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zip(1) - zip, zipcloak, zipnote, zipsplit - package and compress (archive) files - man 1 zip

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ZIP(1L)                                                                ZIP(1L)

       zip, zipcloak, zipnote, zipsplit - package and compress (archive) files

       zip   [-aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$]   [-b path]    [-n suffixes]
       [-t mmddyyyy] [-tt mmddyyyy] [ zipfile [ file1 file2 ...]] [-xi list]

       zipcloak [-dhL] [-b path] zipfile

       zipnote [-hwL] [-b path] zipfile

       zipsplit [-hiLpst] [-n size] [-b path] zipfile

       zip  is  a compression and file(1,n) packaging utility for Unix, VMS, MSDOS,
       OS/2, Windows NT, Minix, Atari and Macintosh, Amiga and Acorn RISC  OS.

       It  is  analogous to a combination of the UNIX commands tar(1) and com-
       press(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil Katz's ZIP for  MSDOS  sys-

       A  companion  program  (unzip(1L)),  unpacks zip archives.  The zip and
       unzip(1L) programs can work with archives produced by PKZIP, and  PKZIP
       and  PKUNZIP  can work with archives produced by zip.  zip version(1,3,5) 2.31
       is compatible with PKZIP 2.04.  Note that PKUNZIP 1.10  cannot  extract
       files produced by PKZIP 2.04 or zip 2.31. You must use PKUNZIP 2.04g or
       unzip 5.0p1 (or later versions) to extract them.

       For a brief help on zip and unzip,  run  each  without  specifying  any
       parameters on the command line.

       The  program  is  useful for packaging a set(7,n,1 builtins) of files for distribution;
       for archiving files; and for saving disk space by temporarily compress-
       ing unused files or directories.

       The zip program puts(3,n) one or more compressed files into a single zip ar-
       chive, along with information about the files (name, path,  date,  time(1,2,n)
       of  last modification, protection, and check information to verify(1,8) file(1,n)
       integrity).  An entire directory structure can be packed into a zip ar-
       chive with a single command.  Compression ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 are com-
       mon for text files.  zip has one compression method (deflation) and can
       also  store  files  without compression.  zip automatically chooses the
       better of the two for each file(1,n) to be compressed.

       When given the name of an existing zip archive, zip will replace  iden-
       tically  named(5,8) entries in(1,8) the zip archive or add entries for new names.
       For example, if(3,n) exists and contains  foo/file1  and  foo/file2,
       and the directory foo contains the files foo/file1 and foo/file3, then:

              zip -r foo foo

       will replace foo/file1 in(1,8) and add foo/file3 to   After
       this,  contains  foo/file1,  foo/file2,  and  foo/file3,  with
       foo/file2 unchanged from before.

       If the file(1,n) list is specified as -@, [Not on MacOS] zip takes the  list
       of  input  files  from  standard input.  Under UNIX, this option can be
       used to powerful effect in(1,8) conjunction with the find(1)  command.   For
       example, to archive all the C source files in(1,8) the current directory and
       its subdirectories:

              find . -name "*.[ch]" -print | zip source -@

       (note that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from  expanding
       it).  zip will also accept(2,8) a single dash ("-") as the zip file(1,n) name, in(1,8)
       which case it will write(1,2) the zip file(1,n) to standard output, allowing  the
       output to be piped to another program. For example:

              zip -r - . | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       would  write(1,2) the zip output directly to a tape with the specified block
       size for the purpose of backing up the current directory.

