Seth Woolley's Man Viewer

ExtUtils::MakeMaker(3) - ExtUtils::MakeMaker - Create a module Makefile - man 3 ExtUtils::MakeMaker

([section] manual, -k keyword, -K [section] search, -f whatis)
man plain no title

ExtUtils::MakeMaker(3) Perl Programmers Reference Guide ExtUtils::MakeMaker(3)

       ExtUtils::MakeMaker - Create a module Makefile

         use ExtUtils::MakeMaker;

         WriteMakefile( ATTRIBUTE => VALUE [, ...] );

       This utility is designed to write(1,2) a Makefile for an extension module
       from a Makefile.PL. It is based on the Makefile.SH model provided by
       Andy Dougherty and the perl5-porters.

       It splits the task of generating the Makefile into several subroutines
       that can be individually overridden.  Each subroutine returns the text
       it wishes to have written to the Makefile.

       MakeMaker is object oriented. Each directory below the current direc-
       tory that contains a Makefile.PL is treated as a separate object. This
       makes it possible to write(1,2) an unlimited number of Makefiles with a sin-
       gle invocation of WriteMakefile().

       How To Write A Makefile.PL

       See ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Tutorial.

       The long answer is the rest of the manpage :-)

       Default Makefile Behaviour

       The generated Makefile enables the user of the extension to invoke

         perl Makefile.PL # optionally "perl Makefile.PL verbose"
         make test        # optionally set(7,n,1 builtins) TEST_VERBOSE=1
         make install     # See below

       The Makefile to be produced may be altered by adding arguments of the
       form "KEY=VALUE". E.g.

         perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=/tmp/myperl5

       Other interesting targets in(1,8) the generated Makefile are

         make config(1,5)     # to check if(3,n) the Makefile is up-to-date
         make clean      # delete local temp files (Makefile gets(3,n) renamed)
         make realclean  # delete derived files (including ./blib)
         make ci         # check in(1,8) all the files in(1,8) the MANIFEST file(1,n)
         make dist       # see below the Distribution Support section

       make test

       MakeMaker checks for the existence of a file(1,n) named(5,8) in(1,8) the cur-
       rent directory and if(3,n) it exists it execute the script with the proper
       set(7,n,1 builtins) of perl "-I" options.

       MakeMaker also checks for any files matching glob(1,3,7,n)("t/*.t"). It will
       execute all matching files in(1,8) alphabetical order via the Test::Harness
       module with the "-I" switches set(7,n,1 builtins) correctly.

       If you'd like to see the raw(3x,7,8,3x cbreak) output of your tests, set(7,n,1 builtins) the "TEST_VER-
       BOSE" variable to true.

         make test TEST_VERBOSE=1

       make testdb

       A useful variation of the above is the target "testdb". It runs the
       test under the Perl debugger (see perldebug). If the file(1,n)
       exists in(1,8) the current directory, it is used for the test.

       If you want to debug some other testfile, set(7,n,1 builtins) the "TEST_FILE" variable

         make testdb TEST_FILE=t/mytest.t

       By default the debugger is called using "-d" option to perl. If you
       want to specify some other option, set(7,n,1 builtins) the "TESTDB_SW" variable:

         make testdb TESTDB_SW=-Dx

       make install

       make alone puts(3,n) all relevant files into directories that are named(5,8) by
       INST_MAN3DIR.  All these default to something below ./blib if(3,n) you are
       not building below the perl source directory. If you are building below
       the perl source, INST_LIB and INST_ARCHLIB default to ../../lib, and
       INST_SCRIPT is not defined.

       The install target of the generated Makefile copies the files found
       below each of the INST_* directories to their INSTALL* counterparts.
       Which counterparts are chosen depends on the setting of INSTALLDIRS
       according to the following table:

                                        INSTALLDIRS set(7,n,1 builtins) to
                                  perl        site          vendor

                        PERLPREFIX      SITEPREFIX          VENDORPREFIX

       The INSTALL... macros in(1,8) turn default to their %Config ($Con-
       fig{installprivlib}, $Config{installarchlib}, etc.) counterparts.

       You can check the values of these variables on your system with

           perl '-V:install.*'

       And to check the sequence in(1,8) which the library directories are searched
       by perl, run

           perl -le 'print join(1,n) $/, @INC'

       PREFIX and LIB attribute

       PREFIX and LIB can be used to set(7,n,1 builtins) several INSTALL* attributes in(1,8) one
       go. The quickest way to install a module in(1,8) a non-standard place might

           perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=~

       This will install all files in(1,8) the module under your home directory,
       with man(1,5,7) pages and libraries going into an appropriate place (usually
       ~/man(1,5,7) and ~/lib).

       Another way to specify many INSTALL directories with a single parameter
       is LIB.

           perl Makefile.PL LIB=~/lib

       This will install the module's architecture-independent files into
       ~/lib, the architecture-dependent files into ~/lib/$archname.

       Note, that in(1,8) both cases the tilde expansion is done by MakeMaker, not
       by perl by default, nor by make.

       Conflicts between parameters LIB, PREFIX and the various INSTALL* argu-
       ments are resolved so that:

          setting LIB overrides any setting of INSTALLPRIVLIB, INSTALLARCH-
           LIB, INSTALLSITELIB, INSTALLSITEARCH (and they are not affected by

          without LIB, setting PREFIX replaces the initial $Config{prefix}
           part of those INSTALL* arguments, even if(3,n) the latter are explicitly
           set(7,n,1 builtins) (but are set(7,n,1 builtins) to still start with $Config{prefix}).

