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STRTOL(3) Linux Programmer's Manual STRTOL(3)NAMEstrtol, strtoll, strtoq - convert a string(3,n) to a long integerSYNOPSIS#include <stdlib.h>long intstrtol(const char *nptr, char **endptr, intbase);long long intstrtoll(const char *nptr, char **endptr, intbase);DESCRIPTIONThestrtol()function converts the initial part of the string(3,n) in(1,8) nptr to a long integer value according to the given base, which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0. The string(3,n) must begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as determined byisspace(3)) followed by a single optional `+' or `-' sign. If base is zero or 16, the string(3,n) may then include a `0x' pre- fix, and the number will be read(2,n,1 builtins) in(1,8) base 16; otherwise, a zero base is taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next character is `0', in(1,8) which case it is taken as 8 (octal). The remainder of the string(3,n) is converted to a long int value in(1,8) the obvious manner, stopping at the first character which is not a valid digit in(1,8) the given base. (In bases above 10, the letter `A' in(1,8) either upper or lower case represents 10, `B' represents 11, and so forth, with `Z' representing 35.) If endptr is not NULL,strtol()stores the address of the first invalid character in(1,8) *endptr. If there were no digits at all,strtol()stores the original value of nptr in(1,8) *endptr (and returns 0). In particular, if(3,n) *nptr is not `\0' but **endptr is `\0' on return, the entire string(3,n) is valid. Thestrtoll()function works just like thestrtol()function but returns a long long integer value.RETURN VALUEThestrtol()function returns the result of the conversion, unless the value would underflow or overflow. If an underflow occurs,strtol()returns LONG_MIN. If an overflow occurs,strtol()returns LONG_MAX. In both cases, errno is set(7,n,1 builtins) to ERANGE. Precisely the same holds forstrtoll()(with LLONG_MIN and LLONG_MAX instead of LONG_MIN and LONG_MAX).ERRORSEINVAL(not in(1,8) C99) The given base contains an unsupported value.ERANGEThe resulting value was out of range. The implementation may also set(7,n,1 builtins) errno toEINVALin(1,8) case no conversion was performed (no digits seen, and 0 returned).NOTESIn locales other than the "C" locale(3,5,7), also other strings may be accepted. (For example, the thousands separator of the current locale(3,5,7) may be supported.) BSD also hasquad_tstrtoq(const char *nptr, char **endptr, intbase);with completely analogous definition. Depending on the wordsize of the current architecture, this may be equivalent tostrtoll()or tostr-tol().CONFORMING TOstrtol()conforms to SVID 3, BSD 4.3, ISO 9899 (C99) and POSIX, andstrtoll()to ISO 9899 (C99) and POSIX 1003.1-2001.SEE ALSOatof(3),atoi(3),atol(3),strtod(3),strtoul(3) GNU 2002-05-30 STRTOL(3)