       zip also accepts a single dash ("-") as the name of a file(1,n) to  be  com-
       pressed,  in(1,8)  which  case  it  will  read(2,n,1 builtins) the file(1,n) from standard input,
       allowing zip to take input from another program. For example:

              tar cf - . | zip backup -

       would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of backing
       up  the  current  directory. This generally produces better compression
       than the previous example using the -r option,  because  zip  can  take
       advantage of redundancy between files. The backup can be restored using
       the command

              unzip -p backup | tar xf -

       When no zip file(1,n) name is given and stdout is not a terminal,  zip  acts
       as  a filter(1,3x,3x curs_util), compressing standard input to standard output.  For exam-

              tar cf - . | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       is equivalent to

              tar cf - . | zip - - | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       zip archives created in(1,8) this manner can be extracted with  the  program
       funzip  which  is  provided in(1,8) the unzip package, or by gunzip which is
       provided in(1,8) the gzip package. For example:

              dd if(3,n)=/dev/nrst0  ibs=16k | funzip | tar xvf -

       When changing an existing zip archive, zip will write(1,2) a temporary  file(1,n)
       with the new contents, and only replace the old one when the process of
       creating the new version(1,3,5) has been completed without error.

       If the name of the zip archive  does  not  contain  an  extension,  the
       extension  .zip  is  added.  If  the name already contains an extension
       other than .zip the existing extension is kept unchanged.

       -a     [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file(1,n) to ASCII format.

       -A     Adjust self-extracting executable  archive.   A  self-extracting
              executable  archive  is created by prepending the SFX stub to an
              existing archive. The -A option tells zip to  adjust  the  entry
              offsets  stored in(1,8) the archive to take into account this "pream-
              ble" data.

       Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are a  special  case.   At
       present, only the Amiga port of Zip is capable of adjusting or updating
       these without corrupting them.  -J can be used to remove the  SFX  stub
       if(3,n) other updates need to be made.

       -B     [VM/CMS and MVS] force file(1,n) to be read(2,n,1 builtins) binary (default is text).

       -Bn    [TANDEM] set(7,n,1 builtins) Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as
              bit  0: Don't add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit 1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe)
              bit  3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe)
              bit 8: Force 30K (Expand) large read(2,n,1 builtins) for unstructured files

       -b path
              Use the specified path for the temporary zip archive. For  exam-

                     zip -b /tmp stuff *

              will  put the temporary zip archive in(1,8) the directory /tmp, copy-
              ing over to the  current  directory  when  done.  This
              option is only useful when updating an existing archive, and the
              file(1,n) system containing this old archive  does  not  have  enough
              space to hold both old and new archives at the same time.

       -c     Add  one-line  comments for each file.  File operations (adding,
              updating) are done first, and the user is then  prompted  for  a
              one-line  comment  for each file.  Enter the comment followed by
              return, or just return for no comment.

       -d     Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\* \*.o

              will remove the entry foo/tom/junk, all of the files that  start
              with  foo/harry/,  and all of the files that end with .o (in(1,8) any
              path).  Note that shell pathname expansion  has  been  inhibited
              with  backslashes,  so  that zip can see the asterisks, enabling
              zip to match on the contents of the zip archive instead  of  the
              contents of the current directory.

              Under systems where the shell does not expand wildcards, such as
              MSDOS, the backslashes are not needed.  The above would then be

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/* *.o

              Under MSDOS, -d is case sensitive when it matches names  in(1,8)  the
              zip  archive.  This requires that file(1,n) names be entered in(1,8) upper
              case if(3,n) they were zipped by PKZIP on an MSDOS system.

       -df    [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive.
              Good   for   exporting   files   to  foreign  operating-systems.
              Resource-forks will be ignored at all.

       -D     Do not create  entries  in(1,8)  the  zip  archive  for  directories.
              Directory   entries   are  created  by  default  so  that  their
              attributes can be saved in(1,8) the  zip  archive.   The  environment
              variable  ZIPOPT  can be used to change the default options. For
              example under Unix with sh:

                     ZIPOPT="-D"; export ZIPOPT

              (The variable ZIPOPT can be used for any option except -i and -x
              and  can  include several options.) The option -D is a shorthand
              for -x "*/" but the latter cannot  be  set(7,n,1 builtins)  as  default  in(1,8)  the
              ZIPOPT environment variable.

       -e     Encrypt  the  contents of the zip archive using a password which
              is entered on the terminal in(1,8) response to a  prompt  (this  will
              not  be  echoed;  if(3,n)  standard error(8,n) is not a tty(1,4), zip will exit(3,n,1 builtins)
              with an error(8,n)).  The password prompt is  repeated  to  save  the
              user from typing errors.

