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readline(3) - readline, readline - get a line from a user with editing - man 3 readline

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READLINE(3)                                                        READLINE(3)



NAME
       readline - get a line from a user with editing

SYNOPSIS
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <readline/readline.h>
       #include <readline/history.h>

       char *
       readline (const char *prompt);

COPYRIGHT
       Readline  is  Copyright  (C) 1989-2002 by the Free Software Foundation,
       Inc.

DESCRIPTION
       readline will read(2,n,1 builtins) a line from the terminal and return it, using prompt
       as  a  prompt.   If  prompt  is  NULL or the empty string(3,n), no prompt is
       issued.  The line returned is allocated with malloc(3); the caller must
       free  it  when  finished.   The  line  returned  has  the final newline
       removed, so only the text of the line remains.

       readline offers editing capabilities while the  user  is  entering  the
       line.   By  default,  the line editing commands are similar to those of
       emacs.  A vi-style line editing interface is also available.

       This manual page describes only the most basic use of  readline.   Much
       more  functionality  is available; see The GNU Readline Library and The
       GNU History Library for additional information.

RETURN VALUE
       readline returns the text of the line read.  A blank line  returns  the
       empty string.  If EOF is encountered while reading a line, and the line
       is empty, NULL is returned.  If an EOF is read(2,n,1 builtins) with a  non-empty  line,
       it is treated as a newline.

NOTATION
       An emacs-style notation is used to denote keystrokes.  Control keys are
       denoted by C-key, e.g., C-n means Control-N.  Similarly, meta keys  are
       denoted  by  M-key,  so M-x means Meta-X.  (On keyboards without a meta
       key, M-x means ESC x, i.e., press the Escape key then the x key.   This
       makes  ESC the meta prefix.  The combination M-C-x means ESC-Control-x,
       or press the Escape key then hold the Control key while pressing the  x
       key.)

       Readline commands may be given numeric arguments, which normally act as
       a repeat count.  Sometimes, however, it is the  sign  of  the  argument
       that  is  significant.   Passing  a negative argument to a command that
       acts in(1,8) the forward direction (e.g., kill-line) causes that command  to
       act  in(1,8)  a  backward direction.  Commands whose behavior with arguments
       deviates from this are noted.

       When a command is described as killing text, the text deleted is  saved
       for possible future retrieval (yanking).  The killed text is saved in(1,8) a
       kill(1,2,1 builtins) ring.  Consecutive kills cause the text to be accumulated into one
       unit, which can be yanked all at once.  Commands which do not kill(1,2,1 builtins) text
       separate the chunks of text on the kill(1,2,1 builtins) ring.

INITIALIZATION FILE
       Readline is customized by putting commands in(1,8)  an  initialization  file(1,n)
       (the  inputrc  file(1,n)).  The name of this file(1,n) is taken from the value of
       the INPUTRC environment variable.   If  that  variable  is  unset,  the
       default  is ~/.inputrc.  When a program which uses the readline library
       starts up, the init file(1,n) is read(2,n,1 builtins), and the key  bindings  and  variables
       are set.  There are only a few basic constructs allowed in(1,8) the readline
       init file.  Blank lines are ignored.  Lines beginning with a # are com-
       ments.   Lines  beginning  with  a  $  indicate conditional constructs.
       Other lines denote key bindings and variable  settings.   Each  program
       using this library may add its own commands and bindings.

       For example, placing

              M-Control-u: universal-argument
       or
              C-Meta-u: universal-argument

       into  the inputrc would make M-C-u execute the readline command univer-
       sal-argument.

       The following symbolic character names are recognized while  processing
       key  bindings:  DEL,  ESC,  ESCAPE,  LFD, NEWLINE, RET, RETURN, RUBOUT,
       SPACE, SPC, and TAB.

       In addition to command names, readline allows keys to  be  bound  to  a
       string(3,n) that is inserted when the key is pressed (a macro).


   Key Bindings
       The  syntax for controlling key bindings in(1,8) the inputrc file(1,n) is simple.
       All that is required is the name of the command or the text of a  macro
       and  a key sequence to which it should be bound. The name may be speci-
       fied in(1,8) one of two ways: as a symbolic key name, possibly with Meta- or
       Control- prefixes, or as a key sequence.

       When using the form keyname:function-name or macro, keyname is the name
       of a key spelled out in(1,8) English.  For example:

              Control-u: universal-argument
              Meta-Rubout: backward-kill-word
              Control-o: "> output"

       In the above example, C-u is bound to the function  universal-argument,
       M-DEL  is bound to the function backward-kill-word, and C-o is bound to
       run the macro expressed on the right hand side (that is, to insert  the
       text ``> output'' into the line).

