   capability   is

       The Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded  by
       a   ^T,   with   the   row   and   column  simply  encoded  in(1,8)  binary,
       "cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c".  Terminals which  use  "%c"  need  to  be  able  to
       backspace  the cursor (cub1), and to move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the cursor up one line on the
       screen (cuu1).  This is necessary because it  is  not  always  safe  to
       transmit  \n ^D and \r, as the system may change or discard them.  (The
       library routines dealing with terminfo set(7,n,1 builtins) tty(1,4) modes so that  tabs  are
       never  expanded, so \t is safe to send.  This turns out to be essential
       for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset  by
       a blank character, thus "cup=\E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%' '%+%c".  After sending
       `\E=', this pushes the first parameter, pushes the ASCII  value  for  a
       space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on the stack in(1,8) place of the two
       previous values) and outputs that value as a character.  Then the  same
       is  done for the second parameter.  More complex arithmetic is possible
       using the stack.

   Cursor Motions
       If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very  upper  left
       corner  of screen) then this can be given as home; similarly a fast way
       of getting to the lower left-hand corner can be given as ll;  this  may
       involve going up with cuu1 from the home position, but a program should
       never do this itself (unless ll does) because it can make no assumption
       about  the  effect  of moving up from the home position.  Note that the
       home position is the same as addressing to (0,0): to the top left  cor-
       ner of the screen, not of memory.  (Thus, the \EH sequence on HP termi-
       nals cannot be used for home.)

       If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these can
       be  given  as  single  parameter  capabilities hpa (horizontal position
       absolute) and vpa (vertical position absolute).   Sometimes  these  are
       shorter  than  the  more  general  two  parameter sequence (as with the
       hp2645) and can be used in(1,8) preference to cup.  If there are  parameter-
       ized  local  motions  (e.g.,  move(3x,7,3x curs_move)  n spaces to the right) these can be
       given as cud, cub, cuf, and cuu with a single parameter indicating  how
       many  spaces  to move.  These are primarily useful if(3,n) the terminal does
       not have cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If the terminal needs to be in(1,8) a special mode when  running  a  program
       that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and exit(3,n,1 builtins) this mode can
       be given as smcup and rmcup.  This arises, for example, from  terminals
       like  the  Concept  with more than one page of memory.  If the terminal
       has only memory relative cursor addressing and not screen relative cur-
       sor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed into the termi-
       nal for cursor addressing to work properly.  This is also used for  the
       TEKTRONIX  4025,  where  smcup sets the command character to be the one
       used by terminfo.  If the smcup sequence will not  restore  the  screen
       after  an  rmcup  sequence  is output (to the state prior to outputting
       rmcup), specify nrrmc.

   Area Clears
       If the terminal can clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) from the current position to the end  of  the
       line,  leaving  the cursor where it is, this should be given as el.  If
       the terminal can clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) from the beginning of the line  to  the  current
       position  inclusive,  leaving  the  cursor  where it is, this should be
       given as el1.  If the terminal can clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) from the current  position  to
       the  end  of  the display, then this should be given as ed.  Ed is only
       defined from the first column of a line.  (Thus, it can be simulated by
       a request to delete a large number of lines, if(3,n) a true ed is not avail-

   Insert/delete line and vertical motions
       If the terminal can open(2,3,n) a new blank line before  the  line  where  the
       cursor  is,  this  should  be  given as il1; this is done only from the
       first position of a line.  The cursor must then  appear  on  the  newly
       blank  line.   If  the terminal can delete the line which the cursor is
       on, then this should be given as dl1; this is done only from the  first
       position on the line to be deleted.  Versions of il1 and dl1 which take
       a single parameter and insert or delete that many lines can be given as
       il and dl.

       If  the  terminal  has a settable scrolling region (like the vt100) the
       command to set(7,n,1 builtins) this can be described with  the  csr  capability,  which
       takes two parameters: the top and bottom lines of the scrolling region.
       The cursor position is, alas, undefined after using this command.

       It is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line using csr  on
       a  properly chosen region; the sc and rc (save and restore cursor) com-
       mands may be useful for ensuring that  your  synthesized  insert/delete
       string(3,n)  does  not  move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the cursor.  (Note that the ncurses(3X) library
       does  this  synthesis  automatically,   so   you   need   not   compose
       insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

       Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to use a combi-
       nation of index with the memory-lock feature found  on  some  terminals
       (like the HP-700/90 series, which however also has insert/delete).

       Inserting  lines  at  the  top or bottom of the screen can also be done
       using ri or ind on many terminals without a  true  insert/delete  line,
       and is often faster even on terminals with those features.

       The boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set(7,n,1 builtins) if(3,n) each scrolling win-
       dow is effectively a view port on a screen-sized canvas.  To  test  for
       this capability, create a scrolling region in(1,8) the middle of the screen,
       write(1,2) something to the bottom line, move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the cursor to the top  of  the
       region, and do ri followed by dl1 or ind.  If the data scrolled off the
       bottom of the region by the  ri  re-appears,  then  scrolling  is  non-
       destructive.   System  V  and XSI Curses expect that ind, ri, indn, and
       rin will simulate destructive scrolling; their  documentation  cautions
       you  not to define csr unless this is true.  This curses implementation
       is more liberal and will do explicit erases after scrolling if(3,n) ndstr is

       If  the  terminal has the ability to define a window as part of memory,
       which all commands affect, it should  be  given  as  the  parameterized
       string(3,n)  wind.  The four parameters are the starting and ending lines in(1,8)
       memory and the starting and ending columns in(1,8) memory, in(1,8) that order.