       -E     [OS/2]  Use the .LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if(3,n) found) as file-

       -f     Replace (freshen) an existing entry in(1,8) the zip archive  only  if(3,n)
              it  has  been modified more recently than the version(1,3,5) already in(1,8)
              the zip archive; unlike the update(7,n) option (-u) this will not add
              files that are not already in(1,8) the zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -f foo

              This  command  should  be run from the same directory from which
              the original zip command was run, since paths stored in(1,8) zip  ar-
              chives are always relative.

              Note  that  the  timezone  environment variable TZ should be set(7,n,1 builtins)
              according to the local timezone in(1,8) order for the -f , -u and  -o
              options to work correctly.

              The  reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to do with
              the differences between the Unix-format file(1,n)  times  (always  in(1,8)
              GMT) and most of the other operating systems (always local time(1,2,n))
              and the necessity to compare the two.  A  typical  TZ  value  is
              ``MET-1MEST''  (Middle  European  time(1,2,n) with automatic adjustment
              for ``summertime'' or Daylight Savings Time).

       -F     Fix the zip archive. This option can be used if(3,n) some portions of
              the  archive  are  missing. It is not guaranteed to work, so you
              MUST make a backup of the original archive first.

              When doubled as in(1,8) -FF the compressed  sizes  given  inside  the
              damaged archive are not trusted and zip scans for special signa-
              tures to identify the limits between the  archive  members.  The
              single  -F  is more reliable if(3,n) the archive is not too much dam-
              aged, for example if(3,n) it has only been  truncated,  so  try  this
              option first.

              Neither  option will recover archives that have been incorrectly
              transferred in(1,8) ascii(1,7) mode instead of binary. After  the  repair,
              the  -t option of unzip may show that some files have a bad CRC.
              Such files cannot be recovered; you can remove them from the ar-
              chive using the -d option of zip.

       -g     Grow  (append to) the specified zip archive, instead of creating
              a new one. If this operation fails, zip attempts to restore  the
              archive to its original state. If the restoration fails, the ar-
              chive might  become  corrupted.  This  option  is  ignored  when
              there's  no existing archive or when at least one archive member
              must be updated or deleted.

       -h     Display the zip help information (this also appears  if(3,n)  zip  is
              run with no arguments).

       -i files
              Include only the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo . -i \*.c

              which  will include only the files that end in(1,8) .c in(1,8) the current
              directory and its subdirectories. (Note  for  PKZIP  users:  the
              equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              PKZIP  does  not  allow  recursion in(1,8) directories other than the
              current one.)  The backslash avoids the shell filename substitu-
              tion,  so  that  the  name  matching  is performed by zip at all
              directory levels.  Not escaping  wildcards  on  shells  that  do
              wildcard  substitution before zip gets(3,n) the command line may seem
              to work but files in(1,8) subdirectories matching  the  pattern  will
              never  be checked and so not matched.  For shells, such as Win32
              command prompts, that do not replace  file(1,n)  patterns  containing
              wildcards with the respective file(1,n) names, zip will do the recur-
              sion and escaping the wildcards is not needed.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo  . -i@include.lst

              which will only include the files in(1,8) the current  directory  and
              its   subdirectories   that  match  the  patterns  in(1,8)  the  file(1,n)

       -I     [Acorn RISC OS] Don't scan through Image files.  When used,  zip
              will  not  consider Image files (eg. DOS partitions or Spark ar-
              chives when SparkFS is loaded) as  directories  but  will  store
              them as single files.

              For example, if(3,n) you have SparkFS loaded, zipping a Spark archive
              will result in(1,8) a zipfile containing a directory  (and  its  con-
              tent)  while  using the 'I' option will result in(1,8) a zipfile con-
              taining a Spark archive. Obviously this second case will also be
              obtained (without the 'I' option) if(3,n) SparkFS isn't loaded.

       -j     Store  just the name of a saved file(1,n) (junk the path), and do not
              store directory names. By default, zip will store the full  path
              (relative to the current path).

