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LINK(2)                    Linux Programmer's Manual                   LINK(2)



NAME
       link(1,2) - make a new name for a file(1,n)

SYNOPSIS
       #include <unistd.h>

       int link(1,2)(const char *oldpath, const char *newpath);

DESCRIPTION
       link(1,2)  creates  a  new  link(1,2)  (also known as a hard link(1,2)) to an existing
       file.

       If newpath exists it will not be overwritten.

       This new name may be used exactly as the old  one  for  any  operation;
       both names refer to the same file(1,n) (and so have the same permissions and
       ownership) and it is impossible to tell which name was the  `original'.

RETURN VALUE
       On  success,  zero is returned.  On error(8,n), -1 is returned, and errno is
       set(7,n,1 builtins) appropriately.

ERRORS
       EACCES Write access(2,5) to the directory containing newpath is  denied,  or
              search  permission  is  denied for one of the directories in(1,8) the
              path prefix of  oldpath  or  newpath.   (See  also  path_resolu-
              tion(2).)

       EEXIST newpath already exists.

       EFAULT oldpath or newpath points outside your accessible address space.

       EIO    An I/O error(8,n) occurred.

       ELOOP  Too many symbolic links were encountered in(1,8) resolving oldpath or
              newpath.

       EMLINK The  file(1,n)  referred to by oldpath already has the maximum number
              of links to it.

       ENAMETOOLONG
              oldpath or newpath was too long.

       ENOENT A directory component in(1,8) oldpath or newpath does not exist or is
              a dangling symbolic link.

       ENOMEM Insufficient kernel memory was available.

       ENOSPC The device containing the file(1,n) has no room for the new directory
              entry.

       ENOTDIR
              A component used as a directory in(1,8) oldpath or newpath is not, in(1,8)
              fact, a directory.

       EPERM  oldpath is a directory.

       EPERM  The  filesystem  containing oldpath and newpath does not support
              the creation of hard links.

       EROFS  The file(1,n) is on a read-only filesystem.

       EXDEV  oldpath and newpath are not on the same filesystem.

NOTES
       Hard links, as created by link(1,2), cannot span filesystems. Use symlink if(3,n)
       this is required.

CONFORMING TO
       SVr4,  SVID, POSIX, BSD 4.3, X/OPEN.  SVr4 documents additional ENOLINK
       and EMULTIHOP  error(8,n)  conditions;  POSIX.1  does  not  document  ELOOP.
       X/OPEN does not document EFAULT, ENOMEM or EIO.

BUGS
       On  NFS  file(1,n)  systems,  the  return  code may be wrong in(1,8) case the NFS
       server performs the link(1,2) creation and dies before it can say  so.   Use
       stat(1,2)(2) to find out if(3,n) the link(1,2) got created.

SEE ALSO
       ln(1),  open(2,3,n)(2),  path_resolution(2),  rename(1,2,n)(2),  stat(1,2)(2), symlink(2),
       unlink(1,2)(2)



Linux 2.6.7                       2004-06-23                           LINK(2)

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