       If the user has superuser privileges, and is not working on AFS or rel-
       atives, then the defaults for INSTALLPRIVLIB, INSTALLARCHLIB,
       INSTALLSCRIPT, etc. will be appropriate, and this incantation will be
       the best:

           perl Makefile.PL;
           make test
           make install

       make install per default writes some documentation of what has been
       done into the file(1,n) "$(INSTALLARCHLIB)/perllocal.pod". This feature can
       be bypassed by calling make pure_install.

       AFS users(1,5)

       will have to specify the installation directories as these most proba-
       bly have changed since perl itself has been installed. They will have
       to do this by calling

           perl Makefile.PL INSTALLSITELIB=/afs/here/today \
               INSTALLSCRIPT=/afs/there/now INSTALLMAN3DIR=/afs/for/manpages

       Be careful to repeat this procedure every time(1,2,n) you recompile an exten-
       sion, unless you are sure the AFS installation directories are still

       Static Linking of a new Perl Binary

       An extension that is built with the above steps is ready to use on sys-
       tems supporting dynamic loading. On systems that do not support dynamic
       loading, any newly created extension has to be linked together with the
       available resources. MakeMaker supports the linking process by creating
       appropriate targets in(1,8) the Makefile whenever an extension is built. You
       can invoke the corresponding section of the makefile with

           make perl

       That produces a new perl binary in(1,8) the current directory with all
       extensions linked in(1,8) that can be found in(1,8) INST_ARCHLIB, SITELIBEXP, and
       PERL_ARCHLIB. To do that, MakeMaker writes a new Makefile, on UNIX,
       this is called Makefile.aperl (may be system dependent). If you want to
       force the creation of a new perl, it is recommended, that you delete
       this Makefile.aperl, so the directories are searched-through for link-
       able libraries again.

       The binary can be installed into the directory where perl normally
       resides on your machine with

           make inst_perl

       To produce a perl binary with a different name than "perl", either say

           perl Makefile.PL MAP_TARGET=myperl
           make myperl
           make inst_perl

       or say

           perl Makefile.PL
           make myperl MAP_TARGET=myperl
           make inst_perl MAP_TARGET=myperl

       In any case you will be prompted with the correct invocation of the
       "inst_perl" target that installs the new binary into INSTALLBIN.

       make inst_perl per default writes some documentation of what has been
       done into the file(1,n) "$(INSTALLARCHLIB)/perllocal.pod". This can be
       bypassed by calling make pure_inst_perl.

       Warning: the inst_perl: target will most probably overwrite your exist-
       ing perl binary. Use with care!

       Sometimes you might want to build a statically linked perl although
       your system supports dynamic loading. In this case you may explicitly
       set(7,n,1 builtins) the linktype with the invocation of the Makefile.PL or make:

           perl Makefile.PL LINKTYPE=static    # recommended


           make LINKTYPE=static                # works on most systems

       Determination of Perl Library and Installation Locations

       MakeMaker needs to know, or to guess, where certain things are located.
       Especially INST_LIB and INST_ARCHLIB (where to put the files during the
       make(1) run), PERL_LIB and PERL_ARCHLIB (where to read(2,n,1 builtins) existing modules
       from), and PERL_INC (header files and "libperl*.*").

       Extensions may be built either using the contents of the perl source
       directory tree or from the installed perl library. The recommended way
       is to build extensions after you have run 'make install' on perl
       itself. You can do that in(1,8) any directory on your hard disk that is not
       below the perl source tree. The support for extensions below the ext
       directory of the perl distribution is only good for the standard exten-
       sions that come with perl.

       If an extension is being built below the "ext/" directory of the perl
       source then MakeMaker will set(7,n,1 builtins) PERL_SRC automatically (e.g., "../..").
       If PERL_SRC is defined and the extension is recognized as a standard
       extension, then other variables default to the following:

         PERL_INC     = PERL_SRC
         PERL_LIB     = PERL_SRC/lib
         PERL_ARCHLIB = PERL_SRC/lib
         INST_LIB     = PERL_LIB

       If an extension is being built away from the perl source then MakeMaker
       will leave PERL_SRC undefined and default to using the installed copy
       of the perl library. The other variables default to the following:

         PERL_INC     = $archlibexp/CORE
         PERL_LIB     = $privlibexp
         PERL_ARCHLIB = $archlibexp
         INST_LIB     = ./blib/lib
         INST_ARCHLIB = ./blib/arch

       If perl has not yet been installed then PERL_SRC can be defined on the
       command line as shown in(1,8) the previous section.

       Which architecture dependent directory?

       If you don't want to keep the defaults for the INSTALL* macros, Make-
       Maker helps you to minimize the typing needed: the usual relationship
       between INSTALLPRIVLIB and INSTALLARCHLIB is determined by Configure at
       perl compilation time. MakeMaker supports the user who sets INSTALL-
       PRIVLIB. If INSTALLPRIVLIB is set(7,n,1 builtins), but INSTALLARCHLIB not, then Make-
       Maker defaults the latter to be the same subdirectory of INSTALLPRIVLIB
       as Configure decided for the counterparts in(1,8) %Config , otherwise it
       defaults to INSTALLPRIVLIB. The same relationship holds for INSTALL-

       MakeMaker gives you much more freedom than needed to configure internal
       variables and get different results. It is worth to mention, that
       make(1) also lets you configure most of the variables that are used in(1,8)
       the Makefile. But in(1,8) the majority of situations this will not be neces-
       sary, and should only be done if(3,n) the author of a package recommends it
       (or you know what you're doing).

       Using Attributes and Parameters

       The following attributes may be specified as arguments to WriteMake-
       file(1,n)() or as NAME=VALUE pairs on the command line.

         One line description of the module. Will be included in(1,8) PPD file.