       -jj    [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname). The complete path including
              volume will be stored. By default  the  relative  path  will  be

       -J     Strip any prepended data (e.g. a SFX stub) from the archive.

       -k     Attempt  to  convert  the  names  and paths to conform to MSDOS,
              store only the MSDOS attribute (just the  user  write(1,2)  attribute
              from  UNIX), and mark the entry as made under MSDOS (even though
              it was not); for compatibility with PKUNZIP  under  MSDOS  which
              cannot handle certain names such as those with two dots.

       -l     Translate  the Unix end-of-line character LF into the MSDOS con-
              vention CR LF. This option should not be used on  binary  files.
              This  option can be used on Unix if(3,n) the zip file(1,n) is intended for
              PKUNZIP under MSDOS. If the input files already contain  CR  LF,
              this option adds an extra CR. This ensures that unzip -a on Unix
              will get back an exact copy of the original file(1,n),  to  undo  the
              effect  of  zip  -l.   See  the note on binary detection for -ll

       -ll    Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF.  This option
              should  not be used on binary files and a warning will be issued
              when a file(1,n) is converted that later is detected  to  be  binary.
              This option can be used on MSDOS if(3,n) the zip file(1,n) is intended for
              unzip under Unix.

              In Zip 2.31 binary detection has been changed from a simple per-
              centage  of  binary characters being considered binary to a more
              selective method that should consider files  in(1,8)  many  character
              sets, including UTF-8, that only include text characters in(1,8) that
              character set(7,n,1 builtins) to be text.  This allows unzip -a to convert these

       -L     Display the zip license.

       -m     Move  the  specified  files into the zip archive; actually, this
              deletes the target directories/files after making the  specified
              zip  archive.  If a directory becomes empty after removal of the
              files, the directory is also  removed.  No  deletions  are  done
              until zip has created the archive without error.  This is useful
              for conserving disk space, but is potentially dangerous so it is
              recommended to use it in(1,8) combination with -T to test the archive
              before removing all input files.

       -n suffixes
              Do not attempt to compress files named(5,8) with the given  suffixes.
              Such  files are simply stored (0% compression) in(1,8) the output zip
              file(1,n), so that zip doesn't waste  its  time(1,2,n)  trying  to  compress
              them.   The  suffixes  are  separated  by either colons or semi-
              colons.  For example:

                     zip -rn  foo foo

              will copy everything from foo into, but will  store  any
              files  that end in(1,8) .Z, .zip, .tiff, .gif, or .snd without trying
              to compress them (image and sound files  often  have  their  own
              specialized compression methods).  By default, zip does not com-
              press     files     with     extensions     in(1,8)     the      list
       Such files are stored directly in(1,8)
              the output archive.  The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used
              to change the default options. For example under Unix with csh:

                     setenv ZIPOPT "-n"

              To attempt compression on all files, use:

                     zip -n : foo

              The  maximum  compression option -9 also attempts compression on
              all files regardless of extension.

              On Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes  (3
              hex  digit format). By default, zip does not compress files with
              filetypes in(1,8) the list DDC:D96:68E (i.e. Archives, CFS files  and
              PackDir files).

       -N     [Amiga,  MacOS]  Save  Amiga  or MacOS filenotes as zipfile com-
              ments. They can be restored by using the -N option of unzip.  If
              -c  is  used  also, you are prompted for comments only for those
              files that do not have filenotes.

       -o     Set the "last modified" time(1,2,n) of the zip archive  to  the  latest
              (oldest) "last modified" time(1,2,n) found among the entries in(1,8) the zip
              archive.  This can be used  without  any  other  operations,  if(3,n)
              desired.  For example:

                     zip -o foo

              will change the last modified time(1,2,n) of to the latest time(1,2,n)
              of the entries in(1,8)

       -P password
              use password to encrypt zipfile entries (if(3,n) any).  THIS IS INSE-
              CURE!   Many  multi-user  operating systems provide ways for any
              user to see the current command line of any other user; even  on
              stand-alone  systems  there  is  always  the threat of over-the-
              shoulder peeking.  Storing the plaintext password as part  of  a
              command  line  in(1,8)  an  automated script is even worse.  Whenever
              possible, use the non-echoing, interactive prompt to enter pass-
              words.   (And  where  security  is  truly  important, use strong
              encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively
              weak encryption provided by standard zipfile utilities.)