       If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the da capability
       should  be  given;  if(3,n)  display  memory  can be retained below, then db
       should be given.  These indicate that deleting a line or scrolling  may
       bring  non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling back with ri may
       bring down non-blank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
       There are two basic kinds of  intelligent  terminals  with  respect  to
       insert/delete  character  which  can  be described using terminfo.  The
       most common insert/delete character operations affect only the  charac-
       ters  on  the current line and shift characters off the end of the line
       rigidly.  Other terminals, such as the Concept 100 and the Perkin Elmer
       Owl, make a distinction between typed and untyped blanks on the screen,
       shifting upon an insert or delete only  to  an  untyped  blank  on  the
       screen  which  is either eliminated, or expanded to two untyped blanks.
       You can determine the kind of terminal you have by clearing the  screen
       and  then  typing  text separated by cursor motions.  Type "abc    def"
       using local cursor motions (not  spaces)  between  the  "abc"  and  the
       "def".   Then position the cursor before the "abc" and put the terminal
       in(1,8) insert mode.  If typing characters causes the rest of  the  line  to
       shift  rigidly  and  characters to fall off the end, then your terminal
       does not distinguish between blanks  and  untyped  positions.   If  the
       "abc"  shifts over to the "def" which then move(3x,7,3x curs_move) together around the end
       of the current line and onto the next as you insert, you have the  sec-
       ond  type  of terminal, and should give the capability in(1,8), which stands
       for "insert null".  While these are two logically  separate  attributes
       (one  line  versus  multi-line  insert  mode,  and special treatment of
       untyped spaces) we have seen no terminals whose insert mode  cannot  be
       described with the single attribute.

       Terminfo  can  describe  both  terminals which have an insert mode, and
       terminals which send(2,n) a simple sequence to open(2,3,n) a blank position on  the
       current line.  Give as smir the sequence to get into insert mode.  Give
       as rmir the sequence to leave  insert  mode.   Now  give  as  ich1  any
       sequence  needed  to  be  sent  just before sending the character to be
       inserted.  Most terminals with a true insert mode will not  give  ich1;
       terminals  which  send(2,n) a sequence to open(2,3,n) a screen position should give
       it here.

       If your terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable  to  ich1.
       Technically,  you  should  not  give  both unless the terminal actually
       requires both to be used in(1,8) combination.  Accordingly, some  non-curses
       applications  get  confused if(3,n) both are present; the symptom is doubled
       characters in(1,8) an update(7,n) using insert.  This requirement  is  now  rare;
       most  ich  sequences do not require previous smir, and most smir insert
       modes do not require ich1 before each character.   Therefore,  the  new
       curses  actually  assumes this is the case and uses either rmir/smir or
       ich/ich1 as appropriate (but not both).  If you have to write(1,2) an  entry
       to  be  used  under  new curses for a terminal old enough to need both,
       include the rmir/smir sequences in(1,8) ich1.

       If post insert padding is needed, give this as a number of milliseconds
       in(1,8)  ip(7,8) (a string(3,n) option).  Any other sequence which may need to be sent
       after an insert of a single character may also be given in(1,8) ip(7,8).  If your
       terminal  needs  both  to be placed into an `insert mode' and a special
       code to precede each inserted character, then both smir/rmir  and  ich1
       can  be  given,  and  both  will be used.  The ich capability, with one
       parameter, n, will repeat the effects of ich1 n times.

       If padding is necessary between characters typed while  not  in(1,8)  insert
       mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in(1,8) rmp.

       It  is  occasionally  necessary  to move(3x,7,3x curs_move) around while in(1,8) insert mode to
       delete characters on the same line (e.g., if(3,n) there is a tab  after  the
       insertion  position).   If  your terminal allows motion while in(1,8) insert
       mode you can give the capability mir to  speed  up  inserting  in(1,8)  this
       case.   Omitting  mir  will affect only speed.  Some terminals (notably
       Datamedia's) must not have mir because of the  way  their  insert  mode

       Finally,  you  can  specify dch1 to delete a single character, dch with
       one parameter, n, to delete n characters, and  delete  mode  by  giving
       smdc  and  rmdc  to  enter  and exit(3,n,1 builtins) delete mode (any mode the terminal
       needs to be placed in(1,8) for dch1 to work).

       A command to erase n characters  (equivalent  to  outputting  n  blanks
       without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one parameter.

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
       If your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can
       be represented in(1,8) a number of different ways.  You  should  choose  one
       display  form  as  standout  mode,  representing a good, high contrast,
       easy-on-the-eyes, format for  highlighting  error(8,n)  messages  and  other
       attention  getters.   (If  you  have a choice, reverse video plus half-
       bright is good, or reverse video alone.)  The sequences  to  enter  and
       exit(3,n,1 builtins)  standout  mode  are given as smso and rmso, respectively.  If the
       code to change into or out of standout mode  leaves  one  or  even  two
       blank  spaces  on  the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do, then
       xmc should be given to tell how many spaces are left.

       Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given as smul and
       rmul respectively.  If the terminal has a code to underline the current
       character and move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the cursor one space  to  the  right,  such  as  the
       Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

       Other  capabilities  to  enter various highlighting modes include blink
       (blinking) bold (bold or extra bright) dim (dim or  half-bright)  invis
       (blanking  or invisible text) prot (protected) rev (reverse video) sgr0
       (turn off all attribute modes) smacs  (enter  alternate  character  set(7,n,1 builtins)
       mode) and rmacs (exit(3,n,1 builtins) alternate character set(7,n,1 builtins) mode).  Turning on any of
       these modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.

       If there is a sequence to set(7,n,1 builtins) arbitrary  combinations  of  modes,  this
       should  be  given  as  sgr (set(7,n,1 builtins) attributes), taking 9 parameters.  Each
       parameter is either 0 or nonzero, as the corresponding attribute is  on
       or  off.  The 9 parameters are, in(1,8) order: standout, underline, reverse,
       blink, dim, bold, blank, protect, alternate  character  set.   Not  all
       modes need be supported by sgr, only those for which corresponding sep-
       arate attribute commands exist.

       For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:

                 tparm parameter   attribute    escape sequence

                 none              none         \E[0m
                 p1                standout     \E[0;1;7m
                 p2                underline    \E[0;4m
                 p3                reverse      \E[0;7m
                 p4                blink        \E[0;5m
                 p5                dim          not available
                 p6                bold         \E[0;1m
                 p7                invis        \E[0;8m
                 p8                protect      not used
                 p9                altcharset   ^O (off) ^N (on)

       We begin each escape sequence by turning off any existing modes,  since
       there  is  no quick way to determine whether they are active.  Standout
       is set(7,n,1 builtins) up to be the combination of reverse and bold.  The vt220  termi-
       nal  has  a protect mode, though it is not commonly used in(1,8) sgr because
       it protects characters on the screen from  the  host(1,5)'s  erasures.   The
       altcharset  mode  also  is  different  in(1,8)  that  it is either ^O or ^N,
       depending on whether it is off or on.  If all modes are turned on,  the
       resulting sequence is \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

       Some  sequences are common to different modes.  For example, ;7 is out-
       put when either p1 or p3 is  true,  that  is,  if(3,n)  either  standout  or
       reverse modes are turned on.

       Writing out the above sequences, along with their dependencies yields

               sequence    when to output     terminfo translation

               \E[0       always              \E[0
               ;1         if(3,n) p1 or p6         %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
               ;4         if(3,n) p2               %?%p2%|%t;4%;
               ;5         if(3,n) p4               %?%p4%|%t;5%;
               ;7         if(3,n) p1 or p3         %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
               ;8         if(3,n) p7               %?%p7%|%t;8%;
               m          always              m
               ^N or ^O   if(3,n) p9 ^N, else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:


       Remember that if(3,n) you specify sgr, you must also specify sgr0.

       Terminals  with  the  ``magic(4,5)  cookie''  glitch  (xmc)  deposit special
       ``cookies'' when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect  the
       display  algorithm  rather  than  having extra bits for each character.
       Some terminals, such as the HP 2621, automatically leave standout  mode
       when  they  move(3x,7,3x curs_move)  to  a  new line or the cursor is addressed.  Programs
       using standout mode should exit(3,n,1 builtins) standout mode before moving the  cursor
       or  sending a newline, unless the msgr capability, asserting that it is
       safe to move(3x,7,3x curs_move) in(1,8) standout mode, is present.

       If the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate  an  error(8,n)
       quietly  (a  bell replacement) then this can be given as flash; it must
       not move(3x,7,3x curs_move) the cursor.

       If the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is  not
       on the bottom line (to make, for example, a non-blinking underline into
       an easier to find block or blinking underline) give  this  sequence  as
       cvvis.  If there is a way to make the cursor completely invisible, give
       that as civis.  The capability cnorm should be given which  undoes  the
       effects of both of these modes.

       If  your  terminal  correctly  generates underlined characters (with no
       special codes needed) even though it  does  not  overstrike,  then  you
       should  give  the  capability  ul.  If a character overstriking another
       leaves both characters on the screen, specify the  capability  os.   If
       overstrikes are erasable with a blank, then this should be indicated by
       giving eo.