         Name of the file(1,n) that contains the package description. MakeMaker
         looks for a line in(1,8) the POD matching /^($package\s-\s)(.*)/. This is
         typically the first line in(1,8) the "=head1 NAME" section. $2 becomes the

         String containing name (and email address) of package author(s). Is
         used in(1,8) PPD (Perl Package Description) files for PPM (Perl Package

         Used when creating PPD files for binary packages.  It can be set(7,n,1 builtins) to a
         full or relative path or URL to the binary archive for a particular
         architecture.  For example:

                 perl Makefile.PL BINARY_LOCATION=x86/Agent.tar.gz

         builds a PPD package that references a binary of the "Agent" package,
         located in(1,8) the "x86" directory relative to the PPD itself.

       C Ref to array of *.c file(1,n) names. Initialised from a directory scan and
         the values portion of the XS attribute hash. This is not currently
         used by MakeMaker but may be handy in(1,8) Makefile.PLs.

         String that will be included in(1,8) the compiler call command line
         between the arguments INC and OPTIMIZE.

         Arrayref. E.g. [qw(archname manext)] defines ARCHNAME & MANEXT from MakeMaker will add to CONFIG the following values anyway:
         ar cc cccdlflags ccdlflags dlext dlsrc ld(1,8) lddlflags ldflags libc
         lib_ext obj_ext ranlib sitelibexp sitearchexp so

         CODE reference. The subroutine should return a hash reference. The
         hash may contain further attributes, e.g. {LIBS => ...}, that have to
         be determined by some evaluation method.

         Something like "-DHAVE_UNISTD_H"

         This is the root directory into which the code will be installed.  It
         prepends itself to the normal prefix.  For example, if(3,n) your code
         would normally go into /usr/local/lib/perl you could set(7,n,1 builtins) DEST-
         DIR=/tmp/ and installation would go into /tmp/usr/local/lib/perl.

         This is primarily of use for people who repackage Perl modules.

         NOTE: Due to the nature of make, it is important that you put the
         trailing slash on your DESTDIR.  "/tmp/" not "/tmp".

         Ref to array of subdirectories containing Makefile.PLs e.g. [ 'sdbm'
         ] in(1,8) ext/SDBM_File

         A safe filename for the package.

         Defaults to NAME above but with :: replaced with -.

         For example, Foo::Bar becomes Foo-Bar.

         Your name for distributing the package with the version(1,3,5) number
         included.  This is used by 'make dist' to name the resulting archive

         Defaults to DISTNAME-VERSION.

         For example, version(1,3,5) 1.04 of Foo::Bar becomes Foo-Bar-1.04.

         On some OS's where . has special meaning VERSION_SYM may be used in(1,8)
         place of VERSION.

         Hashref of symbol names for routines to be made available as univer-
         sal symbols.  Each key/value pair consists of the package name and an
         array of routine names in(1,8) that package.  Used only under AIX, OS/2,
         VMS and Win32 at present.  The routine names supplied will be
         expanded in(1,8) the same way as XSUB names are expanded by the XS()
         macro.  Defaults to

           {"$(NAME)" => ["boot_$(NAME)" ] }


           {"RPC" => [qw( boot_rpcb rpcb_gettime getnetconfigent )],
            "NetconfigPtr" => [ 'DESTROY'] }

         Please see the ExtUtils::Mksymlists documentation for more informa-
         tion about the DL_FUNCS, DL_VARS and FUNCLIST attributes.

         Array of symbol names for variables to be made available as universal
         symbols.  Used only under AIX, OS/2, VMS and Win32 at present.
         Defaults to [].  (e.g. [ qw(Foo_version Foo_numstreams Foo_tree ) ])

         Array of extension names to exclude when doing a static build.  This
         is ignored if(3,n) INCLUDE_EXT is present.  Consult INCLUDE_EXT for more
         details.  (e.g.  [ qw( Socket POSIX ) ] )

         This attribute may be most useful when specified as a string(3,n) on the
         command line:  perl Makefile.PL EXCLUDE_EXT='Socket Safe'

         Ref to array of executable files. The files will be copied to the
         INST_SCRIPT directory. Make realclean will delete them from there

         If your executables start with something like #!perl or
         #!/usr/bin/perl MakeMaker will change this to the path of the perl
         'Makefile.PL' was invoked with so the programs will be sure to run
         properly even if(3,n) perl is not in(1,8) /usr/bin/perl.

         The name of the Makefile to be produced.  This is used for the second
         Makefile that will be produced for the MAP_TARGET.

         Defaults to 'Makefile' or 'Descrip.MMS' on VMS.

         (Note: we couldn't use MAKEFILE because dmake uses this for something

         Perl binary able to run this extension, load(7,n) XS modules, etc...

         Like PERLRUN, except it uses FULLPERL.

         Like PERLRUNINST, except it uses FULLPERL.

         This provides an alternate means to specify function names to be
         exported from the extension.  Its value is a reference to an array of
         function names to be exported by the extension.  These names are
         passed through unaltered to the linker options file.

       H Ref to array of *.h file(1,n) names. Similar to C.

         This attribute is used to specify names to be imported into the
         extension. Takes a hash ref.

         It is only used on OS/2 and Win32.

         Include file(1,n) dirs eg: "-I/usr/5include -I/path/to/inc"

         Array of extension names to be included when doing a static build.
         MakeMaker will normally build with all of the installed extensions
         when doing a static build, and that is usually the desired behavior.
         If INCLUDE_EXT is present then MakeMaker will build only with those
         extensions which are explicitly mentioned. (e.g.  [ qw( Socket POSIX
         ) ])

         It is not necessary to mention DynaLoader or the current extension
         when filling in(1,8) INCLUDE_EXT.  If the INCLUDE_EXT is mentioned but is
         empty then only DynaLoader and the current extension will be included
         in(1,8) the build.

