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PERLHPUX(1)            Perl Programmers Reference Guide            PERLHPUX(1)

       README.hpux - Perl version(1,3,5) 5 on Hewlett-Packard Unix (HP-UX) systems

       This document describes various features of HP's Unix operating system
       (HP-UX) that will affect how Perl version(1,3,5) 5 (hereafter just Perl) is
       compiled and/or runs.

       Using perl as shipped with HP-UX

       As of application release September 2001, HP-UX 11.00 is shipped with
       perl-5.6.1 in(1,8) /opt/perl. The first occurrence is on CD 5012-7954 and
       can be installed using

           swinstall -s /cdrom perl

       assuming you have mounted that CD on /cdrom. In this version(1,3,5) the fol-
       lowing modules are installed:

           ActivePerl::DocTools-0.04   HTML::Parser-3.19   XML::DOM-1.25
           Archive::Tar-0.072          HTML::Tagset-3.03   XML::Parser-2.27
           Compress::Zlib-1.08         MIME::Base64-2.11   XML::Simple-1.05
           Convert::ASN1-0.10          Net-1.07            XML::XPath-1.09
           Digest::MD5-2.11            PPM-2.1.5           XML::XSLT-0.32
           File::CounterFile-0.12      SOAP::Lite-0.46     libwww-perl-5.51
           Font::AFM-1.18              Storable-1.011      libxml-perl-0.07
           HTML-Tree-3.11              URI-1.11            perl-ldap-0.23

       The build is a portable hppa-1.1 multithread build that supports large
       files compiled with gcc-2.9-hppa-991112

       If you perform a new installation, then Perl will be installed automat-

       Using perl from HP's porting centre

       HP porting centre tries very hard to keep up with customer demand and
       release updates from the Open Source community. Having precompiled Perl
       binaries available is obvious.

       The HP porting centres are limited in(1,8) what systems they are allowed to
       port to and they usually choose the two most recent OS versions avail-
       able. This means that at the moment of writing, there are only
       HPUX-11.00 and 11-20/22 (IA64) ports available on the porting centres.

       HP has asked the porting centre to move(3x,7,3x curs_move) Open Source binaries from /opt
       to /usr/local, so binaries produced since the start of July 2002 are
       located in(1,8) /usr/local.

       One of HP porting centres URL's is The port
       currently available is built with GNU gcc.

       Compiling Perl 5 on HP-UX

       When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler.  The C compiler
       that ships with all HP-UX systems is a K&R compiler that should only be
       used to build new kernels.

       Perl can be compiled with either HP's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.  The
       former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no diffi-
       culty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
       require the use of HP compiler-specific command-line flags.

       If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
       complete, and be sure to read(2,n,1 builtins) the Perl INSTALL file(1,n) for more gcc-spe-
       cific details.


       HP's current Unix systems run on its own Precision Architecture
       (PA-RISC) chip.  HP-UX used to run on the Motorola MC68000 family of
       chips, but any machine with this chip in(1,8) it is quite obsolete and this
       document will not attempt to address issues for compiling Perl on the
       Motorola chipset.

       The most recent version(1,3,5) of PA-RISC at the time(1,2,n) of this document's last
       update(7,n) is 2.0.

       A complete list of models at the time(1,2,n) the OS was built is in(1,8) the file(1,n)
       /usr/sam/lib/mo/sched.models. The first column corresponds to the last
       part of the output of the "model" command.  The second column is the
       PA-RISC version(1,3,5) and the third column is the exact chip type used.
       (Start browsing at the bottom to prevent confusion ;-)

           # model
           # grep L1000-44 /usr/sam/lib/mo/sched.models
           L1000-44        2.0     PA8500

       PA-RISC 1.0

       The original version(1,3,5) of PA-RISC, HP no longer sells any system with
       this chip.