   Keypad and Function Keys
       If the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes  when  the  keys  are
       pressed,  this  information can be given.  Note that it is not possible
       to handle terminals where the keypad only works in(1,8) local (this applies,
       for  example, to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If the keypad can be set(7,n,1 builtins)
       to transmit or not transmit, give these codes as smkx and rmkx.  Other-
       wise  the  keypad is assumed to always transmit.  The codes sent by the
       left arrow, right arrow, up arrow, down arrow, and  home  keys  can  be
       given  as kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1, and khome respectively.  If there
       are function keys such as f0, f1, ..., f10, the codes they send(2,n) can  be
       given as kf0, kf1, ..., kf10.  If these keys have labels other than the
       default f0 through f10, the labels can be given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.
       The  codes  transmitted by certain other special keys can be given: kll
       (home down), kbs (backspace), ktbc (clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) all tabs), kctab  (clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot)  the
       tab  stop  in(1,8)  this  column),  kclr  (clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) screen or erase key), kdch1
       (delete character), kdl1 (delete line), krmir (exit(3,n,1 builtins) insert  mode),  kel
       (clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot)  to  end  of  line), ked (clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) to end of screen), kich1 (insert
       character or enter insert mode), kil1 (insert line), knp  (next  page),
       kpp  (previous  page),  kind  (scroll  forward/down), kri (scroll back-
       ward/up), khts (set(7,n,1 builtins) a tab stop in(1,8) this column).  In  addition,  if(3,n)  the
       keypad  has  a  3 by 3 array of keys including the four arrow keys, the
       other five keys can be given as ka1, ka3, kb2,  kc1,  and  kc3.   These
       keys  are  useful  when  the  effects  of  a 3 by 3 directional pad are

       Strings to program function keys can be given as pfkey, pfloc, and pfx.
       A  string(3,n) to program screen labels should be specified as pln.  Each of
       these strings takes two parameters: the function key number to  program
       (from 0 to 10) and the string(3,n) to program it with.  Function key numbers
       out of this range may program undefined keys in(1,8)  a  terminal  dependent
       manner.   The  difference between the capabilities is that pfkey causes
       pressing the given key to be the same as  the  user  typing  the  given
       string(3,n);  pfloc  causes  the  string(3,n)  to  be executed by the terminal in(1,8)
       local; and pfx causes the string(3,n) to be transmitted to the computer.

       The capabilities nlab, lw and lh  define  the  number  of  programmable
       screen  labels  and  their  width and height.  If there are commands to
       turn the labels on and off, give them in(1,8) smln and rmln.  smln  is  nor-
       mally  output  after  one  or  more pln sequences to make sure that the
       change becomes visible.

   Tabs and Initialization
       If the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to  the  next
       tab  stop  can be given as ht (usually control I).  A ``back-tab'' com-
       mand which moves leftward to the preceding tab stop  can  be  given  as
       cbt.  By convention, if(3,n) the teletype modes indicate that tabs are being
       expanded by the computer rather than being sent to the  terminal,  pro-
       grams should not use ht or cbt even if(3,n) they are present, since the user
       may not have the tab stops properly set.  If the terminal has  hardware
       tabs  which  are initially set(7,n,1 builtins) every n spaces when the terminal is pow-
       ered up, the numeric parameter it is given, showing the number of  spa-
       ces  the tabs are set(7,n,1 builtins) to.  This is normally used by the tset command to
       determine whether to set(7,n,1 builtins) the  mode  for  hardware  tab  expansion,  and
       whether  to  set(7,n,1 builtins) the tab stops.  If the terminal has tab stops that can
       be saved in(1,8) non-volatile memory, the terminfo  description  can  assume
       that they are properly set.

       Other  capabilities  include  is1, is2, and is3, initialization strings
       for the terminal, iprog, the path name of a program to be run  to  ini-
       tialize  the  terminal, and if(3,n), the name of a file(1,n) containing long ini-
       tialization strings.  These strings are expected to  set(7,n,1 builtins)  the  terminal
       into  modes consistent with the rest of the terminfo description.  They
       are normally sent to the terminal, by the init option of the tput  pro-
       gram,  each time(1,2,n) the user logs in.  They will be printed in(1,8) the follow-
       ing order: run the program iprog; output  is1;  is2;  set(7,n,1 builtins)  the  margins
       using  mgc,  smgl  and smgr; set(7,n,1 builtins) tabs using tbc and hts; print the file(1,n)
       if(3,n); and finally output is3.

       Most initialization is done with is2.  Special terminal  modes  can  be
       set(7,n,1 builtins)  up  without duplicating strings by putting the common sequences in(1,8)
       is2 and special cases in(1,8) is1 and is3.  A pair of sequences that does  a
       harder  reset(1,7,1 tput)  from a totally unknown state can be analogously given as
       rs1, rs2, rf, and rs3, analogous to is2 and if(3,n).  These strings are out-
       put  by  the reset(1,7,1 tput) program, which is used when the terminal gets(3,n) into a
       wedged state.  Commands are normally placed in(1,8) rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only
       if(3,n)  they  produce  annoying effects on the screen and are not necessary
       when logging in.  For example,  the  command  to  set(7,n,1 builtins)  the  vt100  into
       80-column mode would normally be part of is2, but it causes an annoying
       glitch of the screen and is not normally needed since the  terminal  is
       usually already in(1,8) 80 column mode.

       If  there are commands to set(7,n,1 builtins) and clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) tab stops, they can be given as
       tbc (clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot) all tab stops) and hts (set(7,n,1 builtins) a tab stop in(1,8) the current column
       of  every  row).   If a more complex sequence is needed to set(7,n,1 builtins) the tabs
       than can be described by this, the sequence can be placed in(1,8) is2 or if(3,n).