         This attribute may be most useful when specified as a string(3,n) on the
         command line:  perl Makefile.PL INCLUDE_EXT='POSIX Socket

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_ARCHLIB to this
         directory if(3,n) INSTALLDIRS is set(7,n,1 builtins) to perl.

         Directory to install binary files (e.g. tkperl) into if(3,n)

         Determines which of the sets of installation directories to choose:
         perl, site or vendor.  Defaults to site.

         These directories get the man(1,5,7) pages at 'make install' time(1,2,n) if(3,n)
         INSTALLDIRS=perl.  Defaults to $Config{installman*dir}.

         If set(7,n,1 builtins) to 'none', no man(1,5,7) pages will be installed.

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_LIB to this
         directory if(3,n) INSTALLDIRS is set(7,n,1 builtins) to perl.

         Defaults to $Config{installprivlib}.

         Used by 'make install' which copies files from INST_SCRIPT to this

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_ARCHLIB to this
         directory if(3,n) INSTALLDIRS is set(7,n,1 builtins) to site (default).

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_BIN to this
         directory if(3,n) INSTALLDIRS is set(7,n,1 builtins) to site (default).

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_LIB to this
         directory if(3,n) INSTALLDIRS is set(7,n,1 builtins) to site (default).

         These directories get the man(1,5,7) pages at 'make install' time(1,2,n) if(3,n)
         INSTALLDIRS=site (default).  Defaults to $(SITEPRE-

         If set(7,n,1 builtins) to 'none', no man(1,5,7) pages will be installed.

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_ARCHLIB to this
         directory if(3,n) INSTALLDIRS is set(7,n,1 builtins) to vendor.

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_BIN to this
         directory if(3,n) INSTALLDIRS is set(7,n,1 builtins) to vendor.

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_LIB to this
         directory if(3,n) INSTALLDIRS is set(7,n,1 builtins) to vendor.

         These directories get the man(1,5,7) pages at 'make install' time(1,2,n) if(3,n)
         INSTALLDIRS=vendor.  Defaults to $(VENDORPREFIX)/man(1,5,7)/man(1,5,7)$(MAN*EXT).

         If set(7,n,1 builtins) to 'none', no man(1,5,7) pages will be installed.

         Same as INST_LIB for architecture dependent files.

         Directory to put real binary files during 'make'. These will be
         copied to INSTALLBIN during 'make install'

         Directory where we put library files of this extension while building

         Directory to hold the man(1,5,7) pages at 'make' time(1,2,n)

         Directory to hold the man(1,5,7) pages at 'make' time(1,2,n)

         Directory, where executable files should be installed during 'make'.
         Defaults to "./blib/script", just to have a dummy location during
         testing. make install will copy the files in(1,8) INST_SCRIPT to

         Program to be used to link(1,2) libraries for dynamic loading.

         Defaults to $Config{ld(1,8)}.

         Any special flags that might need to be passed to ld(1,8) to create a
         shared library suitable for dynamic loading.  It is up to the make-
         file(1,n) to use it.  (See "lddlflags" in(1,8) Config)

         Defaults to $Config{lddlflags}.

         Defaults to "$(OBJECT)" and is used in(1,8) the ld(1,8) command to specify what
         files to link(1,2)/load(7,n) from (also see dynamic_lib below for how to spec-
         ify ld(1,8) flags)

         LIB should only be set(7,n,1 builtins) at "perl Makefile.PL" time(1,2,n) but is allowed as a
         MakeMaker argument. It has the effect of setting both INSTALLPRIVLIB
         and INSTALLSITELIB to that value regardless any explicit setting of
         those arguments (or of PREFIX).  INSTALLARCHLIB and INSTALLSITEARCH
         are set(7,n,1 builtins) to the corresponding architecture subdirectory.

         The filename of the perllibrary that will be used together with this
         extension. Defaults to libperl.a.

         An anonymous array of alternative library specifications to be
         searched for (in(1,8) order) until at least one library is found. E.g.

           'LIBS' => ["-lgdbm", "-ldbm -lfoo", "-L/path -ldbm.nfs"]

         Mind, that any element of the array contains a complete set(7,n,1 builtins) of argu-
         ments for the ld(1,8) command. So do not specify

           'LIBS' => ["-ltcl", "-ltk", "-lX11"]

         See ODBM_File/Makefile.PL for an example, where an array is needed.
         If you specify a scalar as in(1,8)

           'LIBS' => "-ltcl -ltk -lX11"

         MakeMaker will turn it into an array with one element.

         'static' or 'dynamic' (default unless usedl=undef in(1,8)
         Should only be used to force static linking (also see linkext below).

         Boolean which tells MakeMaker, that it should include the rules to
         make a perl. This is handled automatically as a switch(1,n) by MakeMaker.
         The user normally does not need it.

         When 'make clean' or similar is run, the $(FIRST_MAKEFILE) will be
         backed up at this location.

         Defaults to $(FIRST_MAKEFILE).old or $(FIRST_MAKEFILE)_old on VMS.

         Hashref of pod-containing files. MakeMaker will default this to all
         EXE_FILES files that include POD directives. The files listed here
         will be converted to man(1,5,7) pages and installed as was requested at Con-
         figure time.

         Hashref that assigns to *.pm and *.pod files the files into which the
         manpages are to be written. MakeMaker parses all *.pod and *.pm files
         for POD directives. Files that contain POD will be the default keys
         of the MAN3PODS hashref. These will then be converted to man(1,5,7) pages
         during "make" and will be installed during "make install".