       -q     Quiet   mode;   eliminate  informational  messages  and  comment
              prompts.  (Useful, for example, in(1,8) shell scripts and  background

       -Qn    [QDOS]  store information about the file(1,n) in(1,8) the file(1,n) header with
              n defined as
              bit  0: Don't add headers for any file(1,n)
              bit  1: Add headers for all files
              bit  2: Don't wait for interactive key press on exit(3,n,1 builtins)

       -r     Travel the directory structure recursively; for example:

                     zip -r foo foo

              In this case, all the files and directories in(1,8) foo are saved  in(1,8)
              a zip archive named(5,8), including files with names starting
              with ".", since the recursion does not use the shell's file-name
              substitution  mechanism.  If you wish to include only a specific
              subset of the files in(1,8) directory foo and its subdirectories, use
              the  -i  option  to specify the pattern of files to be included.
              You should not use -r with the name  ".*",  since  that  matches
              ".."   which will attempt to zip up the parent directory (proba-
              bly not what was intended).

       -R     Travel the directory structure recursively starting at the  cur-
              rent directory; for example:

                     zip -R foo '*.c'

              In this case, all the files matching *.c in(1,8) the tree starting at
              the current directory  are  stored  into  a  zip  archive  named(5,8)
      Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

       -S     [MSDOS,  OS/2, WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden files.
              [MacOS] Includes finder invisible files, which are ignored  oth-

       -t mmddyyyy
              Do  not  operate  on files modified prior to the specified date,
              where mm is the month (0-12), dd is the day of the month (1-31),
              and  yyyy  is  the year.  The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is
              also accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo

                     zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo

              will add all the files in(1,8) foo and its subdirectories  that  were
              last  modified  on  or after 7 December 1991, to the zip archive

       -tt mmddyyyy
              Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date,
              where mm is the month (0-12), dd is the day of the month (1-31),
              and yyyy is the year.  The ISO 8601 date  format  yyyy-mm-dd  is
              also accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo

                     zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo

              will  add  all the files in(1,8) foo and its subdirectories that were
              last modified before the 30 November 1995, to  the  zip  archive

       -T     Test  the integrity of the new zip file. If the check fails, the
              old zip file(1,n) is unchanged and (with  the  -m  option)  no  input
              files are removed.

       -u     Replace (update(7,n)) an existing entry in(1,8) the zip archive only if(3,n) it
              has been modified more recently than the version(1,3,5) already in(1,8)  the
              zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -u stuff *

              will  add any new files in(1,8) the current directory, and update(7,n) any
              files which have been modified since the zip  archive
              was  last  created/modified  (note that zip will not try to pack(3,n,n pack-old)
     into itself when you do this).

              Note that the -u option with  no  arguments  acts  like  the  -f
              (freshen) option.

       -v     Verbose mode or print diagnostic version(1,3,5) info.

              Normally,  when  applied to real operations, this option enables
              the display of  a  progress  indicator  during  compression  and
              requests  verbose  diagnostic info(1,5,n) about zipfile structure oddi-

              When -v is the only command line argument, and either  stdin  or
              stdout  is  not  redirected  to  a  file(1,n), a diagnostic screen is
              printed. In addition to the  help  screen  header  with  program
              name,  version(1,3,5),  and release date, some pointers to the Info-ZIP
              home and distribution sites are given. Then, it  shows  informa-
              tion about the target environment (compiler type and version(1,3,5), OS
              version(1,3,5), compilation date and the enabled optional features used
              to create the zip executable.

       -V     [VMS]  Save  VMS file(1,n) attributes and use portable form.  zip ar-
              chives created with this option are truncated at EOF  but  still
              may  not  be usable on other systems depending on the file(1,n) types
              being zipped.