   Delays and Padding
       Many  older  and  slower terminals don't support either XON/XOFF or DTR
       handshaking, including hard copy terminals and some very  archaic  CRTs
       (including,  for example, DEC VT100s).  These may require padding char-
       acters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control (that is, it
       automatically  emits  ^S  back  to  the host(1,5) when its input buffers are
       close(2,7,n) to full), set(7,n,1 builtins) xon.  This capability suppresses  the  emission  of
       padding.   You can also set(7,n,1 builtins) it for memory-mapped console(4,n) devices effec-
       tively that don't have a speed limit.  Padding information should still
       be  included  so that routines can make better decisions about relative
       costs, but actual pad characters will not be transmitted.

       If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud rates
       below  the  value  of  pb.  If the entry has no padding baud rate, then
       whether padding is emitted or not is completely controlled by xon.

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as  a  pad,
       then  this  can  be  given as pad.  Only the first character of the pad
       string(3,n) is used.

   Status Lines
       Some terminals have an extra `status line' which is not  normally  used
       by  software (and thus not counted in(1,8) the terminal's lines capability).

       The simplest case is a status line which is cursor-addressable but  not
       part of the main scrolling region on the screen; the Heathkit H19 has a
       status line of this kind, as would  a  24-line  VT100  with  a  23-line
       scrolling region set(7,n,1 builtins) up on initialization.  This situation is indicated
       by the hs capability.

       Some terminals with status lines need special sequences to  access(2,5)  the
       status  line.  These may be expressed as a string(3,n) with single parameter
       tsl which takes the cursor to a given zero-origin column on the  status
       line.   The  capability fsl must return to the main-screen cursor posi-
       tions before the last tsl.  You may need to embed the string(3,n) values  of
       sc  (save  cursor) and rc (restore cursor) in(1,8) tsl and fsl to accomplish

       The status line is normally assumed to be the same width as  the  width
       of  the  terminal.   If  this  is  untrue,  you can specify it with the
       numeric capability wsl.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as dsl.

       The boolean capability eslok specifies  that  escape  sequences,  tabs,
       etc., work ordinarily in(1,8) the status line.

       The  ncurses implementation does not yet use any of these capabilities.
       They are documented here in(1,8) case they ever become important.

   Line Graphics
       Many terminals have alternate character sets useful for  forms-drawing.
       Terminfo  and  curses  build in(1,8) support for the drawing characters sup-
       ported by the VT100, with some characters from the AT&T  4410v1  added.
       This alternate character set(7,n,1 builtins) may be specified by the acsc capability.

                Glyph                  ACS                Ascii          VT100
                 Name                  Name               Default        Name
       UK pound sign                   ACS_STERLING       f              }
       arrow pointing down             ACS_DARROW         v              .
       arrow pointing left             ACS_LARROW         <              ,
       arrow pointing right            ACS_RARROW         >              +
       arrow pointing up               ACS_UARROW         ^              -
       board of squares                ACS_BOARD          #              h
       bullet                          ACS_BULLET         o              ~
       checker board (stipple)         ACS_CKBOARD        :              a
       degree symbol                   ACS_DEGREE         \              f
       diamond                         ACS_DIAMOND        +              `
       greater-than-or-equal-to        ACS_GEQUAL         >              z
       greek pi                        ACS_PI             *              {
       horizontal line                 ACS_HLINE          -              q
       lantern symbol                  ACS_LANTERN        #              i
       large plus or crossover         ACS_PLUS           +              n
       less-than-or-equal-to           ACS_LEQUAL         <              y
       lower left corner               ACS_LLCORNER       +              m
       lower right corner              ACS_LRCORNER       +              j
       not-equal                       ACS_NEQUAL         !              |
       plus/minus                      ACS_PLMINUS        #              g
       scan line 1                     ACS_S1             ~              o
       scan line 3                     ACS_S3             -              p
       scan line 7                     ACS_S7             -              r
       scan line 9                     ACS_S9             _              s
       solid square block              ACS_BLOCK          #              0
       tee pointing down               ACS_TTEE           +              w
       tee pointing left               ACS_RTEE           +              u
       tee pointing right              ACS_LTEE           +              t
       tee pointing up                 ACS_BTEE           +              v
       upper left corner               ACS_ULCORNER       +              l
       upper right corner              ACS_URCORNER       +              k
       vertical line                   ACS_VLINE          |              x

       The  best  way to define a new device's graphics set(7,n,1 builtins) is to add a column
       to a copy of this table for your terminal, giving the  character  which
       (when  emitted  between  smacs/rmacs  switches) will be rendered as the
       corresponding graphic.  Then read(2,n,1 builtins) off the VT100/your terminal character
       pairs right to left in(1,8) sequence; these become the ACSC string.