         If it is intended, that a new perl binary be produced, this variable
         may hold a name for that binary. Defaults to perl

         If the extension links to a library that it builds set(7,n,1 builtins) this to the
         name of the library (see SDBM_File)

         Perl module name for this extension (DBD::Oracle). This will default
         to the directory name but should be explicitly defined in(1,8) the Make-

         MakeMaker will figure out if(3,n) an extension contains linkable code any-
         where down the directory tree, and will set(7,n,1 builtins) this variable accord-
         ingly, but you can speed it up a very little bit if(3,n) you define this
         boolean variable yourself.

         Command so make does not print the literal commands its running.

         By setting it to an empty string(3,n) you can generate a Makefile that
         prints all commands. Mainly used in(1,8) debugging MakeMaker itself.

         Defaults to "@".

         Boolean.  Attribute to inhibit descending into subdirectories.

         When true, suppresses the generation and addition to the MANIFEST of
         the META.yml module meta-data file(1,n) during 'make distdir'.

         Defaults to false.

         In general, any generated Makefile checks for the current version(1,3,5) of
         MakeMaker and the version(1,3,5) the Makefile was built under. If NO_VC is
         set(7,n,1 builtins), the version(1,3,5) check is neglected. Do not write(1,2) this into your
         Makefile.PL, use it interactively instead.

         List of object files, defaults to '$(BASEEXT)$(OBJ_EXT)', but can be
         a long string(3,n) containing all object files, e.g. "tkpBind.o tkpBut-
         ton.o tkpCanvas.o"

         (Where BASEEXT is the last component of NAME, and OBJ_EXT is $Con-

         Defaults to "-O". Set it to "-g" to turn debugging on. The flag is
         passed to subdirectory makes.

         Perl binary for tasks that can be done by miniperl

         Set only when MakeMaker is building the extensions of the Perl core

         The call to the program that is able to compile perlmain.c. Defaults
         to $(CC).

         Same as for PERL_LIB, but for architecture dependent files.

         Used only when MakeMaker is building the extensions of the Perl core
         distribution (because normally $(PERL_ARCHLIB) is automatically in(1,8)
         @INC, and adding it would get in(1,8) the way of PERL5LIB).

         Directory containing the Perl library to use.

         Used only when MakeMaker is building the extensions of the Perl core
         distribution (because normally $(PERL_LIB) is automatically in(1,8) @INC,
         and adding it would get in(1,8) the way of PERL5LIB).

         defaults to 0.  Should be set(7,n,1 builtins) to TRUE if(3,n) the extension can work with
         the memory allocation routines substituted by the Perl malloc() sub-
         system.  This should be applicable to most extensions with exceptions
         of those

         *   with bugs in(1,8) memory allocations which are caught by Perl's mal-

         *   which interact with the memory allocator in(1,8) other ways than via
             malloc(), realloc(), free(), calloc(), sbrk() and brk();

         *   which rely on special alignment which is not provided by Perl's

         NOTE.  Negligence to set(7,n,1 builtins) this flag in(1,8) any one of loaded extension
         nullifies many advantages of Perl's malloc(), such as better usage of
         system resources, error(8,n) detection, memory usage reporting, catchable
         failure of memory allocations, etc.

         Directory under which core modules are to be installed.

         Defaults to $Config{installprefixexp} falling back to $Con-
         fig{installprefix}, $Config{prefixexp} or $Config{prefix} should
         $Config{installprefixexp} not exist.

         Overridden by PREFIX.

         Use this instead of $(PERL) when you wish to run perl.  It will set(7,n,1 builtins)
         up extra necessary flags for you.

         Use this instead of $(PERL) when you wish to run perl to work with
         modules.  It will add things like -I$(INST_ARCH) and other necessary
         flags so perl can see the modules you're about to install.

         Directory containing the Perl source code (use of this should be
         avoided, it may be undefined)

         Desired permission for read(2,n,1 builtins)/writable files. Defaults to 644.  See
         also "perm_rw" in(1,8) MM_Unix.

         Desired permission for executable files. Defaults to 755.  See also
         "perm_rwx" in(1,8) MM_Unix.

         Ref to hash of files to be processed as perl programs. MakeMaker will
         default to any found *.PL file(1,n) (except Makefile.PL) being keys and
         the basename(1,3,3 File::Basename) of the file(1,n) being the value. E.g.

           {'foobar.PL' => 'foobar'}

         The *.PL files are expected to produce output to the target files
         themselves. If multiple files can be generated from the same *.PL
         file(1,n) then the value in(1,8) the hash can be a reference to an array of
         target file(1,n) names. E.g.

           {'foobar.PL' => ['foobar1','foobar2']}

         Hashref of .pm files and *.pl files to be installed.  e.g.

           {'' => '$(INST_LIBDIR)/'}

         By default this will include *.pm and *.pl and the files found in(1,8) the
         PMLIBDIRS directories.  Defining PM in(1,8) the Makefile.PL will override

         Ref to array of subdirectories containing library files.  Defaults to
         [ 'lib', $(BASEEXT) ]. The directories will be scanned and any files
         they contain will be installed in(1,8) the corresponding location in(1,8) the
         library.  A libscan() method can be used to alter the behaviour.
         Defining PM in(1,8) the Makefile.PL will override PMLIBDIRS.

         (Where BASEEXT is the last component of NAME.)

         A filter(1,3x,3x curs_util) program, in(1,8) the traditional Unix sense (input from stdin,
         output to stdout) that is passed on each .pm file(1,n) during the build
         (in(1,8) the pm_to_blib() phase).  It is empty by default, meaning no fil-
         tering is done.