       In  the  second  form,  "keyseq":function-name or macro, keyseq differs
       from keyname above in(1,8) that strings denoting an entire key sequence  may
       be  specified  by  placing the sequence within double quotes.  Some GNU
       Emacs style key escapes can be used, as in(1,8) the following  example,  but
       the symbolic character names are not recognized.

              "\C-u": universal-argument
              "\C-x\C-r": re-read-init-file
              "\e[11~": "Function Key 1"

       In this example, C-u is again bound to the function universal-argument.
       C-x C-r is bound to the function re-read-init-file, and ESC [ 1 1 ~  is
       bound to insert the text ``Function Key 1''.

       The  full set(7,n,1 builtins) of GNU Emacs style escape sequences available when speci-
       fying key sequences is
              \C-    control prefix
              \M-    meta prefix
              \e     an escape character
              \\     backslash
              \"     literal ", a double quote
              \'     literal ', a single quote

       In addition to the GNU Emacs style escape sequences, a  second  set(7,n,1 builtins)  of
       backslash escapes is available:
              \a     alert (bell)
              \b     backspace
              \d     delete
              \f     form feed
              \n     newline
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \nnn   the  eight-bit  character  whose value is the octal value
                     nnn (one to three digits)
              \xHH   the eight-bit character whose value  is  the  hexadecimal
                     value HH (one or two hex digits)

       When  entering  the  text of a macro, single or double quotes should be
       used to indicate a macro definition.  Unquoted text is assumed to be  a
       function  name.   In  the  macro  body, the backslash escapes described
       above are expanded.  Backslash will quote any other  character  in(1,8)  the
       macro text, including " and '.

       Bash  allows the current readline key bindings to be displayed or modi-
       fied with the bind(2,n,1 builtins) builtin command.  The editing mode may  be  switched
       during  interactive  use by using the -o option to the set(7,n,1 builtins) builtin com-
       mand.  Other programs using this library  provide  similar  mechanisms.
       The  inputrc  file(1,n) may be edited and re-read if(3,n) a program does not pro-
       vide any other means to incorporate new bindings.

   Variables
       Readline has variables that can be used to further customize its behav-
       ior.  A variable may be set(7,n,1 builtins) in(1,8) the inputrc file(1,n) with a statement of the
       form

              set(7,n,1 builtins) variable-name value

       Except where noted, readline variables can take the values  On  or  Off
       (without regard to case).  The variables and their default values are:

