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EXIT(3)                    Linux Programmer's Manual                   EXIT(3)



NAME
       exit(3,n,1 builtins) - cause normal program termination

SYNOPSIS
       #include <stdlib.h>

       void exit(3,n,1 builtins)(int status);

DESCRIPTION
       The exit(3,n,1 builtins)() function causes normal program termination and the the value
       of status & 0377 is returned to the parent (see  wait(2)).   All  func-
       tions  registered with atexit() and on_exit() are called in(1,8) the reverse
       order of their registration, and  all  open(2,3,n)  streams  are  flushed  and
       closed.  Files created by tmpfile() are removed.

       The C standard specifies two defines EXIT_SUCCESS and EXIT_FAILURE that
       may be passed to exit(3,n,1 builtins)() to indicate successful or unsuccessful termina-
       tion, respectively.

RETURN VALUE
       The exit(3,n,1 builtins)() function does not return.

CONFORMING TO
       SVID 3, POSIX, BSD 4.3, ISO 9899 (``ANSI C'')

NOTES
       During the exit(3,n,1 builtins) processing, it is possible to register additional func-
       tions with atexit() and on_exit().  Always the last-registered function
       is  removed from the chain of registered functions, and invoked.  It is
       undefined what happens if(3,n)  during  this  processing  either  exit(3,n,1 builtins)()  or
       longjmp() is called.

       The  use of EXIT_SUCCESS and EXIT_FAILURE is slightly more portable (to
       non-Unix environments) than that of 0 and some nonzero value like 1  or
       -1. In particular, VMS uses a different convention.

       BSD  has  attempted  to  standardize  exit(3,n,1 builtins) codes - see the file(1,n) <sysex-
       its.h>.

       After exit(3,n,1 builtins)(), the  exit(3,n,1 builtins)  status  must  be  transmitted  to  the  parent
       process.  There are three cases. If the parent has set(7,n,1 builtins) SA_NOCLDWAIT, or
       has set(7,n,1 builtins) the SIGCHLD handler to SIG_IGN, the status is discarded. If the
       parent  was  waiting on the child it is notified of the exit(3,n,1 builtins) status. In
       both cases the exiting process dies immediately. If the parent has  not
       indicated  that  it  is  not  interested in(1,8) the exit(3,n,1 builtins) status, but is not
       waiting, the exiting process turns into a "zombie"  process  (which  is
       nothing  but a container for the single byte representing the exit(3,n,1 builtins) sta-
       tus) so that the parent can learn the exit(3,n,1 builtins) status when it  later  calls
       one of the wait() functions.

       If  the implementation supports the SIGCHLD signal(2,7), this signal(2,7) is sent
       to the parent. If the parent has  set(7,n,1 builtins)  SA_NOCLDWAIT,  it  is  undefined
       whether a SIGCHLD signal(2,7) is sent.

       If  the  process  is  a session leader and its controlling terminal the
       controlling terminal of the session, then each  process  in(1,8)  the  fore-
       ground process group of this controlling terminal is sent a SIGHUP sig-
       nal(2,7), and the terminal is disassociated from this session,  allowing  it
       to be acquired by a new controlling process.

       If  the  exit(3,n,1 builtins) of the process causes a process group to become orphaned,
       and if(3,n) any member of the newly-orphaned process group is stopped,  then
       a  SIGHUP  signal(2,7)  followed  by  a  SIGCONT signal(2,7) will be sent to each
       process in(1,8) this process group.

SEE ALSO
       _exit(2), wait(2), atexit(3), on_exit(3), tmpfile(3)



                                  2001-11-17                           EXIT(3)

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