         Great care is necessary when defining the command if(3,n) quoting needs to
         be done.  For instance, you would need to say:

           {'PM_FILTER' => 'grep -v \\"^\\#\\"'}

         to remove all the leading coments on the fly during the build.  The
         extra \\ are necessary, unfortunately, because this variable is
         interpolated within the context of a Perl program built on the com-
         mand line, and double quotes are what is used with the -e switch(1,n) to
         build that command line.  The # is escaped for the Makefile, since
         what is going to be generated will then be:

           PM_FILTER = grep -v \"^\#\"

         Without the \\ before the #, we'd have the start of a Makefile com-
         ment, and the macro would be incorrectly defined.

         Release 5.005 grandfathered old global symbol names by providing pre-
         processor macros for extension source compatibility.  As of release
         5.6, these preprocessor definitions are not available by default.
         The POLLUTE flag specifies that the old names should still be

           perl Makefile.PL POLLUTE=1

         Please inform the module author if(3,n) this is necessary to successfully
         install a module under 5.6 or later.

         Name of the executable used to run "PPM_INSTALL_SCRIPT" below. (e.g.

         Name of the script that gets(3,n) executed by the Perl Package Manager
         after the installation of a package.

         This overrides all the default install locations.  Man pages,
         libraries, scripts, etc...  MakeMaker will try to make an educated
         guess about where to place things under the new PREFIX based on your
         Config defaults.  Failing that, it will fall back to a structure
         which should be sensible for your platform.

         If you specify LIB or any INSTALL* variables they will not be
         effected by the PREFIX.

         Bool. If this parameter is true, failing to have the required modules
         (or the right versions thereof) will be fatal. perl Makefile.PL will
         die with the proper message.

         Note: see Test::Harness for a shortcut for stopping tests early if(3,n)
         you are missing dependencies.

         Do not use this parameter for simple requirements, which could be
         resolved at a later time(1,2,n), e.g. after an unsuccessful make test of
         your module.

         It is extremely rare to have to use "PREREQ_FATAL" at all!

         Hashref: Names of modules that need to be available to run this
         extension (e.g. Fcntl for SDBM_File) are the keys of the hash and the
         desired version(1,3,5) is the value. If the required version(1,3,5) number is 0, we
         only check if(3,n) any version(1,3,5) is installed already.

         Bool.  If this parameter is true, the prerequisites will be printed
         to stdout and MakeMaker will exit.  The output format is an evalable
         hash ref.

         $PREREQ_PM = {
                        'A::B' => Vers1,
                        'C::D' => Vers2,

         RedHatism for "PREREQ_PRINT".  The output format is different,

             perl(A::B)>=Vers1 perl(C::D)>=Vers2 ...

         Like PERLPREFIX, but only for the site install locations.

         Defaults to $Config{siteprefixexp}.  Perls prior to 5.6.0 didn't have
         an explicit siteprefix in(1,8) the Config.  In those cases $Con-
         fig{installprefix} will be used.

         Overridable by PREFIX

         Arrayref. E.g. [qw(name1 name2)] skip (do not write(1,2)) sections of the
         Makefile. Caution! Do not use the SKIP attribute for the negligible
         speedup. It may seriously damage the resulting Makefile. Only use it
         if(3,n) you really need it.

         Ref to array of typemap file(1,n) names.  Use this when the typemaps are
         in(1,8) some directory other than the current directory or when they are
         not named(5,8) typemap.  The last typemap in(1,8) the list takes precedence.  A
         typemap in(1,8) the current directory has highest precedence, even if(3,n) it
         isn't listed in(1,8) TYPEMAPS.  The default system typemap has lowest

         Like PERLPREFIX, but only for the vendor install locations.

         Defaults to $Config{vendorprefixexp}.

         Overridable by PREFIX

         If true, make install will be verbose

         Your version(1,3,5) number for distributing the package.  This defaults to

         Instead of specifying the VERSION in(1,8) the Makefile.PL you can let
         MakeMaker parse a file(1,n) to determine the version(1,3,5) number. The parsing
         routine requires that the file(1,n) named(5,8) by VERSION_FROM contains one
         single line to compute the version(1,3,5) number. The first line in(1,8) the file(1,n)
         that contains the regular expression


         will be evaluated with eval() and the value of the named(5,8) variable
         after the eval() will be assigned to the VERSION attribute of the
         MakeMaker object. The following lines will be parsed o.k.:

             $VERSION = '1.00';
             *VERSION = \'1.01';
             $VERSION = sprintf "%d.%03d", q$Revision: 1.133 $ =~ /(\d+)/g;
             $FOO::VERSION = '1.10';
             *FOO::VERSION = \'1.11';
             our $VERSION = 1.2.3;       # new for perl5.6.0

         but these will fail:

             my $VERSION = '1.01';
             local $VERSION = '1.02';
             local $FOO::VERSION = '1.30';

         (Putting "my" or "local" on the preceding line will work o.k.)

         The file(1,n) named(5,8) in(1,8) VERSION_FROM is not added as a dependency to Make-
         file. This is not really correct, but it would be a major pain during
         development to have to rewrite the Makefile for any smallish change
         in(1,8) that file. If you want to make sure that the Makefile contains the
         correct VERSION macro after any change of the file(1,n), you would have to
         do something like

             depend => { Makefile => '$(VERSION_FROM)' }

         See attribute "depend" below.

         A sanitized VERSION with . replaced by _.  For places where . has
         special meaning (some filesystems, RCS labels, etc...)

         Hashref of .xs files. MakeMaker will default this.  e.g.