       The following systems contained PA-RISC 1.0 chips:

           600, 635, 645, 808, 815, 822, 825, 832, 834, 835, 840, 842, 845, 850,
           852, 855, 860, 865, 870, 890

       PA-RISC 1.1

       An upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it shipped for many years in(1,8) many
       different system.

       The following systems contain with PA-RISC 1.1 chips:

           705, 710, 712, 715, 720, 722, 725, 728, 730, 735, 742, 743, 744, 745,
           747, 750, 755, 770, 777, 778, 779, 800, 801, 803, 806, 807, 809, 811,
           813, 816, 817, 819, 821, 826, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 847, 849,
           851, 856, 857, 859, 867, 869, 877, 887, 891, 892, 897, A180, A180C,
           B115, B120, B132L, B132L+, B160L, B180L, C100, C110, C115, C120,
           C160L, D200, D210, D220, D230, D250, D260, D310, D320, D330, D350,
           D360, D410, DX0, DX5, DXO, E25, E35, E45, E55, F10, F20, F30, G30,
           G40, G50, G60, G70, H20, H30, H40, H50, H60, H70, I30, I40, I50, I60,
           I70, J200, J210, J210XC, K100, K200, K210, K220, K230, K400, K410,
           K420, S700i, S715, S744, S760, T500, T520

       PA-RISC 2.0

       The most recent upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it added support for
       64-bit integer data.

       As of the date of this document's last update(7,n), the following systems
       contain PA-RISC 2.0 chips:

           700, 780, 781, 782, 783, 785, 802, 804, 810, 820, 861, 871, 879, 889,
           893, 895, 896, 898, 899, A400, A500, B1000, B2000, C130, C140, C160,
           C180, C180+, C180-XP, C200+, C400+, C3000, C360, C3600, CB260, D270,
           D280, D370, D380, D390, D650, J220, J2240, J280, J282, J400, J410,
           J5000, J5500XM, J5600, J7000, J7600, K250, K260, K260-EG, K270, K360,
           K370, K380, K450, K460, K460-EG, K460-XP, K470, K570, K580, L1000,
           L2000, L3000, N4000, R380, R390, SD16000, SD32000, SD64000, T540,
           T600, V2000, V2200, V2250, V2500, V2600

       Just before HP took over Compaq, some systems were renamed. the link(1,2)
       that contained the explanation is dead, so here's a short summary:

           HP 9000 A-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp2400 series.
           HP 9000 L-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp5400 series.
           HP 9000 N-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp7400.

           rp2400, rp2405, rp2430, rp2450, rp2470, rp3410, rp3440, rp5400,
           rp5405, rp5430, rp5450, rp5470, rp7400, rp7405, rp7410, rp7420,
           rp8400, rp8420, Superdome

       The current naming convention is:

           ||||`+- 00 - 99 relative capacity & newness (upgrades, etc.)
           |||`--- unique number for each architecture to ensure different
           |||     systems do not have the same numbering across
           |||     architectures
           ||`---- 1 - 9 identifies family and/or relative positioning
           |`----- c = ia32 (cisc)
           |       p = pa-risc
           |       x = ia-64 (Itanium & Itanium 2)
           |       h = housing
           `------ t = tower
                   r = rack optimized
                   s = super scalable
                   b = blade
                   sa = appliance

       Itanium & Itanium 2

       HP also ships servers with the 128-bit Itanium processor(s). As of the
       date of this document's last update(7,n), the following systems contain Ita-
       nium or Itanium 2 chips (this is very likely to be out of date):

           rx1600, rx2600, rx2600hptc, rx4610, rx4640, rx5670, rx7620, rx8620,

       To see all about your machine, type

           # model
           ia64 hp server rx2600
           # /usr/contrib/bin/machinfo

       Portability Between PA-RISC Versions

       An executable compiled on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform will not execute on a
       PA-RISC 1.1 platform, even if(3,n) they are running the same version(1,3,5) of
       HP-UX.  If you are building Perl on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform and want
       that Perl to also run on a PA-RISC 1.1, the compiler flags +DAportable
       and +DS32 should be used.