       bell-style (audible)
              Controls  what  happens when readline wants to ring the terminal
              bell.  If set(7,n,1 builtins) to none, readline never rings the bell.  If set(7,n,1 builtins) to
              visible,  readline  uses a visible bell if(3,n) one is available.  If
              set(7,n,1 builtins) to audible, readline attempts to ring the terminal's bell.
       comment-begin (``#'')
              The string(3,n) that is inserted in(1,8) vi mode when  the  insert-comment
              command is executed.  This command is bound to M-# in(1,8) emacs mode
              and to # in(1,8) vi command mode.
       completion-ignore-case (Off)
              If set(7,n,1 builtins) to On, readline performs filename matching and completion
              in(1,8) a case-insensitive fashion.
       completion-query-items (100)
              This  determines when the user is queried about viewing the num-
              ber of possible completions generated  by  the  possible-comple-
              tions  command.  It may be set(7,n,1 builtins) to any integer value greater than
              or equal to zero.  If the  number  of  possible  completions  is
              greater than or equal to the value of this variable, the user is
              asked whether or not he wishes to view them; otherwise they  are
              simply listed on the terminal.
       convert-meta (On)
              If  set(7,n,1 builtins)  to On, readline will convert characters with the eighth
              bit set(7,n,1 builtins) to an ASCII key sequence by stripping the eighth bit and
              prefixing  it  with an escape character (in(1,8) effect, using escape
              as the meta prefix).
       disable-completion (Off)
              If set(7,n,1 builtins) to On, readline will inhibit word completion.  Completion
              characters  will  be  inserted into the line as if(3,n) they had been
              mapped to self-insert.
       editing-mode (emacs)
              Controls whether readline begins with a set(7,n,1 builtins) of key bindings sim-
              ilar to emacs or vi.  editing-mode can be set(7,n,1 builtins) to either emacs or
              vi.
       enable-keypad (Off)
              When set(7,n,1 builtins) to On, readline will try to enable the application key-
              pad  when  it  is  called.  Some systems need this to enable the
              arrow keys.
       expand-tilde (Off)
              If set(7,n,1 builtins)  to  on,  tilde  expansion  is  performed  when  readline
              attempts word completion.
       history-preserve-point
              If  set(7,n,1 builtins)  to  on, the history(1,3,n,1 builtins) code attempts to place point at the
              same location on each history(1,3,n,1 builtins) line retrived  with  previous-his-
              tory or next-history.
       horizontal-scroll-mode (Off)
              When  set(7,n,1 builtins)  to  On, makes readline use a single line for display,
              scrolling the input horizontally on a single screen line when it
              becomes  longer  than the screen width rather than wrapping to a
              new line.
       input-meta (Off)
              If set(7,n,1 builtins) to On, readline will enable eight-bit input (that is,  it
              will  not  clear(1,3x,3x clrtobot)  the  eighth  bit  in(1,8) the characters it reads),
              regardless of what the terminal claims it can support.  The name
              meta-flag is a synonym for this variable.
       isearch-terminators (``C-[ C-J'')
              The  string(3,n)  of  characters that should terminate an incremental
              search without subsequently executing the character  as  a  com-
              mand.   If this variable has not been given a value, the charac-
              ters ESC and C-J will terminate an incremental search.
       keymap (emacs)
              Set the current readline keymap.  The set(7,n,1 builtins) of legal keymap  names
              is  emacs,  emacs-standard, emacs-meta, emacs-ctlx, vi, vi-move,
              vi-command, and vi-insert.   vi  is  equivalent  to  vi-command;
              emacs  is  equivalent  to  emacs-standard.  The default value is
              emacs.  The value  of  editing-mode  also  affects  the  default
              keymap.
       mark-directories (On)
              If set(7,n,1 builtins) to On, completed directory names have a slash appended.
       mark-modified-lines (Off)
              If  set(7,n,1 builtins)  to  On,  history(1,3,n,1 builtins) lines that have been modified are dis-
              played with a preceding asterisk (*).
       mark-symlinked-directories (Off)
              If set(7,n,1 builtins) to On, completed names which are symbolic links to direc-
              tories   have   a  slash  appended  (subject  to  the  value  of
              mark-directories).
       match-hidden-files (On)
              This variable, when set(7,n,1 builtins) to On, causes readline  to  match  files
              whose  names  begin  with  a  `.' (hidden files) when performing
              filename completion, unless the leading `.' is supplied  by  the
              user in(1,8) the filename to be completed.
       output-meta (Off)
              If  set(7,n,1 builtins)  to On, readline will display characters with the eighth
              bit set(7,n,1 builtins) directly rather than as a meta-prefixed escape sequence.
       page-completions (On)
              If  set(7,n,1 builtins) to On, readline uses an internal more-like pager to dis-
              play a screenful of possible completions at a time.
       print-completions-horizontally (Off)
              If set(7,n,1 builtins) to On, readline will  display  completions  with  matches
              sorted  horizontally in(1,8) alphabetical order, rather than down the
              screen.
       show-all-if-ambiguous (Off)
              This alters the default behavior of  the  completion  functions.
              If set(7,n,1 builtins) to on, words which have more than one possible completion
              cause the matches to be listed immediately  instead  of  ringing
              the bell.
       visible-stats (Off)
              If  set(7,n,1 builtins) to On, a character denoting a file(1,n)'s type as reported by
              stat(1,2)(2) is appended to the filename when listing  possible  com-
              pletions.

   Conditional Constructs
       Readline  implements  a  facility  similar in(1,8) spirit to the conditional
       compilation features of the C preprocessor which  allows  key  bindings
       and  variable  settings  to be performed as the result of tests.  There
       are four parser directives used.

       $if(3,n)    The $if(3,n) construct allows bindings to be made based on the  edit-
              ing  mode,  the  terminal  being  used, or the application using
              readline.  The text of the test extends to the end of the  line;
              no characters are required to isolate it.

              mode   The  mode=  form  of  the  $if(3,n)  directive is used to test
                     whether readline is in(1,8) emacs or vi  mode.   This  may  be
                     used  in(1,8)  conjunction  with  the  set(7,n,1 builtins) keymap command, for
                     instance, to  set(7,n,1 builtins)  bindings  in(1,8)  the  emacs-standard  and
                     emacs-ctlx  keymaps  only  if(3,n) readline is starting out in(1,8)
                     emacs mode.

              term(5,7)   The term(5,7)= form may be used to  include  terminal-specific
                     key bindings, perhaps to bind(2,n,1 builtins) the key sequences output by
                     the terminal's function keys.  The word on the right side
                     of  the = is tested against the full name of the terminal
                     and the portion of the terminal name before the first  -.
                     This  allows  sun  to  match  both  sun  and sun-cmd, for
                     instance.

              application
                     The application construct is used to include application-
                     specific  settings.   Each  program  using  the  readline
                     library sets the application name, and an  initialization
                     file(1,n) can test for a particular value.  This could be used
                     to bind(2,n,1 builtins) key sequences to functions useful for a  specific
                     program.   For instance, the following command adds a key
                     sequence that quotes the  current  or  previous  word  in(1,8)
                     Bash:

                     $if(3,n) Bash
                     # Quote the current or previous word
                     "\C-xq": "\eb\"\ef\""
                     $endif

       $endif This command, as seen in(1,8) the previous example, terminates an $if(3,n)
              command.