   Color Handling
       Most  color  terminals  are either `Tektronix-like' or `HP-like'.  Tek-
       tronix-like terminals have a predefined set(7,n,1 builtins) of N colors (where  N  usu-
       ally  8),  and can set(7,n,1 builtins) character-cell foreground and background charac-
       ters independently, mixing them into N *  N  color-pairs.   On  HP-like
       terminals,  the  use must set(7,n,1 builtins) each color pair up separately (foreground
       and background are not independently settable).  Up  to  M  color-pairs
       may be set(7,n,1 builtins) up from 2*M different colors.  ANSI-compatible terminals are

       Some basic color capabilities are independent of the color method.  The
       numeric  capabilities  colors  and pairs specify the maximum numbers of
       colors and color-pairs that can be displayed  simultaneously.   The  op
       (original pair) string(3,n) resets foreground and background colors to their
       default values for the terminal.  The oc string(3,n) resets  all  colors  or
       color-pairs  to  their default values for the terminal.  Some terminals
       (including many PC terminal emulators) erase screen areas with the cur-
       rent  background  color  rather  than  the power-up default background;
       these should have the boolean capability bce.

       To change the current foreground or background color  on  a  Tektronix-
       type  terminal,  use  setaf  (set(7,n,1 builtins)  ANSI foreground) and setab (set(7,n,1 builtins) ANSI
       background) or setf (set(7,n,1 builtins) foreground) and setb (set(7,n,1 builtins) background).   These
       take one parameter, the color number.  The SVr4 documentation describes
       only setaf/setab; the XPG4 draft says that "If  the  terminal  supports
       ANSI  escape sequences to set(7,n,1 builtins) background and foreground, they should be
       coded as setaf and setab, respectively.  If the terminal supports other
       escape sequences to set(7,n,1 builtins) background and foreground, they should be coded
       as setf and setb, respectively.  The vidputs() function and the refresh
       functions use setaf and setab if(3,n) they are defined."

       The  setaf/setab and setf/setb capabilities take a single numeric argu-
       ment each.  Argument values 0-7 of setaf/setab are portably defined  as
       follows  (the  middle  column  is the symbolic #define available in(1,8) the
       header for the curses or ncurses libraries).  The terminal hardware  is
       free to map these as it likes, but the RGB values indicate normal loca-
       tions in(1,8) color space.

                    Color       #define       Value       RGB
                    black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                    red       COLOR_RED         1     max,0,0
                    green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                    yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      3     max,max,0
                    blue      COLOR_BLUE        4     0,0,max
                    magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                    cyan      COLOR_CYAN        6     0,max,max
                    white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       The argument values of setf/setb historically correspond to a different
       mapping, i.e.,

                    Color       #define       Value       RGB
                    black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                    blue      COLOR_BLUE        1     0,0,max
                    green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                    cyan      COLOR_CYAN        3     0,max,max
                    red       COLOR_RED         4     max,0,0
                    magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                    yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      6     max,max,0
                    white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max
       It is important to not confuse the two sets of color capabilities; oth-
       erwise red/blue will be interchanged on the display.

       On an HP-like terminal, use scp with a color-pair number  parameter  to
       set(7,n,1 builtins) which color pair is current.

       On  a  Tektronix-like  terminal,  the  capability ccc may be present to
       indicate that colors can be modified.  If so, the initc capability will
       take  a  color  number (0 to colors - 1)and three more parameters which
       describe the color.  These three parameters  default  to  being  inter-
       preted as RGB (Red, Green, Blue) values.  If the boolean capability hls
       is present, they  are  instead  as  HLS  (Hue,  Lightness,  Saturation)
       indices.  The ranges are terminal-dependent.

       On  an  HP-like  terminal,  initp  may give a capability for changing a
       color-pair value.  It will take seven parameters; a  color-pair  number
       (0  to  max_pairs - 1), and two triples describing first background and
       then foreground colors.  These parameters must be (Red, Green, Blue) or
       (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on hls.

       On  some color terminals, colors collide with highlights.  You can reg-
       ister these collisions with the ncv capability.  This is a bit-mask  of
       attributes  not to be used when colors are enabled.  The correspondence
       with the attributes understood by curses is as follows:

                            Attribute      Bit   Decimal
                            A_STANDOUT     0     1

                            A_UNDERLINE    1     2
                            A_REVERSE      2     4
                            A_BLINK        3     8
                            A_DIM          4     16
                            A_BOLD         5     32
                            A_INVIS        6     64
                            A_PROTECT      7     128
                            A_ALTCHARSET   8     256

       For example, on many IBM PC consoles, the underline attribute  collides
       with  the  foreground  color  blue  and is not available in(1,8) color mode.
       These should have an ncv capability of 2.

       SVr4 curses does nothing with ncv, ncurses recognizes it and  optimizes
       the output in(1,8) favor of colors.

       If  the  terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
       then this can be given as pad.  Only the first  character  of  the  pad
       string(3,n) is used.  If the terminal does not have a pad character, specify
       npc.  Note that ncurses implements the termcap-compatible PC  variable;
       though  the  application  may  set(7,n,1 builtins) this value to something other than a
       null, ncurses will test npc first and use napms if(3,n) the terminal has  no
       pad character.

       If  the terminal can move(3x,7,3x curs_move) up or down half a line, this can be indicated
       with hu (half-line up) and hd (half-line down).  This is primarily use-
       ful for superscripts and subscripts on hard-copy terminals.  If a hard-
       copy terminal can eject to the next page (form feed), give this  as  ff
       (usually control L).