       It is no longer possible to compile PA-RISC 1.0 executables on either
       the PA-RISC 1.1 or 2.0 platforms.  The command-line flags are accepted,
       but the resulting executable will not run when transferred to a PA-RISC
       1.0 system.

       Itanium Processor Family and HP-UX

       HP-UX also runs on the new Itanium processor.  This requires the use of
       a different version(1,3,5) of HP-UX (currently 11.23 or 11i v1.6), and with
       the exception of a few differences detailed below and in(1,8) later sec-
       tions, Perl should compile with no problems.

       Although PA-RISC binaries can run on Itanium systems, you should not
       attempt to use a PA-RISC version(1,3,5) of Perl on an Itanium system.  This is
       because shared libraries created on an Itanium system cannot be loaded
       while running a PA-RISC executable.

       Building Dynamic Extensions on HP-UX

       HP-UX supports dynamically loadable libraries (shared libraries).
       Shared libraries end with the suffix .sl.  On Itanium systems, they end
       with the suffix .so.

       Shared libraries created on a platform using a particular PA-RISC ver-
       sion(1,3,5) are not usable on platforms using an earlier PA-RISC version(1,3,5) by
       default.  However, this backwards compatibility may be enabled using
       the same +DAportable compiler flag (with the same PA-RISC 1.0 caveat
       mentioned above).

       Shared libraries created on an Itanium platform cannot be loaded on a
       PA-RISC platform.  Shared libraries created on a PA-RISC platform can
       only be loaded on an Itanium platform if(3,n) it is a PA-RISC executable
       that is attempting to load(7,n) the PA-RISC library.  A PA-RISC shared
       library cannot be loaded into an Itanium executable nor vice-versa.

       To create a shared library, the following steps must be performed:

           1. Compile source modules with +z or +Z flag to create a .o module
              which contains Position-Independent Code (PIC).  The linker will
              tell you in(1,8) the next step if(3,n) +Z was needed.
              (For gcc, the appropriate flag is -fpic or -fPIC.)

           2. Link the shared library using the -b flag.  If the code calls
              any functions in(1,8) other system libraries (e.g., libm), it must
              be included on this line.

       (Note that these steps are usually handled automatically by the exten-
       sion's Makefile).

       If these dependent libraries are not listed at shared library creation
       time(1,2,n), you will get fatal "Unresolved symbol" errors at run time(1,2,n) when
       the library is loaded.

       You may create a shared library that refers to another library, which
       may be either an archive library or a shared library.  If this second
       library is a shared library, this is called a "dependent library".  The
       dependent library's name is recorded in(1,8) the main shared library, but it
       is not linked into the shared library.  Instead, it is loaded when the
       main shared library is loaded.  This can cause problems if(3,n) you build an
       extension on one system and move(3x,7,3x curs_move) it to another system where the
       libraries may not be located in(1,8) the same place as on the first system.

       If the referred library is an archive library, then it is treated as a
       simple collection of .o modules (all of which must contain PIC).  These
       modules are then linked into the shared library.

       Note that it is okay to create a library which contains a dependent
       library that is already linked into perl.

       Some extensions, like DB_File and Compress::Zlib use/require prebuilt
       libraries for the perl extensions/modules to work. If these libraries
       are built using the default configuration, it might happen that you run
       into an error(8,n) like "invalid loader fixup" during load(7,n) phase.  HP is
       aware of this problem.  Search the HP-UX cxx-dev forums for discussions
       about the subject.  The short answer is that everything (all libraries,
       everything) must be compiled with "+z" or "+Z" to be PIC (position
       independent code).  (For gcc, that would be "-fpic" or "-fPIC").  In
       HP-UX 11.00 or newer the linker error(8,n) message should tell the name of
       the offending object file.