       $else  Commands in(1,8) this branch of the $if(3,n) directive are executed if(3,n) the
              test fails.

       $include
              This  directive takes a single filename as an argument and reads
              commands and bindings from that file.  For example, the  follow-
              ing directive would read(2,n,1 builtins) /etc/inputrc:

              $include  /etc/inputrc

SEARCHING
       Readline  provides  commands  for searching through the command history(1,3,n,1 builtins)
       for lines containing a specified string.  There are two  search  modes:
       incremental and non-incremental.

       Incremental  searches  begin  before  the  user has finished typing the
       search string.  As each character of the search string(3,n) is typed,  read-
       line displays the next entry from the history(1,3,n,1 builtins) matching the string(3,n) typed
       so far.  An incremental search requires  only  as  many  characters  as
       needed  to  find  the desired history(1,3,n,1 builtins) entry.  To search backward in(1,8) the
       history(1,3,n,1 builtins) for a particular string(3,n), type C-r.  Typing C-s searches forward
       through  the  history.   The  characters  present  in(1,8)  the value of the
       isearch-terminators variable  are  used  to  terminate  an  incremental
       search.   If that variable has not been assigned a value the Escape and
       C-J characters will terminate an incremental search.  C-G will abort(3,7) an
       incremental  search  and restore the original line.  When the search is
       terminated, the history(1,3,n,1 builtins) entry containing the search string(3,n) becomes  the
       current line.

       To  find other matching entries in(1,8) the history(1,3,n,1 builtins) list, type C-s or C-r as
       appropriate.  This will search backward or forward in(1,8) the  history(1,3,n,1 builtins)  for
       the  next  line matching the search string(3,n) typed so far.  Any other key
       sequence bound to a readline command will terminate the search and exe-
       cute  that  command.  For instance, a newline will terminate the search
       and accept(2,8) the line, thereby executing the  command  from  the  history(1,3,n,1 builtins)
       list.  A movement command will terminate the search, make the last line
       found the current line, and begin editing.

       Non-incremental searches read(2,n,1 builtins) the entire search string(3,n) before  starting
       to  search  for matching history(1,3,n,1 builtins) lines.  The search string(3,n) may be typed
       by the user or be part of the contents of the current line.

EDITING COMMANDS
       The following is a list of the names of the commands  and  the  default
       key sequences to which they are bound.  Command names without an accom-
       panying key sequence are unbound by default.

       In the following descriptions, point refers to the current cursor posi-
       tion,  and  mark refers to a cursor position saved by the set-mark com-
       mand.  The text between the point  and  mark  is  referred  to  as  the
       region.

   Commands for Moving
       beginning-of-line (C-a)
              Move to the start of the current line.
       end-of-line (C-e)
              Move to the end of the line.
       forward-char (C-f)
              Move forward a character.
       backward-char (C-b)
              Move back a character.
       forward-word (M-f)
              Move forward to the end of the next word.  Words are composed of
              alphanumeric characters (letters and digits).
       backward-word (M-b)
              Move back to the start of the current or previous  word.   Words
              are composed of alphanumeric characters (letters and digits).
       clear-screen (C-l)
              Clear  the  screen  leaving  the  current line at the top of the
              screen.  With an argument,  refresh  the  current  line  without
              clearing the screen.
       redraw-current-line
              Refresh the current line.

   Commands for Manipulating the History
       accept-line (Newline, Return)
              Accept the line regardless of where the cursor is.  If this line
              is non-empty, it may be added to the  history(1,3,n,1 builtins)  list  for  future
              recall  with  add_history().   If the line is a modified history(1,3,n,1 builtins)
              line, the history(1,3,n,1 builtins) line is restored to its original state.
       previous-history (C-p)
              Fetch the previous command from the history(1,3,n,1 builtins) list, moving back in(1,8)
              the list.
       next-history (C-n)
              Fetch  the next command from the history(1,3,n,1 builtins) list, moving forward in(1,8)
              the list.
       beginning-of-history (M-<)
              Move to the first line in(1,8) the history.
       end-of-history (M->)
              Move to the end of the input history(1,3,n,1 builtins), i.e., the  line  currently
              being entered.
       reverse-search-history (C-r)
              Search  backward  starting  at  the current line and moving `up'
              through the  history(1,3,n,1 builtins)  as  necessary.   This  is  an  incremental
              search.
       forward-search-history (C-s)
              Search  forward  starting  at the current line and moving `down'
              through the  history(1,3,n,1 builtins)  as  necessary.   This  is  an  incremental
              search.
       non-incremental-reverse-search-history (M-p)
              Search backward through the history(1,3,n,1 builtins) starting at the current line
              using a non-incremental search for  a  string(3,n)  supplied  by  the
              user.
       non-incremental-forward-search-history (M-n)
              Search  forward  through  the  history(1,3,n,1 builtins)  using  a non-incremental
              search for a string(3,n) supplied by the user.
       history-search-forward
              Search forward through the history(1,3,n,1 builtins) for the string(3,n) of  characters
              between  the  start  of  the current line and the current cursor
              position (the point).  This is a non-incremental search.
       history-search-backward
              Search backward through the history(1,3,n,1 builtins) for the string(3,n) of characters
              between  the start of the current line and the point.  This is a
              non-incremental search.
       yank-nth-arg (M-C-y)
              Insert the first argument to the previous command  (usually  the
              second word on the previous line) at point.  With an argument n,
              insert the nth word from the previous command (the words in(1,8)  the
              previous  command  begin  with  word  0).   A  negative argument
              inserts the nth word from the end of the previous command.
       yank-last-arg (M-., M-_)
              Insert the last argument to the previous command (the last  word
              of  the  previous  history(1,3,n,1 builtins)  entry).   With  an  argument, behave
              exactly like yank-nth-arg.  Successive  calls  to  yank-last-arg
              move(3x,7,3x curs_move)  back through the history(1,3,n,1 builtins) list, inserting the last argument
              of each line in(1,8) turn.

