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QUEUE(3)                 BSD Library Functions Manual                 QUEUE(3)

NAME
     LIST_ENTRY, LIST_HEAD, LIST_INIT, LIST_INSERT_AFTER, LIST_INSERT_HEAD,
     LIST_REMOVE, TAILQ_ENTRY, TAILQ_HEAD, TAILQ_INIT, TAILQ_INSERT_AFTER,
     TAILQ_INSERT_HEAD, TAILQ_INSERT_TAIL, TAILQ_REMOVE, CIRCLEQ_ENTRY,
     CIRCLEQ_HEAD, CIRCLEQ_INIT, CIRCLEQ_INSERT_AFTER, CIRCLEQ_INSERT_BEFORE,
     CIRCLEQ_INSERT_HEAD, CIRCLEQ_INSERT_TAIL, CIRCLEQ_REMOVE -- implementa-
     tions of lists, tail queues, and circular queues

SYNOPSIS
     #include <sys/queue.h>

     LIST_ENTRY(TYPE);

     LIST_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE);

     LIST_INIT(LIST_HEAD *head);

     LIST_INSERT_AFTER(LIST_ENTRY *listelm, TYPE *elm, LIST_ENTRY NAME);

     LIST_INSERT_HEAD(LIST_HEAD *head, TYPE *elm, LIST_ENTRY NAME);

     LIST_REMOVE(TYPE *elm, LIST_ENTRY NAME);

     TAILQ_ENTRY(TYPE);

     TAILQ_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE);

     TAILQ_INIT(TAILQ_HEAD *head);

     TAILQ_INSERT_AFTER(TAILQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *listelm, TYPE *elm,
         TAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     TAILQ_INSERT_HEAD(TAILQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *elm, TAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     TAILQ_INSERT_TAIL(TAILQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *elm, TAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     TAILQ_REMOVE(TAILQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *elm, TAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     CIRCLEQ_ENTRY(TYPE);

     CIRCLEQ_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE);

     CIRCLEQ_INIT(CIRCLEQ_HEAD *head);

     CIRCLEQ_INSERT_AFTER(CIRCLEQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *listelm, TYPE *elm,
         CIRCLEQ_ENTRY NAME);

     CIRCLEQ_INSERT_BEFORE(CIRCLEQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *listelm, TYPE *elm,
         CIRCLEQ_ENTRY NAME);

     CIRCLEQ_INSERT_HEAD(CIRCLEQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *elm, CIRCLEQ_ENTRY NAME);

     CIRCLEQ_INSERT_TAIL(CIRCLEQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *elm, CIRCLEQ_ENTRY NAME);

     CIRCLEQ_REMOVE(CIRCLEQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *elm, CIRCLEQ_ENTRY NAME);

DESCRIPTION
     These macros define and operate on three types of data structures: lists,
     tail queues, and circular queues.  All three structures support the fol-
     lowing functionality:
           1.   Insertion of a new entry at the head of the list.
           2.   Insertion of a new entry after any element in(1,8) the list.
           3.   Removal of any entry in(1,8) the list.
           4.   Forward traversal through the list.

     Lists are the simplest of the three data structures and support only the
     above functionality.

     Tail queues add the following functionality:
           1.   Entries can be added at the end of a list.
     However:
           1.   All list insertions and removals must specify the head of the
                list.
           2.   Each head entry requires two pointers rather than one.
           3.   Code size is about 15% greater and operations run about 20%
                slower than lists.

     Circular queues add the following functionality:
           1.   Entries can be added at the end of a list.
           2.   Entries can be added before another entry.
           3.   They may be traversed backwards, from tail to head.
     However:
           1.   All list insertions and removals must specify the head of the
                list.
           2.   Each head entry requires two pointers rather than one.
           3.   The termination condition for traversal is more complex.
           4.   Code size is about 40% greater and operations run about 45%
                slower than lists.

     In the macro definitions, TYPE is the name of a user defined structure,
     that must contain a field of type LIST_ENTRY, TAILQ_ENTRY, or
     CIRCLEQ_ENTRY, named(5,8) NAME.  The argument HEADNAME is the name of a user
     defined structure that must be declared using the macros LIST_HEAD,
     TAILQ_HEAD, or CIRCLEQ_HEAD.  See the examples below for further explana-
     tion of how these macros are used.

LISTS
     A list is headed by a structure defined by the LIST_HEAD macro.  This
     structure contains a single pointer to the first element on the list.
     The elements are doubly linked so that an arbitrary element can be
     removed without traversing the list.  New elements can be added to the
     list after an existing element or at the head of the list.  A LIST_HEAD
     structure is declared as follows:

           LIST_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE) head;

     where HEADNAME is the name of the structure to be defined, and TYPE is
     the type of the elements to be linked into the list.  A pointer to the
     head of the list can later be declared as:

           struct HEADNAME *headp;

     (The names head and headp are user selectable.)

     The macro LIST_ENTRY declares a structure that connects the elements in(1,8)
     the list.

     The macro LIST_INIT initializes the list referenced by head.

     The macro LIST_INSERT_HEAD inserts the new element elm at the head of the
     list.

     The macro LIST_INSERT_AFTER inserts the new element elm after the element
     listelm.

     The macro LIST_REMOVE removes the element elm from the list.

