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mysql_table(5) - mysql_table - Postfix MySQL client configuration - man 5 mysql_table

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MYSQL_TABLE(5)                                                  MYSQL_TABLE(5)

       mysql_table - Postfix MySQL client configuration

       postmap -q "string(3,n)" mysql:/etc/postfix/filename

       postmap -q - mysql:/etc/postfix/filename <inputfile

       The  Postfix  mail(1,8) system uses optional tables for address rewriting or
       mail(1,8) routing. These tables are usually in(1,8) dbm or db format.

       Alternatively, lookup tables can be specified as MySQL  databases.   In
       order  to use MySQL lookups, define a MySQL source as a lookup table in(1,8), for example:
           alias_maps = mysql:/etc/

       The file(1,n) /etc/postfix/ has the same format as the Post-
       fix file(1,n), and can specify the parameters described below.

       For  compatibility  with  other Postfix lookup tables, MySQL parameters
       can also be defined in(1,8)  In order to do that, specify as  MySQL
       source  a  name  that  doesn't  begin with a slash or a dot.  The MySQL
       parameters will then be accessible as the name you've given the  source
       in(1,8)  its  definition, an underscore, and the name of the parameter.  For
       example, if(3,n) the map is specified as  "mysql:mysqlname",  the  parameter
       "hosts" below would be defined in(1,8) as "mysqlname_hosts".

       Note:  with  this form, the passwords for the MySQL sources are written
       in(1,8), which is normally world-readable.  Support  for  this  form
       will be removed in(1,8) a future Postfix version.

       Postfix  2.2  has  enhanced  query  interfaces for MySQL and PostreSQL,
       these include features previously available only in(1,8)  the  Postfix  LDAP
       client.  In  the  new interface the SQL query is specified via a single
       query parameter (described in(1,8) more detail below).  When the  new  query
       parameter  is  not  specified in(1,8) the map definition, Postfix reverts to
       the  old  interface,  with  the  SQL   query   constructed   from   the
       select_field,  table, where_field and additional_conditions parameters.
       The old interface will be gradually phased out. To migrate to  the  new
       interface set:

           query = SELECT [select_field]
               FROM [table]
               WHERE [where_field] = '%s'

       Insert the value, not the name, of each legacy parameter. Note that the
       additional_conditions parameter is optional  and  if(3,n)  not  empty,  will
       always start with AND.

       When  using  SQL  to  store  lists such as $mynetworks, $mydestination,
       $relay_domains, $local_recipient_maps, etc., it is important to  under-
       stand that the table must store each list member as a separate key. The
       table lookup verifies the *existence* of the key.  See  "Postfix  lists
       versus tables" in(1,8) the DATABASE_README document for a discussion.

       Do  NOT create tables that return the full list of domains in(1,8) $mydesti-
       nation or $relay_domains etc., or IP addresses in(1,8) $mynetworks.

       DO create tables with each matching item as a key and with an arbitrary
       value.  With  SQL databases it is not uncommon to return the key itself
       or a constant value.

       hosts  The hosts that Postfix will try to connect to  and  query  from.
              Specify unix: for UNIX domain sockets, inet: for TCP connections
              (default).  Example:
                  hosts = host1.some.domain host2.some.domain
                  hosts = unix:/file(1,n)/name

              The hosts are tried in(1,8) random(3,4,6) order, with all  connections  over
              UNIX domain sockets being tried before those over TCP.  The con-
              nections are automatically closed after being idle for  about  1
              minute, and are re-opened as necessary. Postfix versions 2.0 and
              earlier do not randomize the host(1,5) order.

              NOTE: if(3,n) you specify localhost as a hostname (even if(3,n) you prefix
              it  with  inet:),  MySQL will connect to the default UNIX domain
              socket.  In order to instruct MySQL to connect to localhost over
              TCP you have to specify
                  hosts =

       user, password
              The  user name and password to log into the mysql server.  Exam-
                  user = someone
                  password = some_password

       dbname The database name on the servers. Example:
                  dbname = customer_database

       query  The SQL query template used to search the database, where %s  is
              a  substitute for the address Postfix is trying to resolve, e.g.
                  query = SELECT replacement FROM aliases WHERE mailbox = '%s'

              This parameter supports the following '%' expansions:

              %%     This is replaced by a literal '%' character.

              %s     This  is  replaced by the input key.  SQL quoting is used
                     to make sure that the input key does not  add  unexpected

              %u     When the input key is an address of the form user@domain,
                     %u is replaced by  the  SQL  quoted  local  part  of  the
                     address.   Otherwise, %u is replaced by the entire search
                     string.  If the localpart is empty,  the  query  is  sup-
                     pressed and returns no results.

              %d     When the input key is an address of the form user@domain,
                     %d is replaced by the  SQL  quoted  domain  part  of  the
                     address.   Otherwise, the query is suppressed and returns
                     no results.

              %[SUD] The upper-case equivalents of the above expansions behave
                     in(1,8)  the  query  parameter identically to their lower-case
                     counter-parts.  With  the  result_format  parameter  (see
                     below),  they expand the input key rather than the result

              %[1-9] The patterns %1, %2, ... %9 are replaced  by  the  corre-
                     sponding  most  significant  component of the input key's
                     domain. If the input key is,  then
                     %1 is com, %2 is example and %3 is mail(1,8). If the input key
                     is unqualified or does not have enough domain  components
                     to  satisfy all the specified patterns, the query is sup-
                     pressed and returns no results.