       -VV    [VMS] Save VMS file(1,n) attributes.  zip archives created with  this
              option  include  the  entire file(1,n) and should be able to recreate
              most VMS files on VMS systems but these archives will  generally
              not be usable on other systems.

       -w     [VMS]  Append  the  version(1,3,5)  number  of  the  files to the name,
              including multiple versions of files.  (default:  use  only  the
              most recent version(1,3,5) of a specified file(1,n)).

       -x files
              Explicitly exclude the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o

              which  will include the contents of foo in(1,8) while exclud-
              ing all the files that end in(1,8)  .o.   The  backslash  avoids  the
              shell  filename  substitution, so that the name matching is per-
              formed by zip at all directory levels.  If  you  do  not  escape
              wildcards in(1,8) patterns it may seem to work but files in(1,8) subdirec-
              tories will not be checked for matches.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo foo -x@exclude.lst

              which will include the contents of foo in(1,8) while  exclud-
              ing   all  the  files  that  match  the  patterns  in(1,8)  the  file(1,n)
              exclude.lst (each file(1,n) pattern on a separate line).

       -X     Do not save extra file(1,n) attributes (Extended Attributes on  OS/2,
              uid/gid and file(1,n) times on Unix).

       -y     Store symbolic links as such in(1,8) the zip archive, instead of com-
              pressing and storing the file(1,n) referred  to  by  the  link(1,2)  (UNIX

       -z     Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.  The
              comment is ended by a line containing just a period, or  an  end
              of  file(1,n) condition (^D on UNIX, ^Z on MSDOS, OS/2, and VAX/VMS).
              The comment can be taken from a file:

                     zip -z foo < foowhat

       -#     Regulate the speed of compression using the specified  digit  #,
              where  -0  indicates  no compression (store all files), -1 indi-
              cates the fastest compression method (less(1,3) compression)  and  -9
              indicates  the  slowest compression method (optimal compression,
              ignores the suffix list). The default compression level is -6.

       -!     [WIN32] Use priviliges (if(3,n) granted) to  obtain  all  aspects  of
              WinNT security.

       -@     Take the list of input files from standard input. Only one file-
              name per line.

       -$     [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32] Include the  volume  label  for  the  drive
              holding the first file(1,n) to be compressed.  If you want to include
              only the volume label or to force  a  specific  drive,  use  the
              drive name as first file(1,n) name, as in:

                     zip -$ foo a: c:bar

       The simplest example:

              zip stuff *

       creates the archive (assuming it does not exist) and puts(3,n) all
       the files in(1,8) the current directory in(1,8) it, in(1,8) compressed form (the  .zip
       suffix  is added automatically, unless that archive name given contains
       a dot already; this allows the explicit  specification  of  other  suf-

       Because of the way the shell does filename substitution, files starting
       with "." are not included; to include these as well:

              zip stuff .* *

       Even this will not include any subdirectories from the  current  direc-

       To zip up an entire directory, the command:

              zip -r foo foo

       creates  the  archive, containing all the files and directories
       in(1,8) the directory foo that is contained within the current directory.

       You may want to make a zip archive that  contains  the  files  in(1,8)  foo,
       without  recording  the directory name, foo.  You can use the -j option
       to leave off the paths, as in:

              zip -j foo foo/*

       If you are short on disk space, you might not have enough room to  hold
       both  the  original  directory and the corresponding compressed zip ar-
       chive.  In this case, you can create the archive in(1,8) steps using the  -m
       option.   If  foo contains the subdirectories tom, dick, and harry, you

              zip -rm foo foo/tom
              zip -rm foo foo/dick
              zip -rm foo foo/harry

       where the first command creates, and the next two  add  to  it.
       At  the  completion  of  each  zip command, the last created archive is
       deleted, making room for the next zip command to function.

       This section applies only to UNIX, though the  ?,  *,  and  []  special
       characters  are implemented on other systems including MSDOS and Win32.
       Watch this space for details on MSDOS and VMS operation.

       The UNIX shells (sh(1) and csh(1)) do filename substitution on  command
       arguments.  The special characters are:

       ?      match any single character

       *      match any number of characters (including none)

       []     match  any  character in(1,8) the range indicated within the brackets
              (example: [a-f], [0-9]).

