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tail(1) - tail, tail - output the last part of files - man 1 tail

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TAIL(1)                          User Commands                         TAIL(1)



NAME
       tail - output the last part of files

SYNOPSIS
       tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION
       Print  the  last  10  lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more
       than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file(1,n)  name.   With
       no FILE, or when FILE is -, read(2,n,1 builtins) standard input.

       Mandatory  arguments  to  long  options are mandatory for short options
       too.

       --retry
              keep trying to open(2,3,n) a file(1,n) even if(3,n) it is inaccessible when  tail
              starts  or  if(3,n) it becomes inaccessible later -- useful only with
              -f

       -c, --bytes=N
              output the last N bytes

       -f, --follow[={name|descriptor}]
              output appended data as the file(1,n) grows; -f, --follow, and --fol-
              low=descriptor are equivalent

       -F     same as --follow=name --retry

       -n, --lines=N
              output the last N lines, instead of the last 10

       --max-unchanged-stats=N
              with  --follow=name,  reopen  a  FILE which has not changed size
              after N (default 5) iterations to see if(3,n) it has been unlinked or
              renamed (this is the usual case of rotated log files)

       --pid=PID
              with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies

       -q, --quiet, --silent
              never output headers giving file(1,n) names

       -s, --sleep-interval=S
              with -f, sleep(1,3) for approximately S seconds (default 1.0) between
              iterations.

       -v, --verbose
              always output headers giving file(1,n) names

       --help display this help and exit(3,n,1 builtins)

       --version
              output version(1,3,5) information and exit(3,n,1 builtins)

       If the first character of N (the number of bytes or lines)  is  a  `+',
       print  beginning  with the Nth item from the start of each file(1,n), other-
       wise, print the last N items in(1,8) the file.  N may have a multiplier suf-
       fix: b 512, k 1024, m 1024*1024.

       With  --follow  (-f),  tail  defaults to following the file(1,n) descriptor,
       which means that even if(3,n) a tail'ed file(1,n) is renamed, tail will  continue
       to  track  its  end.   This  default behavior is not desirable when you
       really want to track the actual name of the file(1,n), not the file(1,n) descrip-
       tor (e.g., log rotation).  Use --follow=name in(1,8) that case.  That causes
       tail to track the named(5,8) file(1,n) by reopening it periodically to see if(3,n)  it
       has been removed and recreated by some other program.

AUTHOR
       Written  by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, Ian Lance Taylor, and Jim Mey-
       ering.

REPORTING BUGS
       Report bugs to <bug-coreutils@gnu.org>.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright  2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is
       NO  warranty;  not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
       PURPOSE.

SEE ALSO
       The full documentation for tail is maintained as a Texinfo manual.   If
       the  info(1,5,n)  and  tail  programs are properly installed at your site, the
       command

              info(1,5,n) coreutils tail

       should give you access(2,5) to the complete manual.



tail (coreutils) 5.2.1            March 2004                           TAIL(1)

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