   Commands for Changing Text
       delete-char (C-d)
              Delete the character at point.  If point is at the beginning  of
              the  line,  there  are  no  characters in(1,8) the line, and the last
              character typed was not bound to delete-char, then return EOF.
       backward-delete-char (Rubout)
              Delete the character behind the cursor.  When  given  a  numeric
              argument, save the deleted text on the kill(1,2,1 builtins) ring.
       forward-backward-delete-char
              Delete  the  character under the cursor, unless the cursor is at
              the end of the line, in(1,8) which case the character behind the cur-
              sor is deleted.
       quoted-insert (C-q, C-v)
              Add the next character that you type to the line verbatim.  This
              is how to insert characters like C-q, for example.
       tab-insert (M-TAB)
              Insert a tab character.
       self-insert (a, b, A, 1, !, ...)
              Insert the character typed.
       transpose-chars (C-t)
              Drag the character before point forward over  the  character  at
              point,  moving point forward as well.  If point is at the end of
              the line, then this transposes the two characters before  point.
              Negative arguments have no effect.
       transpose-words (M-t)
              Drag  the  word  before  point past the word after point, moving
              point over that word as well.  If point is at  the  end  of  the
              line, this transposes the last two words on the line.
       upcase-word (M-u)
              Uppercase  the  current  (or  following)  word.  With a negative
              argument, uppercase the previous word, but do not move(3x,7,3x curs_move) point.
       downcase-word (M-l)
              Lowercase the current (or  following)  word.   With  a  negative
              argument, lowercase the previous word, but do not move(3x,7,3x curs_move) point.
       capitalize-word (M-c)
              Capitalize  the  current  (or  following) word.  With a negative
              argument, capitalize the previous word, but do not move(3x,7,3x curs_move) point.
       overwrite-mode
              Toggle overwrite mode.  With an explicit positive numeric  argu-
              ment, switches to overwrite mode.  With an explicit non-positive
              numeric argument, switches to insert mode.  This command affects
              only  emacs mode; vi mode does overwrite differently.  Each call
              to readline() starts in(1,8) insert mode.  In overwrite mode, charac-
              ters  bound to self-insert replace the text at point rather than
              pushing the text  to  the  right.   Characters  bound  to  back-
              ward-delete-char  replace  the  character  before  point  with a
              space.  By default, this command is unbound.

   Killing and Yanking
       kill-line (C-k)
              Kill the text from point to the end of the line.
       backward-kill-line (C-x Rubout)
              Kill backward to the beginning of the line.
       unix-line-discard (C-u)
              Kill backward from point to the  beginning  of  the  line.   The
              killed text is saved on the kill-ring.
       kill-whole-line
              Kill  all  characters on the current line, no matter where point
              is.
       kill-word (M-d)
              Kill from point the end of  the  current  word,  or  if(3,n)  between
              words,  to  the  end  of the next word.  Word boundaries are the
              same as those used by forward-word.
       backward-kill-word (M-Rubout)
              Kill the word behind point.  Word boundaries  are  the  same  as
              those used by backward-word.
       unix-word-rubout (C-w)
              Kill  the  word behind point, using white space as a word bound-
              ary.  The killed text is saved on the kill-ring.
       delete-horizontal-space (M-\)
              Delete all spaces and tabs around point.
       kill-region
              Kill the text between the point and  mark  (saved  cursor  posi-
              tion).  This text is referred to as the region.
       copy-region-as-kill
              Copy the text in(1,8) the region to the kill(1,2,1 builtins) buffer.
       copy-backward-word
              Copy  the word before point to the kill(1,2,1 builtins) buffer.  The word bound-
              aries are the same as backward-word.
       copy-forward-word
              Copy the word following point to  the  kill(1,2,1 builtins)  buffer.   The  word
              boundaries are the same as forward-word.
       yank (C-y)
              Yank the top of the kill(1,2,1 builtins) ring into the buffer at point.
       yank-pop (M-y)
              Rotate  the kill(1,2,1 builtins) ring, and yank the new top.  Only works follow-
              ing yank or yank-pop.