LIST EXAMPLE
     LIST_HEAD(listhead, entry) head;
     struct listhead *headp;         /* List head. */
     struct entry {
             ...
             LIST_ENTRY(entry) entries;      /* List. */
             ...
     } *n1, *n2, *np;

     LIST_INIT(&head);                       /* Initialize the list. */

     n1 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert at the head. */
     LIST_INSERT_HEAD(&head, n1, entries);

     n2 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert after. */
     LIST_INSERT_AFTER(n1, n2, entries);
                                             /* Forward traversal. */
     for (np = head.lh_first; np != NULL; np = np->entries.le_next)
             np-> ...

     while (head.lh_first != NULL)           /* Delete. */
             LIST_REMOVE(head.lh_first, entries);

TAIL QUEUES
     A tail queue(1,3) is headed by a structure defined by the TAILQ_HEAD macro.
     This structure contains a pair of pointers, one to the first element in(1,8)
     the tail queue(1,3) and the other to the last element in(1,8) the tail queue.  The
     elements are doubly linked so that an arbitrary element can be removed
     without traversing the tail queue.  New elements can be added to the tail
     queue(1,3) after an existing element, at the head of the tail queue(1,3), or at the
     end of the tail queue.  A TAILQ_HEAD structure is declared as follows:

           TAILQ_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE) head;

     where HEADNAME is the name of the structure to be defined, and TYPE is
     the type of the elements to be linked into the tail queue.  A pointer to
     the head of the tail queue(1,3) can later be declared as:

           struct HEADNAME *headp;

     (The names head and headp are user selectable.)

     The macro TAILQ_ENTRY declares a structure that connects the elements in(1,8)
     the tail queue.

     The macro TAILQ_INIT initializes the tail queue(1,3) referenced by head.

     The macro TAILQ_INSERT_HEAD inserts the new element elm at the head of
     the tail queue.

     The macro TAILQ_INSERT_TAIL inserts the new element elm at the end of the
     tail queue.

     The macro TAILQ_INSERT_AFTER inserts the new element elm after the ele-
     ment listelm.

     The macro TAILQ_REMOVE removes the element elm from the tail queue.

TAIL QUEUE EXAMPLE
     TAILQ_HEAD(tailhead, entry) head;
     struct tailhead *headp;         /* Tail queue(1,3) head. */
     struct entry {
             ...
             TAILQ_ENTRY(entry) entries;     /* Tail queue. */
             ...
     } *n1, *n2, *np;

     TAILQ_INIT(&head);                      /* Initialize the queue. */

     n1 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert at the head. */
     TAILQ_INSERT_HEAD(&head, n1, entries);

     n1 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert at the tail. */
     TAILQ_INSERT_TAIL(&head, n1, entries);

     n2 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert after. */
     TAILQ_INSERT_AFTER(&head, n1, n2, entries);
                                             /* Forward traversal. */
     for (np = head.tqh_first; np != NULL; np = np->entries.tqe_next)
             np-> ...
                                             /* Delete. */
     while (head.tqh_first != NULL)
             TAILQ_REMOVE(&head, head.tqh_first, entries);

CIRCULAR QUEUES
     A circular queue(1,3) is headed by a structure defined by the CIRCLEQ_HEAD
     macro.  This structure contains a pair of pointers, one to the first ele-
     ment in(1,8) the circular queue(1,3) and the other to the last element in(1,8) the cir-
     cular queue.  The elements are doubly linked so that an arbitrary element
     can be removed without traversing the queue.  New elements can be added
     to the queue(1,3) after an existing element, before an existing element, at
     the head of the queue(1,3), or at the end of the queue.  A CIRCLEQ_HEAD struc-
     ture is declared as follows:

           CIRCLEQ_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE) head;

     where HEADNAME is the name of the structure to be defined, and TYPE is
     the type of the elements to be linked into the circular queue.  A pointer
     to the head of the circular queue(1,3) can later be declared as:

           struct HEADNAME *headp;

     (The names head and headp are user selectable.)

     The macro CIRCLEQ_ENTRY declares a structure that connects the elements
     in(1,8) the circular queue.

     The macro CIRCLEQ_INIT initializes the circular queue(1,3) referenced by head.

     The macro CIRCLEQ_INSERT_HEAD inserts the new element elm at the head of
     the circular queue.

     The macro CIRCLEQ_INSERT_TAIL inserts the new element elm at the end of
     the circular queue.

     The macro CIRCLEQ_INSERT_AFTER inserts the new element elm after the ele-
     ment listelm.

     The macro CIRCLEQ_INSERT_BEFORE inserts the new element elm before the
     element listelm.

     The macro CIRCLEQ_REMOVE removes the element elm from the circular queue.

CIRCULAR QUEUE EXAMPLE
     CIRCLEQ_HEAD(circleq, entry) head;
     struct circleq *headp;                  /* Circular queue(1,3) head. */
     struct entry {
             ...
             CIRCLEQ_ENTRY(entry) entries;           /* Circular queue. */
             ...
     } *n1, *n2, *np;

     CIRCLEQ_INIT(&head);                    /* Initialize the circular queue. */

     n1 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert at the head. */
     CIRCLEQ_INSERT_HEAD(&head, n1, entries);

     n1 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert at the tail. */
     CIRCLEQ_INSERT_TAIL(&head, n1, entries);

     n2 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert after. */
     CIRCLEQ_INSERT_AFTER(&head, n1, n2, entries);

     n2 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert before. */
     CIRCLEQ_INSERT_BEFORE(&head, n1, n2, entries);
                                             /* Forward traversal. */
     for (np = head.cqh_first; np != (void *)&head; np = np->entries.cqe_next)
             np-> ...
                                             /* Reverse traversal. */
     for (np = head.cqh_last; np != (void *)&head; np = np->entries.cqe_prev)
             np-> ...
                                             /* Delete. */
     while (head.cqh_first != (void *)&head)
             CIRCLEQ_REMOVE(&head, head.cqh_first, entries);

HISTORY
     The queue(1,3) functions first appeared in(1,8) 4.4BSD.

4th Berkeley Distribution      January 24, 1994      4th Berkeley Distribution

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