       A more general approach is to intervene manually, as with an example
       for the DB_File module, which requires SleepyCat's

           # cd .../db-3.2.9/build_unix
           # vi Makefile
           ... add +Z to all cflags to create shared objects
           CFLAGS=         -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
                           -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
           CXXFLAGS=       -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
                           -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6

           # make clean
           # make
           # mkdir(1,2) tmp
           # cd tmp
           # ar x ../libdb.a
           # ld(1,8) -b -o *.o
           # mv /usr/local/lib
           # rm *.o
           # cd /usr/local/lib
           # rm -f
           # ln -s

           # cd .../DB_File-1.76
           # make distclean
           # perl Makefile.PL
           # make
           # make test
           # make install

       It is no longer possible to link(1,2) PA-RISC 1.0 shared libraries (even
       though the command-line flags are still present).

       PA-RISC and Itanium object files are not interchangeable.  Although you
       may be able to use ar to create an archive library of PA-RISC object
       files on an Itanium system, you cannot link(1,2) against it using an Itanium
       link(1,2) editor.

       The HP ANSI C Compiler

       When using this compiler to build Perl, you should make sure that the
       flag -Aa is added to the cpprun and cppstdin variables in(1,8) the
       file(1,n) (though see the section on 64-bit perl below). If you are using a
       recent version(1,3,5) of the Perl distribution, these flags are set(7,n,1 builtins) automati-

       The GNU C Compiler

       When you are going to use the GNU C compiler (gcc), and you don't have
       gcc yet, you can either build it yourself from the sources (available
       from e.g. or
       fetch a prebuilt binary from the HP porting center. There are two
       places where gcc prebuilds can be fetched; the first and best (for HP-
       UX 11 only) is
       tailPage_IDX/1,1703,547,00.html the second is where you can also find the GNU
       binutils package. (Browse through the list, because there are often
       multiple versions of the same package available).

       Above mentioned distributions are depots. H.Merijn Brand has made pre-
       built gcc binaries available on
       and/or for HP-UX 10.20, HP-UX 11.00, and
       HP-UX 11.11 (HP-UX 11i) in(1,8) both 32- and 64-bit versions. These are
       bzipped tar archives that also include recent GNU binutils and GNU gdb.
       Read the instructions on that page to rebuild gcc using itself.

       On PA-RISC you need a different compiler for 32-bit applications and
       for 64-bit applications. On PA-RISC, 32-bit objects and 64-bit objects
       do not mix. period. There is no different behaviour for HP C-ANSI-C or
       GNU gcc. So if(3,n) you require your perl binary to use 64-bit libraries,
       like Oracle-64bit, you MUST build a 64-bit perl.

       Building a 64-bit capable gcc on PA-RISC from source is possible only
       when you have the HP C-ANSI C compiler or an already working 64-bit
       binary of gcc available. Best performance for perl is achieved with
       HP's native compiler.

       Using Large Files with Perl on HP-UX

       Beginning with HP-UX version(1,3,5) 10.20, files larger than 2GB (2^31 bytes)
       may be created and manipulated.  Three separate methods of doing this
       are available.  Of these methods, the best method for Perl is to com-
       pile using the -Duselargefiles flag to Configure.  This causes Perl to
       be compiled using structures and functions in(1,8) which these are 64 bits
       wide, rather than 32 bits wide.  (Note that this will only work with
       HP's ANSI C compiler.  If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will
       have to get a version(1,3,5) of the compiler that supports 64-bit operations.
       See above for where to find it.)

       There are some drawbacks to this approach.  One is that any extension
       which calls any file-manipulating C function will need to be recompiled
       (just follow the usual "perl Makefile.PL; make; make test; make
       install" procedure).

       The list of functions that will need to recompiled is:
       creat,         fgetpos,  fopen, freopen,  fsetpos,  fstat,
       fstatvfs, fstatvfsdev,   ftruncate, ftw,      lockf,         lseek,
       lstat,         mmap,          nftw, open(2,3,n),          prealloc, stat(1,2),
       statvfs,  statvfsdev,    tmpfile, truncate(2,7), getrlimit,     setrlimit

       Another drawback is only valid for Perl versions before 5.6.0.  This
       drawback is that the seek and tell functions (both the builtin version(1,3,5)
       and POSIX module version(1,3,5)) will not perform correctly.