       If  there  is  a  command to repeat a given character a given number of
       times (to save time(1,2,n) transmitting a large number  of  identical  charac-
       ters)  this  can  be  indicated with the parameterized string(3,n) rep.  The
       first parameter is the character to be repeated and the second  is  the
       number of times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10) is the
       same as `xxxxxxxxxx'.

       If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the TEKTRONIX
       4025,  this can be indicated with cmdch.  A prototype command character
       is chosen which is used in(1,8) all capabilities.  This character  is  given
       in(1,8)  the  cmdch  capability to identify it.  The following convention is
       supported on some UNIX systems: The environment is to be searched for a
       CC  variable,  and if(3,n) found, all occurrences of the prototype character
       are replaced with the character in(1,8) the environment variable.

       Terminal descriptions that do not represent a specific  kind  of  known
       terminal,  such  as  switch(1,n), dialup, patch, and network, should include
       the gn (generic) capability so that programs can complain that they  do
       not  know how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability does not apply
       to virtual(5,8) terminal descriptions for which  the  escape  sequences  are

       If  the  terminal has a ``meta key'' which acts as a shift key, setting
       the 8th bit of any character transmitted, this fact  can  be  indicated
       with  km.   Otherwise,  software will assume that the 8th bit is parity
       and it will usually be cleared.  If strings exist to turn  this  ``meta
       mode'' on and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen at
       once, the number of lines of memory can be indicated with lm.  A  value
       of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed, but that there
       is still more memory than fits on the screen.

       If the terminal is one of those supported by the UNIX virtual(5,8)  terminal
       protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.

       Media  copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected to the
       terminal can be given as mc0: print the contents of  the  screen,  mc4:
       turn  off  the printer, and mc5: turn on the printer.  When the printer
       is on, all text sent to the terminal will be sent to the  printer.   It
       is  undefined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal screen
       when the printer is on.  A variation  mc5p  takes  one  parameter,  and
       leaves the printer on for as many characters as the value of the param-
       eter, then turns the printer off.  The parameter should not exceed 255.
       All  text,  including mc4, is transparently passed to the printer while
       an mc5p is in(1,8) effect.

   Glitches and Braindamage
       Hazeltine terminals, which do not allow `~' characters to be  displayed
       should indicate hz.

       Terminals  which  ignore a line-feed immediately after an am wrap, such
       as the Concept and vt100, should indicate xenl.

       If el is required to get rid of standout  (instead  of  merely  writing
       normal text on top of it), xhp should be given.

       Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks,
       should indicate xt (destructive tabs).  Note: the  variable  indicating
       this  is  now  `dest_tabs_magic_smso';  in(1,8)  older versions, it was tel-
       eray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it is not possible
       to  position  the  cursor  on  top of a ``magic(4,5) cookie'', that to erase
       standout mode it is instead necessary to use delete  and  insert  line.
       The ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.

       The  Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the escape
       or control C characters, has xsb, indicating that the f1  key  is  used
       for  escape  and  f2  for control C.  (Only certain Superbees have this
       problem, depending on the ROM.)  Note that in(1,8) older terminfo  versions,
       this  capability was called `beehive_glitch'; it is now `no_esc_ctl_c'.

       Other specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more  capa-
       bilities of the form xx.

   Similar Terminals
       If  there  are  two  very  similar  terminals, one (the variant) can be
       defined as being just like the other (the  base)  with  certain  excep-
       tions.  In the definition of the variant, the string(3,n) capability use can
       be given with the name of the base terminal.   The  capabilities  given
       before  use override those in(1,8) the base type named(5,8) by use.  If there are
       multiple use capabilities, they are merged in(1,8) reverse order.  That  is,
       the  rightmost  use  reference  is processed first, then the one to its
       left, and so forth.  Capabilities given explicitly in(1,8) the  entry  over-
       ride those brought in(1,8) by use references.

       A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of the use ref-
       erence that imports it, where xx is the capability.  For  example,  the

                   2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines a 2621-nl that does not have the smkx or rmkx capabilities, and
       hence does not turn on the function key labels  when  in(1,8)  visual  mode.
       This  is  useful  for  different modes for a terminal, or for different
       user preferences.

   Pitfalls of Long Entries
       Long terminfo entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date,  no  entry
       has even approached terminfo's 4K string-table maximum.  Unfortunately,
       the termcap translations are much more strictly limited (to  1K),  thus
       termcap translations of long terminfo entries can cause problems.

       The  man(1,5,7)  pages for 4.3BSD and older versions of tgetent() instruct the
       user to allocate a 1K buffer for the termcap  entry.   The  entry  gets(3,n)
       null-terminated  by the termcap library, so that makes the maximum safe
       length for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.  Depending  on  what  the
       application  and  the termcap library being used does, and where in(1,8) the
       termcap file(1,n) the terminal type that tgetent() is searching for is, sev-
       eral bad things can happen.

       Some  termcap libraries print a warning message or exit(3,n,1 builtins) if(3,n) they find an
       entry that's longer than 1023 bytes; others don't; others truncate(2,7)  the
       entries  to  1023  bytes.  Some application programs allocate more than
       the recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others don't.