              The domain parameter described below limits the  input  keys  to
              addresses in(1,8) matching domains. When the domain parameter is non-
              empty, SQL queries for unqualified  addresses  or  addresses  in(1,8)
              non-matching domains are suppressed and return no results.

              This  parameter is available with Postfix 2.2. In prior releases
              the  SQL  query  was  built  from   the   separate   parameters:
              select_field,  table, where_field and additional_conditions. The
              mapping from the old parameters to the equivalent query is:

                  SELECT [select_field]
                  FROM [table]
                  WHERE [where_field] = '%s'

              The '%s' in(1,8) the WHERE  clause  expands  to  the  escaped  search
              string.   With  Postfix  2.2 these legacy parameters are used if(3,n)
              the query parameter is not specified.

              NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the query parameter.

       result_format (default: %s)
              Format template applied to result attributes. Most commonly used
              to  append  (or prepend) text to the result. This parameter sup-
              ports the following '%' expansions:

              %%     This is replaced by a literal '%' character.

              %s     This is replaced by the value of  the  result  attribute.
                     When result is empty it is skipped.

              %u     When the result attribute value is an address of the form
                     user@domain, %u is replaced by  the  local  part  of  the
                     address.  When  the  result  has an empty localpart it is

              %d     When a result attribute value is an address of  the  form
                     user@domain,  %d  is  replaced  by the domain part of the
                     attribute value. When the result  is  unqualified  it  is

                     The  upper-case  and decimal digit expansions interpolate
                     the parts of the input key rather than the result.  Their
                     behavior  is  identical to that described with query, and
                     in(1,8) fact because  the  input  key  is  known  in(1,8)  advance,
                     queries  whose  key  does not contain all the information
                     specified in(1,8)  the  result  template  are  suppressed  and
                     return no results.

              For example, using "result_format = smtp:[%s]" allows one to use
              a mailHost attribute as the basis of a transport(5) table. After
              applying  the result format, multiple values are concatenated as
              comma  separated  strings.  The  expansion_limit  and  parameter
              explained  below  allows one to restrict the number of values in(1,8)
              the result, which is especially useful for maps that must return
              at most one value.

              The  default value %s specifies that each result value should be
              used as is.

              This parameter is available with Postfix 2.2 and later.

              NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the result format!

       domain (default: no domain list)
              This is a list of domain names, paths to files, or dictionaries.
              When  specified,  only  fully qualified search keys with a *non-
              empty* localpart and a matching domain are eligible for  lookup:
              'user'  lookups,  bare  domain lookups and "@domain" lookups are
              not performed. This can significantly reduce the query  load(7,n)  on
              the MySQL server.
                  domain =, hash:/etc/postfix/searchdomains

              It  is best not to use SQL to store the domains eligible for SQL

              This parameter is available with Postfix 2.2 and later.

              NOTE: DO NOT define this parameter for local(8) aliases, because
              the input keys are always unqualified.

       expansion_limit (default: 0)
              A  limit  on  the total number of result elements returned (as a
              comma separated list) by a lookup against the map.  A setting of
              zero  disables the limit. Lookups fail with a temporary error(8,n) if(3,n)
              the limit is exceeded.  Setting the  limit  to  1  ensures  that
              lookups do not return multiple values.

       The  following  parameters  can  be  used  to fill in(1,8) a SELECT template
       statement of the form:

           SELECT [select_field]
           FROM [table]
           WHERE [where_field] = '%s'

       The specifier %s is replaced by the search string(3,n), and is escaped so if(3,n)
       it  contains single quotes or other odd characters, it will not cause a
       parse error(8,n), or worse, a security problem.

       As of Postfix 2.2 this interface is obsolete, it  is  replaced  by  the
       more  general  query interface described above.  If the query parameter
       is defined, the legacy parameters are ignored. Please  migrate  to  the
       new  interface  as  the  legacy  interface  may  be removed in(1,8) a future

              The SQL "select(2,7,2 select_tut)" parameter. Example:
                  select_field = forw_addr

       table  The SQL "select(2,7,2 select_tut) .. from" table name. Example:
                  table = mxaliases

              The SQL "select(2,7,2 select_tut) .. where" parameter. Example:
                  where_field = alias

              Additional conditions to the SQL query. Example:
                  additional_conditions = AND status = 'paid'

       postmap(1), Postfix lookup table maintenance
       postconf(1,5)(5), configuration parameters
       ldap_table(5), LDAP lookup tables
       pgsql_table(5), PostgreSQL lookup tables

       Use "postconf(1,5) readme_directory" or "postconf(1,5) html_directory" to  locate
       this information.
       DATABASE_README, Postfix lookup table overview
       MYSQL_README, Postfix MYSQL client guide

       The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.

       MySQL support was introduced with Postfix version(1,3,5) 1.0.

       Original implementation by:
       Scott Cotton, Joshua Marcus
       IC Group, Inc.

       Further enhancements by:
       Liviu Daia
       Institute of Mathematics of the Romanian Academy
       P.O. BOX 1-764
       RO-014700 Bucharest, ROMANIA


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