   Numeric Arguments
       digit-argument (M-0, M-1, ..., M--)
              Add this digit to the argument already accumulating, or start  a
              new argument.  M-- starts a negative argument.
       universal-argument
              This  is another way to specify an argument.  If this command is
              followed by one or more digits, optionally with a leading  minus
              sign,  those digits define the argument.  If the command is fol-
              lowed by digits, executing  universal-argument  again  ends  the
              numeric  argument, but is otherwise ignored.  As a special case,
              if(3,n) this command is immediately followed by a character  that  is
              neither  a  digit or minus sign, the argument count for the next
              command is multiplied by four.  The argument count is  initially
              one,  so  executing this function the first time(1,2,n) makes the argu-
              ment count four, a second time(1,2,n) makes the argument count sixteen,
              and so on.

   Completing
       complete (TAB)
              Attempt  to  perform  completion  on the text before point.  The
              actual completion performed is application-specific.  Bash,  for
              instance,  attempts  completion  treating the text as a variable
              (if(3,n) the text begins with $), username (if(3,n) the text  begins  with
              ~),  hostname (if(3,n) the text begins with @), or command (including
              aliases and functions) in(1,8) turn.  If none  of  these  produces  a
              match,  filename  completion  is  attempted.   Gdb, on the other
              hand, allows completion of program functions and variables,  and
              only attempts filename completion under certain circumstances.
       possible-completions (M-?)
              List the possible completions of the text before point.
       insert-completions (M-*)
              Insert  all completions of the text before point that would have
              been generated by possible-completions.
       menu-complete
              Similar to complete, but replaces the word to be completed  with
              a  single match from the list of possible completions.  Repeated
              execution of menu-complete steps through the  list  of  possible
              completions,  inserting  each  match in(1,8) turn.  At the end of the
              list of completions, the bell is rung (subject to the setting of
              0  and  the original text is restored.  An argument of n moves n
              positions forward in(1,8) the list of matches;  a  negative  argument
              may  be used to move(3x,7,3x curs_move) backward through the list.  This command is
              intended to be bound to TAB, but is unbound by default.
       delete-char-or-list
              Deletes the character under the cursor if(3,n) not at  the  beginning
              or  end  of  the  line (like delete-char).  If at the end of the
              line, behaves identically to possible-completions.

   Keyboard Macros
       start-kbd-macro (C-x ()
              Begin saving the characters  typed  into  the  current  keyboard
              macro.
       end-kbd-macro (C-x ))
              Stop saving the characters typed into the current keyboard macro
              and store the definition.
       call-last-kbd-macro (C-x e)
              Re-execute the last keyboard macro defined, by making the  char-
              acters in(1,8) the macro appear as if(3,n) typed at the keyboard.

   Miscellaneous
       re-read-init-file (C-x C-r)
              Read  in(1,8)  the  contents of the inputrc file(1,n), and incorporate any
              bindings or variable assignments found there.
       abort(3,7) (C-g)
              Abort the current editing command and ring the  terminal's  bell
              (subject to the setting of bell-style).
       do-uppercase-version (M-a, M-b, M-x, ...)
              If  the  metafied character x is lowercase, run the command that
              is bound to the corresponding uppercase character.
       prefix-meta (ESC)
              Metafy the next character typed.  ESC f is equivalent to Meta-f.
       undo (C-_, C-x C-u)
              Incremental undo, separately remembered for each line.
       revert-line (M-r)
              Undo  all changes made to this line.  This is like executing the
              undo command enough times to return  the  line  to  its  initial
              state.
       tilde-expand (M-&)
              Perform tilde expansion on the current word.
       set-mark (C-@, M-<space>)
              Set  the  mark to the point.  If a numeric argument is supplied,
              the mark is set(7,n,1 builtins) to that position.
       exchange-point-and-mark (C-x C-x)
              Swap the point with the mark.  The current  cursor  position  is
              set(7,n,1 builtins)  to the saved position, and the old cursor position is saved
              as the mark.
       character-search (C-])
              A character is read(2,n,1 builtins) and point is moved to the next occurrence of
              that  character.   A negative count searches for previous occur-
              rences.
       character-search-backward (M-C-])
              A character is read(2,n,1 builtins) and point is moved to  the  previous  occur-
              rence  of  that character.  A negative count searches for subse-
              quent occurrences.
       insert-comment (M-#)
              Without a numeric argument,  the  value  of  the  readline  com-
              ment-begin  variable is inserted at the beginning of the current
              line.  If a numeric argument is supplied, this command acts as a
              toggle:   if(3,n)  the characters at the beginning of the line do not
              match the value of comment-begin, the value is inserted,  other-
              wise the characters in(1,8) comment-begin are deleted from the begin-
              ning of the line.  In either case, the line is accepted as if(3,n)  a
              newline  had  been  typed.   The  default value of comment-begin
              makes the current line a shell comment.  If a  numeric  argument
              causes  the  comment  character  to be removed, the line will be
              executed by the shell.
       dump-functions
              Print all of the functions and their key bindings to  the  read-
              line output stream.  If a numeric argument is supplied, the out-
              put is formatted in(1,8) such a way that it can be made  part  of  an
              inputrc file.
       dump-variables
              Print  all  of  the  settable  variables and their values to the
              readline output stream.  If a numeric argument is supplied,  the
              output is formatted in(1,8) such a way that it can be made part of an
              inputrc file.
       dump-macros
              Print all of the readline key sequences bound to macros and  the
              strings they ouput.  If a numeric argument is supplied, the out-
              put is formatted in(1,8) such a way that it can be made  part  of  an
              inputrc file.
       emacs-editing-mode (C-e)
              When  in(1,8)  vi command mode, this causes a switch(1,n) to emacs editing
              mode.
       vi-editing-mode (M-C-j)
              When in(1,8) emacs editing mode, this causes a switch(1,n) to  vi  editing
              mode.

DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS
       The  following is a list of the default emacs and vi bindings.  Charac-
       ters with the eighth bit set(7,n,1 builtins) are  written  as  M-<character>,  and  are
       referred to as metafied characters.  The printable ASCII characters not
       mentioned in(1,8) the list of emacs  standard  bindings  are  bound  to  the
       self-insert  function,  which just inserts the given character into the
       input line.  In vi insertion mode, all characters not specifically men-
       tioned are bound to self-insert.  Characters assigned to signal(2,7) genera-
       tion by stty(1) or the terminal driver, such as C-Z or C-C, retain that
       function.   Upper  and  lower case metafied characters are bound to the
       same function in(1,8) the emacs mode meta keymap.  The remaining  characters
       are  unbound,  which  causes  readline to ring the bell (subject to the
       setting of the bell-style variable).

   Emacs Mode
             Emacs Standard bindings

             "C-@"  set-mark
             "C-A"  beginning-of-line
             "C-B"  backward-char
             "C-D"  delete-char
             "C-E"  end-of-line
             "C-F"  forward-char
             "C-G"  abort(3,7)
             "C-H"  backward-delete-char
             "C-I"  complete
             "C-J"  accept-line
             "C-K"  kill-line
             "C-L"  clear-screen
             "C-M"  accept-line
             "C-N"  next-history
             "C-P"  previous-history
             "C-Q"  quoted-insert
             "C-R"  reverse-search-history
             "C-S"  forward-search-history
             "C-T"  transpose-chars
             "C-U"  unix-line-discard
             "C-V"  quoted-insert
             "C-W"  unix-word-rubout
             "C-Y"  yank
             "C-]"  character-search
             "C-_"  undo
             " " to "/"  self-insert
             "0"  to "9"  self-insert
             ":"  to "~"  self-insert
             "C-?"  backward-delete-char

             Emacs Meta bindings

             "M-C-G"  abort(3,7)
             "M-C-H"  backward-kill-word
             "M-C-I"  tab-insert
             "M-C-J"  vi-editing-mode
             "M-C-M"  vi-editing-mode
             "M-C-R"  revert-line
             "M-C-Y"  yank-nth-arg
             "M-C-["  complete
             "M-C-]"  character-search-backward
             "M-space"  set-mark
             "M-#"  insert-comment
             "M-&"  tilde-expand
             "M-*"  insert-completions
             "M--"  digit-argument
             "M-."  yank-last-arg
             "M-0"  digit-argument
             "M-1"  digit-argument
             "M-2"  digit-argument
             "M-3"  digit-argument
             "M-4"  digit-argument
             "M-5"  digit-argument
             "M-6"  digit-argument
             "M-7"  digit-argument
             "M-8"  digit-argument
             "M-9"  digit-argument
             "M-<"  beginning-of-history
             "M-="  possible-completions
             "M->"  end-of-history
             "M-?"  possible-completions
             "M-B"  backward-word
             "M-C"  capitalize-word
             "M-D"  kill-word
             "M-F"  forward-word
             "M-L"  downcase-word
             "M-N"  non-incremental-forward-search-history
             "M-P"  non-incremental-reverse-search-history
             "M-R"  revert-line
             "M-T"  transpose-words
             "M-U"  upcase-word
             "M-Y"  yank-pop
             "M-\"  delete-horizontal-space
             "M-~"  tilde-expand
             "M-C-?"  backward-kill-word
             "M-_"  yank-last-arg