       It is strongly recommended that you use this flag when you run Config-
       ure.  If you do not do this, but later answer the question about large
       files when Configure asks you, you may get a configuration that cannot
       be compiled, or that does not function as expected.

       Threaded Perl on HP-UX

       It is possible to compile a version(1,3,5) of threaded Perl on any version(1,3,5) of
       HP-UX before 10.30, but it is strongly suggested that you be running on
       HP-UX 11.00 at least.

       To compile Perl with threads, add -Dusethreads to the arguments of Con-
       figure.  Verify that the -D_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L compiler flag is
       automatically added to the list of flags.  Also make sure that
       -lpthread is listed before -lc in(1,8) the list of libraries to link(1,2) Perl
       with. The hints provided for HP-UX during Configure will try very hard
       to get this right for you.

       HP-UX versions before 10.30 require a separate installation of a POSIX
       threads library package. Two examples are the HP DCE package, available
       on "HP-UX Hardware Extensions 3.0, Install and Core OS, Release 10.20,
       April 1999 (B3920-13941)" or the Freely available PTH package, avail-
       able though worldwide HP-UX mirrors of precompiled packages (e.g.

       If you are going to use the HP DCE package, the library used for
       threading is /usr/lib/, but there have been multiple updates
       of that library over time. Perl will build with the first version(1,3,5), but
       it will not pass the test suite. Older Oracle versions might be a com-
       pelling reason not to update(7,n) that library, otherwise please find a
       newer version(1,3,5) in(1,8) one of the following patches: PHSS_19739, PHSS_20608,
       or PHSS_23672

       reformatted output:

         d3:/usr/lib 106 > what libcma-*.1
            HP DCE/9000 1.5               Module: (Export)
                                          Date: Apr 29 1996 22:11:24
            HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_19739-40 Module: (Export)
                                          Date: Sep  4 1999 01:59:07
            HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_20608    Module: libcma.1 (Export)
                                          Date: Dec  8 1999 18:41:23
            HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_23672    Module: libcma.1 (Export)
                                          Date: Apr  9 2001 10:01:06
         d3:/usr/lib 107 >

       64-bit Perl on HP-UX

       Beginning with HP-UX 11.00, programs compiled under HP-UX can take
       advantage of the LP64 programming environment (LP64 means Longs and
       Pointers are 64 bits wide).

       Work is being performed on Perl to make it 64-bit compliant on all ver-
       sions of Unix.  Once this is complete, scalar variables will be able to
       hold numbers larger than 2^32 with complete precision.

       As of the date of this document, Perl is fully 64-bit compliant on HP-
       UX 11.00 and up for both cc- and gcc builds. If you are about to build
       a 64-bit perl with GNU gcc, please read(2,n,1 builtins) the gcc section carefully.

       Should a user wish to experiment with compiling Perl in(1,8) the LP64 envi-
       ronment, use the -Duse64bitall flag to Configure.  This will force Perl
       to be compiled in(1,8) a pure LP64 environment (with the +DD64 flag for HP
       C-ANSI-C, with no additional options for GNU gcc 64-bit on PA-RISC, and
       with -mlp64 for GNU gcc on Itanium).  If you want to compile Perl using
       gcc, you will have to get a version(1,3,5) of the compiler that supports
       64-bit operations.)

       You can also use the -Duse64bitint flag to Configure.  Although there
       are some minor differences between compiling Perl with this flag versus
       the -Duse64bitall flag, they should not be noticeable from a Perl
       user's perspective.