           {'name_of_file.xs' => 'name_of_file.c'}

         The .c files will automatically be included in(1,8) the list of files
         deleted by a make clean.

         String of options to pass to xsubpp.  This might include "-C++" or
         "-extern".  Do not include typemaps here; the TYPEMAP parameter
         exists for that purpose.

         May be set(7,n,1 builtins) to an empty string(3,n), which is identical to "-prototypes",
         or "-noprototypes". See the xsubpp documentation for details. Make-
         Maker defaults to the empty string.

         Your version(1,3,5) number for the .xs file(1,n) of this package.  This defaults
         to the value of the VERSION attribute.

       Additional lowercase attributes

       can be used to pass parameters to the methods which implement that part
       of the Makefile.  Parameters are specified as a hash ref but are passed
       to the method as a hash.

           {FILES => "*.xyz foo"}

           {ANY_TARGET => ANY_DEPENDECY, ...}

         (ANY_TARGET must not be given a double-colon rule by MakeMaker.)

           {TARFLAGS => 'cvfF', COMPRESS => 'gzip', SUFFIX => '.gz',
           SHAR => 'shar -m', DIST_CP => 'ln', ZIP => '/bin/zip',
           ZIPFLAGS => '-rl', DIST_DEFAULT => 'private tardist' }

         If you specify COMPRESS, then SUFFIX should also be altered, as it is
         needed to tell make the target file(1,n) of the compression. Setting
         DIST_CP to ln can be useful, if(3,n) you need to preserve the timestamps
         on your files. DIST_CP can take the values 'cp', which copies the
         file(1,n), 'ln', which links the file(1,n), and 'best' which copies symbolic
         links and links the rest. Default is 'best'.

           {ARMAYBE => 'ar', OTHERLDFLAGS => '...', INST_DYNAMIC_DEP => '...'}

           {LINKTYPE => 'static', 'dynamic' or ''}

         NB: Extensions that have nothing but *.pm files had to say

           {LINKTYPE => ''}

         with Pre-5.0 MakeMakers. Since version(1,3,5) 5.00 of MakeMaker such a line
         can be deleted safely. MakeMaker recognizes when there's nothing to
         be linked.

           {ANY_MACRO => ANY_VALUE, ...}

         Anything put here will be passed to MY::postamble() if(3,n) you have one.

           {FILES => '$(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)/*.xyz'}

           {TESTS => 't/*.t'}

           {MAXLEN => 8}

       Overriding MakeMaker Methods

       If you cannot achieve the desired Makefile behaviour by specifying
       attributes you may define private subroutines in(1,8) the Makefile.PL.  Each
       subroutine returns the text it wishes to have written to the Makefile.
       To override a section of the Makefile you can either say:

               sub MY::c_o { "new literal text" }

       or you can edit the default by saying something like:

               package MY; # so that "SUPER" works right
               sub c_o {
                   my $inherited = shift->SUPER::c_o(@_);
                   $inherited =~ s/old text/new text/;

       If you are running experiments with embedding perl as a library into
       other applications, you might find MakeMaker is not sufficient. You'd
       better have a look(1,8,3 Search::Dict) at ExtUtils::Embed which is a collection of utili-
       ties for embedding.

       If you still need a different solution, try to develop another subrou-
       tine that fits your needs and submit the diffs to

       For a complete description of all MakeMaker methods see ExtU-

       Here is a simple example of how to add a new target to the generated

           sub MY::postamble {
               return <<'MAKE_FRAG';
           $(MYEXTLIB): sdbm/Makefile
                   cd sdbm && $(MAKE) all


       The End Of Cargo Cult Programming

       WriteMakefile() now does some basic sanity checks on its parameters to
       protect against typos and malformatted values.  This means some things
       which happened to work in(1,8) the past will now throw warnings and possibly
       produce internal errors.

       Some of the most common mistakes:

       "<MAN3PODS =" ' '>>
         This is commonly used to supress the creation of man(1,5,7) pages.  MAN3PODS
         takes a hash ref not a string(3,n), but the above worked by accident in(1,8)
         old versions of MakeMaker.

         The correct code is "<MAN3PODS =" { }>>.

       Hintsfile support uses the architecture specific information from
       In addition it evaluates architecture specific hints files in(1,8) a
       "hints/" directory. The hints files are expected to be named(5,8) like their
       counterparts in(1,8) "PERL_SRC/hints", but with an ".pl" file(1,n) name extension
       (eg. ""). They are simply "eval"ed by MakeMaker within the
       WriteMakefile() subroutine, and can be used to execute commands as well
       as to include special variables. The rules which hintsfile is chosen
       are the same as in(1,8) Configure.

       The hintsfile is eval()ed immediately after the arguments given to
       WriteMakefile are stuffed into a hash reference $self but before this
       reference becomes blessed. So if(3,n) you want to do the equivalent to over-
       ride or create an attribute you would say something like

           $self->{LIBS} = ['-ldbm -lucb -lc'];

       Distribution Support

       For authors of extensions MakeMaker provides several Makefile targets.
       Most of the support comes from the ExtUtils::Manifest module, where
       additional documentation can be found.

       make distcheck
           reports which files are below the build directory but not in(1,8) the
           MANIFEST file(1,n) and vice versa. (See ExtUtils::Manifest::fullcheck()
           for details)

       make skipcheck
           reports which files are skipped due to the entries in(1,8) the "MANI-
           FEST.SKIP" file(1,n) (See ExtUtils::Manifest::skipcheck() for details)

       make distclean
           does a realclean first and then the distcheck. Note that this is
           not needed to build a new distribution as long as you are sure that
           the MANIFEST file(1,n) is ok.

       make manifest
           rewrites the MANIFEST file(1,n), adding all remaining files found (See
           ExtUtils::Manifest::mkmanifest() for details)

       make distdir
           Copies all the files that are in(1,8) the MANIFEST file(1,n) to a newly cre-
           ated directory with the name "$(DISTNAME)-$(VERSION)". If that
           directory exists, it will be removed first.