       When these characters are encountered (without  being  escaped  with  a
       backslash  or  quotes),  the  shell will look(1,8,3 Search::Dict) for files relative to the
       current path that match the pattern, and replace the  argument  with  a
       list of the names that matched.

       The  zip  program can do the same matching on names that are in(1,8) the zip
       archive being modified or, in(1,8) the  case  of  the  -x  (exclude)  or  -i
       (include)  options,  on  the  list of files to be operated on, by using
       backslashes or quotes to tell the shell not to do the  name  expansion.
       In  general,  when zip encounters a name in(1,8) the list of files to do, it
       first looks for the name in(1,8) the file(1,n) system.  If it finds it,  it  then
       adds  it  to the list of files to do.  If it does not find it, it looks
       for the name in(1,8) the zip archive being modified (if(3,n)  it  exists),  using
       the  pattern matching characters described above, if(3,n) present.  For each
       match, it will add that name to the list  of  files  to  be  processed,
       unless  this  name  matches  one  given with the -x option, or does not
       match any name given with the -i option.

       The pattern matching includes the path, and so patterns like \*.o match
       names  that  end in(1,8) ".o", no matter what the path prefix is.  Note that
       the backslash must precede every special character (i.e. ?*[]), or  the
       entire argument must be enclosed in(1,8) double quotes ("").

       In  general, use backslash to make zip do the pattern matching with the
       -f (freshen) and -d  (delete)  options,  and  sometimes  after  the  -x
       (exclude)  option when used with an appropriate operation (add, -u, -f,
       or -d).

       ZIPOPT contains default options that will be used when running zip

       ZIP    [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT

              [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT

              [RISC OS] contains extensions separated by a : that  will  cause
              native  filenames  with  one  of  the specified extensions to be
              added to the zip file(1,n) with basename(1,3,3 File::Basename) and extension swapped.  zip

              [VMS] see ZIPOPT

       compress(1), shar(1L), tar(1), unzip(1L), gzip(1L)

       The exit(3,n,1 builtins) status (or error(8,n) level) approximates the exit(3,n,1 builtins) codes defined by
       PKWARE and takes on the following values, except under VMS:

              0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

              2      unexpected end of zip file.

              3      a generic error(8,n) in(1,8) the zipfile format was detected.  Pro-
                     cessing may have completed successfully anyway; some bro-
                     ken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple work-

              4      zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers
                     during program initialization.

              5      a  severe error(8,n) in(1,8) the zipfile format was detected.  Pro-
                     cessing probably failed immediately.

              6      entry too large to split(1,n) (with zipsplit), read(2,n,1 builtins), or write(1,2)

              7      invalid comment format

              8      zip -T failed or out of memory

              9      the user aborted zip prematurely with control-C (or simi-

              10     zip encountered an error(8,n) while using a temp file(1,n)

              11     read(2,n,1 builtins) or seek error(8,n)

              12     zip has nothing to do

              13     missing or empty zip file(1,n)

              14     error(8,n) writing to a file(1,n)

              15     zip was unable to create a file(1,n) to write(1,2) to

              16     bad command line parameters

              18     zip could not open(2,3,n) a specified file(1,n) to read(2,n,1 builtins)

       VMS  interprets  standard Unix (or PC) return values as other, scarier-
       looking things, so zip instead maps them into VMS-style  status  codes.
       The current mapping is as follows:   1 (success) for normal exit(3,n,1 builtins),
        and (0x7fff000? + 16*normal_zip_exit_status) for all errors, where the
       `?' is 0 (warning) for zip value 12, 2 (error(8,n)) for the zip values 3, 6,
       7, 9, 13, 16, 18, and 4 (fatal error(8,n)) for the remaining ones.

       zip  2.31  is  not compatible with PKUNZIP 1.10. Use zip 1.1 to produce
       zip files which can be extracted by PKUNZIP 1.10.

       zip files produced by zip 2.31 must not be updated by zip 1.1 or  PKZIP
       1.10,  if(3,n)  they contain encrypted members or if(3,n) they have been produced
       in(1,8) a pipe(2,8) or on a non-seekable device. The old versions of zip or PKZIP
       would create an archive with an incorrect format.  The old versions can
       list the contents of the zip file(1,n) but cannot extract it anyway (because
       of  the  new  compression algorithm).  If you do not use encryption and
       use regular disk files, you do not have to care about this problem.