             Emacs Control-X bindings

             "C-XC-G"  abort(3,7)
             "C-XC-R"  re-read-init-file
             "C-XC-U"  undo
             "C-XC-X"  exchange-point-and-mark
             "C-X("  start-kbd-macro
             "C-X)"  end-kbd-macro
             "C-XE"  call-last-kbd-macro
             "C-XC-?"  backward-kill-line


   VI Mode bindings
             VI Insert Mode functions

             "C-D"  vi-eof-maybe
             "C-H"  backward-delete-char
             "C-I"  complete
             "C-J"  accept-line
             "C-M"  accept-line
             "C-R"  reverse-search-history
             "C-S"  forward-search-history
             "C-T"  transpose-chars
             "C-U"  unix-line-discard
             "C-V"  quoted-insert
             "C-W"  unix-word-rubout
             "C-Y"  yank
             "C-["  vi-movement-mode
             "C-_"  undo
             " " to "~"  self-insert
             "C-?"  backward-delete-char

             VI Command Mode functions

             "C-D"  vi-eof-maybe
             "C-E"  emacs-editing-mode
             "C-G"  abort(3,7)
             "C-H"  backward-char
             "C-J"  accept-line
             "C-K"  kill-line
             "C-L"  clear-screen
             "C-M"  accept-line
             "C-N"  next-history
             "C-P"  previous-history
             "C-Q"  quoted-insert
             "C-R"  reverse-search-history
             "C-S"  forward-search-history
             "C-T"  transpose-chars
             "C-U"  unix-line-discard
             "C-V"  quoted-insert
             "C-W"  unix-word-rubout
             "C-Y"  yank
             "C-_"  vi-undo
             " "  forward-char
             "#"  insert-comment
             "$"  end-of-line
             "%"  vi-match
             "&"  vi-tilde-expand
             "*"  vi-complete
             "+"  next-history
             ","  vi-char-search
             "-"  previous-history
             "."  vi-redo
             "/"  vi-search
             "0"  beginning-of-line
             "1" to "9"  vi-arg-digit
             ";"  vi-char-search
             "="  vi-complete
             "?"  vi-search
             "A"  vi-append-eol
             "B"  vi-prev-word
             "C"  vi-change-to
             "D"  vi-delete-to
             "E"  vi-end-word
             "F"  vi-char-search
             "G"  vi-fetch-history
             "I"  vi-insert-beg
             "N"  vi-search-again
             "P"  vi-put
             "R"  vi-replace
             "S"  vi-subst
             "T"  vi-char-search
             "U"  revert-line
             "W"  vi-next-word
             "X"  backward-delete-char
             "Y"  vi-yank-to
             "\"  vi-complete
             "^"  vi-first-print
             "_"  vi-yank-arg
             "`"  vi-goto-mark
             "a"  vi-append-mode
             "b"  vi-prev-word
             "c"  vi-change-to
             "d"  vi-delete-to
             "e"  vi-end-word
             "f"  vi-char-search
             "h"  backward-char
             "i"  vi-insertion-mode
             "j"  next-history
             "k"  prev-history
             "l"  forward-char
             "m"  vi-set-mark
             "n"  vi-search-again
             "p"  vi-put
             "r"  vi-change-char
             "s"  vi-subst
             "t"  vi-char-search
             "u"  vi-undo
             "w"  vi-next-word
             "x"  vi-delete
             "y"  vi-yank-to
             "|"  vi-column
             "~"  vi-change-case

SEE ALSO
       The Gnu Readline Library, Brian Fox and Chet Ramey
       The Gnu History Library, Brian Fox and Chet Ramey
       bash(1)

FILES
       ~/.inputrc
              Individual readline initialization file(1,n)

AUTHORS
       Brian Fox, Free Software Foundation
       bfox@gnu.org

       Chet Ramey, Case Western Reserve University
       chet@ins.CWRU.Edu

BUG REPORTS
       If you find a bug in(1,8) readline, you should report it.   But  first,  you
       should  make  sure  that it really is a bug, and that it appears in(1,8) the
       latest version(1,3,5) of the readline library that you have.

       Once you have determined that a bug actually exists, mail(1,8) a bug  report
       to  bug-readline@gnu.org.   If  you have a fix, you are welcome to mail(1,8)
       that as well!  Suggestions  and  `philosophical'  bug  reports  may  be
       mailed  to  bug-readline@gnu.org  or  posted  to  the  Usenet newsgroup
       gnu.bash.bug.

       Comments and bug reports concerning this manual page should be directed
       to chet@ins.CWRU.Edu.

BUGS
       It's too big and too slow.



GNU Readline 4.3                2002 January 22                    READLINE(3)

References for this manual (incoming links)