           Additionally, it will create a META.yml module meta-data file(1,n) and
           add this to your MANFIEST.  You can shut this behavior off with the
           NO_META flag.

       make disttest
           Makes a distdir first, and runs a "perl Makefile.PL", a make, and a
           make test in(1,8) that directory.

       make tardist
           First does a distdir. Then a command $(PREOP) which defaults to a
           null command, followed by $(TOUNIX), which defaults to a null com-
           mand under UNIX, and will convert files in(1,8) distribution directory
           to UNIX format otherwise. Next it runs "tar" on that directory into
           a tarfile and deletes the directory. Finishes with a command
           $(POSTOP) which defaults to a null command.

       make dist
           Defaults to $(DIST_DEFAULT) which in(1,8) turn defaults to tardist.

       make uutardist
           Runs a tardist first and uuencodes the tarfile.

       make shdist
           First does a distdir. Then a command $(PREOP) which defaults to a
           null command. Next it runs "shar" on that directory into a sharfile
           and deletes the intermediate directory again. Finishes with a com-
           mand $(POSTOP) which defaults to a null command.  Note: For shdist
           to work properly a "shar" program that can handle directories is

       make zipdist
           First does a distdir. Then a command $(PREOP) which defaults to a
           null command. Runs "$(ZIP) $(ZIPFLAGS)" on that directory into a
           zipfile. Then deletes that directory. Finishes with a command
           $(POSTOP) which defaults to a null command.

       make ci
           Does a $(CI) and a $(RCS_LABEL) on all files in(1,8) the MANIFEST file.

       Customization of the dist targets can be done by specifying a hash ref-
       erence to the dist attribute of the WriteMakefile call. The following
       parameters are recognized:

           CI           ('ci -u')
           COMPRESS     ('gzip --best')
           POSTOP       ('@ :')
           PREOP        ('@ :')
           TO_UNIX      (depends on the system)
           RCS_LABEL    ('rcs -q -Nv$(VERSION_SYM):')
           SHAR         ('shar')
           SUFFIX       ('.gz')
           TAR          ('tar')
           TARFLAGS     ('cvf')
           ZIP          ('zip')
           ZIPFLAGS     ('-r')

       An example:

           WriteMakefile( 'dist' => { COMPRESS=>"bzip2", SUFFIX=>".bz2" })

       Module Meta-Data

       Long plaguing users(1,5) of MakeMaker based modules has been the problem of
       getting basic information about the module out of the sources without
       running the Makefile.PL and doing a bunch of messy heuristics on the
       resulting Makefile.  To this end a simple module meta-data file(1,n) has
       been introduced, META.yml.

       META.yml is a YAML document (see containing basic
       information about the module (name, version(1,3,5), prerequisites...)  in(1,8) an
       easy to read(2,n,1 builtins) format.  The format is developed and defined by the Mod-
       ule::Build developers (see http://module-build.source-

       MakeMaker will automatically generate a META.yml file(1,n) for you and add
       it to your MANIFEST as part of the 'distdir' target (and thus the
       'dist' target).  This is intended to seamlessly and rapidly populate
       CPAN with module meta-data.  If you wish to shut this feature off, set(7,n,1 builtins)
       the "NO_META" "WriteMakefile()" flag to true.

       Disabling an extension

       If some events detected in(1,8) Makefile.PL imply that there is no way to
       create the Module, but this is a normal state of things, then you can
       create a Makefile which does nothing, but succeeds on all the "usual"
       build targets.  To do so, use


       instead of WriteMakefile().

       This may be useful if(3,n) other modules expect this module to be built OK,
       as opposed to work OK (say, this system-dependent module builds in(1,8) a
       subdirectory of some other distribution, or is listed as a dependency
       in(1,8) a CPAN::Bundle, but the functionality is supported by different
       means on the current architecture).

       Other Handy Functions

               my $value = prompt($message);
               my $value = prompt($message, $default);

           The "prompt()" function provides an easy way to request user input
           used to write(1,2) a makefile.  It displays the $message as a prompt for
           input.  If a $default is provided it will be used as a default.
           The function returns the $value selected by the user.

           If "prompt()" detects that it is not running interactively and
           there is nothing on STDIN or if(3,n) the PERL_MM_USE_DEFAULT environment
           variable is set(7,n,1 builtins) to true, the $default will be used without prompt-
           ing.  This prevents automated processes from blocking on user

           If no $default is provided an empty string(3,n) will be used instead.

           Command line options used by "MakeMaker->new()", and thus by
           "WriteMakefile()".  The string(3,n) is split(1,n) on whitespace, and the
           result is processed before any actual command line arguments are

           If set(7,n,1 builtins) to a true value then MakeMaker's prompt function will always
           return the default without waiting for user input.

       ExtUtils::MM_Unix, ExtUtils::Manifest ExtUtils::Install, ExtU-

       Andy Dougherty <>, Andreas Koenig
       <>, Tim Bunce <>.  VMS support by
       Charles Bailey <>.  OS/2 support by Ilya
       Zakharevich <>.

       Currently maintained by Michael G Schwern <>

       Send patches and ideas to <>.

       Send bug reports via  Please send(2,n) your generated
       Makefile along with your report.

       For more up-to-date information, see

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.


perl v5.8.5                       2001-09-21            ExtUtils::MakeMaker(3)

References for this manual (incoming links)