       Under VMS, not all of the odd file(1,n) formats are treated properly.   Only
       stream-LF  format  zip files are expected to work with zip.  Others can
       be converted using Rahul Dhesi's BILF program.   This  version(1,3,5)  of  zip
       handles some of the conversion internally.  When using Kermit to trans-
       fer zip files from Vax to MSDOS, type "set(7,n,1 builtins) file(1,n) type block" on the Vax.
       When  transfering  from MSDOS to Vax, type "set(7,n,1 builtins) file(1,n) type fixed" on the
       Vax.  In both cases, type "set(7,n,1 builtins) file(1,n) type binary" on MSDOS.

       Under VMS, zip hangs for file(1,n) specification  that  uses  DECnet  syntax

       On OS/2, zip cannot match some names, such as those including an excla-
       mation mark or a hash sign.  This is a bug in(1,8) OS/2 itself:  the  32-bit
       DosFindFirst/Next  don't  find  such names.  Other programs such as GNU
       tar are also affected by this bug.

       Under OS/2, the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is  (for
       compatibility)  the  amount returned by the 16-bit version(1,3,5) of DosQuery-
       PathInfo(). Otherwise OS/2 1.3 and 2.0 would report different EA  sizes
       when  DIRing  a  file.   However,  the structure layout returned by the
       32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different,  it  uses  extra  padding
       bytes  and  link(1,2)  pointers  (it's  a linked list) to have all fields on
       4-byte boundaries for portability to future RISC OS/2 versions.  There-
       fore  the value reported by zip (which uses this 32-bit-mode size) dif-
       fers from that reported by DIR.   zip  stores  the  32-bit  format  for
       portability, even the 16-bit MS-C-compiled version(1,3,5) running on OS/2 1.3,
       so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size.

       Development of Zip 3.0 is underway.  See that source  distribution  for
       many new features and the latest bug fixes.

       Copyright (C) 1997-2005 Info-ZIP.

       Copyright (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler, Richard B. Wales, Jean-loup Gailly,
       Onno van der Linden, Kai Uwe Rommel, Igor Mandrichenko, John  Bush  and
       Paul  Kienitz.   Permission is granted to any individual or institution
       to use, copy, or redistribute this software so long as all of the orig-
       inal  files are included, that it is not sold for profit, and that this
       copyright notice is retained.


       Please  send(2,n) bug reports and comments to: zip-bugs at
       For bug reports, please include the version(1,3,5) of zip  (see  zip -h),  the
       make options used to compile it (see zip -v), the machine and operating
       system in(1,8) use, and as much additional information as possible.

       Thanks to R. P. Byrne for his Shrink.Pas program, which  inspired  this
       project,  and  from which the shrink algorithm was stolen; to Phil Katz
       for placing in(1,8) the public domain the zip file(1,n) format, compression  for-
       mat,  and  .ZIP  filename extension, and for accepting minor changes to
       the file(1,n) format; to Steve Burg for clarifications on the  deflate  for-
       mat;  to Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for providing some useful
       ideas for the compression algorithm; to  Keith  Petersen,  Rich  Wales,
       Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list and ftp site
       for the Info-ZIP group to use; and most importantly,  to  the  Info-ZIP
       group  itself  (listed  in(1,8) the file(1,n) infozip.who) without whose tireless
       testing and bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have been  pos-
       sible.   Finally  we should thank (blame) the first Info-ZIP moderator,
       David Kirschbaum, for getting us into this mess  in(1,8)  the  first  place.
       The manual page was rewritten for UNIX by R. P. C. Rodgers.

Info-ZIP                   27 February 2005 (v2.31)                    ZIP(1L)

References for this manual (incoming links)