       In both cases, it is strongly recommended that you use these flags when
       you run Configure.  If you do not use do this, but later answer the
       questions about 64-bit numbers when Configure asks you, you may get a
       configuration that cannot be compiled, or that does not function as

       Oracle on HP-UX

       Using perl to connect to Oracle databases through DBI and DBD::Oracle
       has caused a lot of people many headaches. Read README.hpux in(1,8) the
       DBD::Oracle for much more information. The reason to mention it here is
       that Oracle requires a perl built with libcl and libpthread, the latter
       even when perl is build without threads. Building perl using all
       defaults, but still enabling to build DBD::Oracle later on can be
       achieved using

         Configure -A prepend:libswanted='cl pthread ' ...

       Do not forget the space before the trailing quote.

       Also note that this does not (yet) work with all configurations, it is
       known to fail with 64-bit versions of GCC.

       GDBM and Threads on HP-UX

       If you attempt to compile Perl with threads on an 11.X system and also
       link(1,2) in(1,8) the GDBM library, then Perl will immediately core dump when it
       starts up.  The only workaround at this point is to relink the GDBM
       library under 11.X, then relink it into Perl.

       NFS filesystems and utime(2) on HP-UX

       If you are compiling Perl on a remotely-mounted NFS filesystem, the
       test io/fs.t may fail on test #18.  This appears to be a bug in(1,8) HP-UX
       and no fix is currently available.

       perl -P and // and HP-UX

       If HP-UX Perl is compiled with flags that will cause problems if(3,n) the -P
       flag of Perl (preprocess Perl code with the C preprocessor before perl
       sees it) is used.  The problem is that "//", being a C++-style until-
       end-of-line comment, will disappear along with the remainder of the
       line.  This means that common Perl constructs like


       will turn into illegal code


       The workaround is to use some other quoting separator than "/", like
       for example "!":


       HP-UX Kernel Parameters (maxdsiz) for Compiling Perl

       By default, HP-UX comes configured with a maximum data segment size of
       64MB.  This is too small to correctly compile Perl with the maximum
       optimization levels.  You can increase the size of the maxdsiz kernel
       parameter through the use of SAM.

       When using the GUI version(1,3,5) of SAM, click on the Kernel Configuration
       icon, then the Configurable Parameters icon.  Scroll down and select(2,7,2 select_tut)
       the maxdsiz line.  From the Actions menu(3x,n,n tk_menuSetFocus), select(2,7,2 select_tut) the Modify Config-
       urable Parameter item.  Insert the new formula into the Formula/Value
       box.  Then follow the instructions to rebuild your kernel and reboot
       your system.

       In general, a value of 256MB (or "256*1024*1024") is sufficient for
       Perl to compile at maximum optimization.

nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
       You may get a bus error(8,n) core dump from the op/pwent or op/grent tests.
       If compiled with -g you will see a stack trace(3x,n,3x _nc_tracebits) much like the following:

         #0  0xc004216c in(1,8)  () from /usr/lib/libc.2
         #1  0xc00d7550 in(1,8) __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
         #2  0xc00d7768 in(1,8) __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
         #3  0xc00d78a8 in(1,8) nss_delete () from /usr/lib/libc.2
         #4  0xc01126d8 in(1,8) endpwent () from /usr/lib/libc.2
         #5  0xd1950 in(1,8) Perl_pp_epwent () from ./perl
         #6  0x94d3c in(1,8) Perl_runops_standard () from ./perl
         #7  0x23728 in(1,8) S_run_body () from ./perl
         #8  0x23428 in(1,8) perl_run () from ./perl
         #9  0x2005c in(1,8) main () from ./perl

       The key here is the "nss_delete" call.  One workaround for this bug
       seems to be to create add to the file(1,n) /etc/nsswitch.conf (at least) the
       following lines

         group: files
         passwd: files

       Whether you are using NIS does not matter.  Amazingly enough, the same
       bug also affects Solaris.

       Jeff Okamoto <> H.Merijn Brand <>

       With much assistance regarding shared libraries from Marc Sabatella.

       Version 0.7.0: 2004-06-09

perl v5.8.5                       2004-04-23                       PERLHPUX(1)

References for this manual (incoming links)