       Each termcap entry has two important sizes associated with  it:  before
       "tc"  expansion, and after "tc" expansion.  "tc" is the capability that
       tacks on another termcap entry to the end of the current one, to add on
       its  capabilities.  If a termcap entry doesn't use the "tc" capability,
       then of course the two lengths are the same.

       The "before tc expansion" length is the most important one, because  it
       affects  more than just users(1,5) of that particular terminal.  This is the
       length of the entry as it exists in(1,8) /etc/termcap, minus the  backslash-
       newline pairs, which tgetent() strips out while reading it.  Some term-
       cap libraries strip off the final newline, too (GNU termcap does  not).
       Now suppose:

       *    a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes long,

       *    and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

       *    and the termcap library (like the one in(1,8) BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU) reads
            the whole entry into the buffer, no matter what its length, to see
            if(3,n) it's the entry it wants,

       *    and  tgetent() is searching for a terminal type that either is the
            long entry, appears in(1,8) the termcap file(1,n) after the long  entry,  or
            doesn't appear in(1,8) the file(1,n) at all (so that tgetent() has to search
            the whole termcap file(1,n)).

       Then tgetent() will overwrite memory, perhaps its stack,  and  probably
       core  dump the program.  Programs like telnet are particularly vulnera-
       ble; modern telnets pass along values like the terminal type  automati-
       cally.   The  results are almost as undesirable with a termcap library,
       like SunOS 4.1.3 and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages  when  it
       reads  an  overly  long  termcap entry.  If a termcap library truncates
       long entries, like OSF/1 3.0, it is  immune  to  dying  here  but  will
       return incorrect data for the terminal.

       The  "after  tc  expansion"  length  will  have a similar effect to the
       above, but only for people who actually set(7,n,1 builtins) TERM to that terminal type,
       since  tgetent()  only does "tc" expansion once it's found the terminal
       type it was looking for, not while searching.

       In summary, a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes  can  cause,
       on  various  combinations of termcap libraries and applications, a core
       dump, warnings, or incorrect operation.  If it's too long  even  before
       "tc"  expansion,  it will have this effect even for users(1,5) of some other
       terminal types and users(1,5) whose TERM variable does not  have  a  termcap

       When  in(1,8)  -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses implementation of
       tic(1) issues warning messages when the  pre-tc  length  of  a  termcap
       translation  is  too  long.  The -c (check) option also checks resolved
       (after tc expansion) lengths.

   Binary Compatibility
       It is not wise to count  on  portability  of  binary  terminfo  entries
       between  commercial  UNIX  versions.   The problem is that there are at
       least two versions of terminfo (under HP-UX  and  AIX)  which  diverged
       from  System  V terminfo after SVr1, and have added extension capabili-
       ties to the string(3,n) table that (in(1,8) the binary format) collide with  Sys-
       tem V and XSI Curses extensions.

       Some  SVr4  curses  implementations,  and  all  previous to SVr4, don't
       interpret the %A and %O operators in(1,8) parameter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4 do not specify whether msgr licenses  movement  while  in(1,8)  an
       alternate-character-set  mode  (such modes may, among other things, map
       CR and NL to characters that don't trigger local motions).  The ncurses
       implementation ignores msgr in(1,8) ALTCHARSET mode.  This raises the possi-
       bility that an XPG4 implementation making the  opposite  interpretation
       may need terminfo entries made for ncurses to have msgr turned off.

       The ncurses library handles insert-character and insert-character modes
       in(1,8) a slightly non-standard way to get better  update(7,n)  efficiency.   See
       the Insert/Delete Character subsection above.

       The  parameter  substitutions  for  set_clock and display_clock are not
       documented in(1,8) SVr4 or the XSI Curses standard.  They are  deduced  from
       the documentation for the AT&T 505 terminal.

       Be careful assigning the kmous capability.  The ncurses wants to inter-
       pret it as KEY_MOUSE, for use by terminals  and  emulators  like  xterm
       that  can  return  mouse-tracking  information  in(1,8)  the  keyboard-input

       Different commercial ports of terminfo  and  curses  support  different
       subsets of the XSI Curses standard and (in(1,8) some cases) different exten-
       sion sets.  Here is a summary, accurate as of October 1995:

       SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4 capabilities.

       SGI -- Supports the SVr4 set(7,n,1 builtins), adds  one  undocumented(2,3)  extended  string(3,n)
       capability (set_pglen).

       SVr1, Ultrix -- These support a restricted subset of terminfo capabili-
       ties.  The booleans end with xon_xoff;  the  numerics  with  width_sta-
       tus_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

       HP/UX   --  Supports  the  SVr1  subset,  plus  the  SVr[234]  numerics
       num_labels, label_height, label_width, plus function  keys  11  through
       63,  plus  plab_norm,  label_on,  and label_off, plus some incompatible
       extensions in(1,8) the string(3,n) table.

       AIX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11 through 63, plus
       a number of incompatible string(3,n) table extensions.

       OSF -- Supports both the SVr4 set(7,n,1 builtins) and the AIX extensions.

       /usr/share/terminfo/?/*  files containing terminal descriptions

       tic(1M), curses(3X), printf(1,3,1 builtins)(3S), term(5,7)(5).

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel Curtis.


References for this manual (incoming links)