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PERLDEBUG(1)           Perl Programmers Reference Guide           PERLDEBUG(1)

       perldebug - Perl debugging

       First of all, have you tried using the -w switch(1,n)?

       If you're new to the Perl debugger, you may prefer to read(2,n,1 builtins) perldebtut,
       which is a tutorial introduction to the debugger .

The Perl Debugger
       If you invoke Perl with the -d switch(1,n), your script runs under the Perl
       source debugger.  This works like an interactive Perl environment,
       prompting for debugger commands that let you examine source code, set(7,n,1 builtins)
       breakpoints, get stack backtraces, change the values of variables, etc.
       This is so convenient that you often fire up the debugger all by itself
       just to test out Perl constructs interactively to see what they do.
       For example:

           $ perl -d -e 42

       In Perl, the debugger is not a separate program the way it usually is
       in(1,8) the typical compiled environment.  Instead, the -d flag tells the
       compiler to insert source information into the parse trees it's about
       to hand off to the interpreter.  That means your code must first com-
       pile correctly for the debugger to work on it.  Then when the inter-
       preter starts up, it preloads a special Perl library file(1,n) containing
       the debugger.

       The program will halt right before the first run-time executable state-
       ment (but see below regarding compile-time statements) and ask you to
       enter a debugger command.  Contrary to popular expectations, whenever
       the debugger halts and shows you a line of code, it always displays the
       line it's about to execute, rather than the one it has just executed.

       Any command not recognized by the debugger is directly executed
       ("eval"'d) as Perl code in(1,8) the current package.  (The debugger uses the
       DB package for keeping its own state information.)

       Note that the said "eval" is bound by an implicit scope. As a result
       any newly introduced lexical variable or any modified capture buffer
       content is lost after the eval. The debugger is a nice(1,2) environment to
       learn Perl, but if(3,n) you interactively experiment using material which
       should be in(1,8) the same scope, stuff it in(1,8) one line.

       For any text entered at the debugger prompt, leading and trailing
       whitespace is first stripped before further processing.  If a debugger
       command coincides with some function in(1,8) your own program, merely pre-
       cede the function with something that doesn't look(1,8,3 Search::Dict) like a debugger com-
       mand, such as a leading ";" or perhaps a "+", or by wrapping it with
       parentheses or braces.

       Debugger Commands

       The debugger understands the following commands:

       h           Prints out a summary help message

       h [command] Prints out a help message for the given debugger command.

       h h         The special argument of "h h" produces the entire help
                   page, which is quite long.

                   If the output of the "h h" command (or any command, for
                   that matter) scrolls past your screen, precede the command
                   with a leading pipe(2,8) symbol so that it's run through your
                   pager, as in(1,8)

                       DB> |h h

                   You may change the pager which is used via "o pager=..."

       p expr(1,3,n)      Same as "print {$DB::OUT} expr(1,3,n)" in(1,8) the current package.  In
                   particular, because this is just Perl's own "print" func-
                   tion, this means that nested data structures and objects
                   are not dumped, unlike with the "x" command.

                   The "DB::OUT" filehandle is opened to /dev/tty(1,4), regardless
                   of where STDOUT may be redirected to.

       x [maxdepth] expr(1,3,n)
                   Evaluates its expression in(1,8) list context and dumps out the
                   result in(1,8) a pretty-printed fashion.  Nested data structures
                   are printed out recursively, unlike the real "print" func-
                   tion in(1,8) Perl.  When dumping hashes, you'll probably prefer
                   'x \%h' rather than 'x %h'.  See Dumpvalue if(3,n) you'd like to
                   do this yourself.

                   The output format is governed by multiple options described
                   under "Configurable Options".

                   If the "maxdepth" is included, it must be a numeral N; the
                   value is dumped only N levels deep, as if(3,n) the "dumpDepth"
                   option had been temporarily set(7,n,1 builtins) to N.

       V [pkg [vars]]
                   Display all (or some) variables in(1,8) package (defaulting to
                   "main") using a data pretty-printer (hashes show their keys
                   and values so you see what's what, control characters are
                   made printable, etc.).  Make sure you don't put the type
                   specifier (like "$") there, just the symbol names, like

                       V DB filename line

                   Use "~pattern" and "!pattern" for positive and negative

                   This is similar to calling the "x" command on each applica-
                   ble var.

       X [vars]    Same as "V currentpackage [vars]".

       y [level [vars]]
                   Display all (or some) lexical variables (mnemonic: "mY"
                   variables) in(1,8) the current scope or level scopes higher.
                   You can limit the variables that you see with vars which
                   works exactly as it does for the "V" and "X" commands.
                   Requires the "PadWalker" module version(1,3,5) 0.08 or higher;
                   will warn if(3,n) this isn't installed.  Output is pretty-
                   printed in(1,8) the same style as for "V" and the format is con-
                   trolled by the same options.

       T           Produce a stack backtrace.  See below for details on its

       s [expr(1,3,n)]    Single step.  Executes until the beginning of another
                   statement, descending into subroutine calls.  If an expres-
                   sion is supplied that includes function calls, it too will
                   be single-stepped.

       n [expr(1,3,n)]    Next.  Executes over subroutine calls, until the beginning
                   of the next statement.  If an expression is supplied that
                   includes function calls, those functions will be executed
                   with stops before each statement.

       r           Continue until the return from the current subroutine.
                   Dump the return value if(3,n) the "PrintRet" option is set(7,n,1 builtins)

       <CR>        Repeat last "n" or "s" command.

       c [line|sub]
                   Continue, optionally inserting a one-time-only breakpoint
                   at the specified line or subroutine.

       l           List next window of lines.

       l min+incr  List "incr+1" lines starting at "min".

       l min-max   List lines "min" through "max".  "l -" is synonymous to

       l line      List a single line.

       l subname   List first window of lines from subroutine.  subname may be
                   a variable that contains a code reference.

       -           List previous window of lines.

       v [line]    View a few lines of code around the current line.

       .           Return the internal debugger pointer to the line last exe-
                   cuted, and print out that line.

       f filename  Switch to viewing a different file(1,n) or "eval" statement.  If
                   filename is not a full pathname found in(1,8) the values of
                   %INC, it is considered a regex.

                   "eval"ed strings (when accessible) are considered to be
                   filenames: "f (eval 7)" and "f eval 7\b" access(2,5) the body of
                   the 7th "eval"ed string(3,n) (in(1,8) the order of execution).  The
                   bodies of the currently executed "eval" and of "eval"ed
                   strings that define subroutines are saved and thus accessi-

       /pattern/   Search forwards for pattern (a Perl regex(3,7)); final / is
                   optional.  The search is case-insensitive by default.

       ?pattern?   Search backwards for pattern; final ? is optional.  The
                   search is case-insensitive by default.

       L [abw]     List (default all) actions, breakpoints and watch expres-

       S [[!]regex(3,7)]
                   List subroutine names [not] matching the regex.

       t           Toggle trace(3x,n,3x _nc_tracebits) mode (see also the "AutoTrace" option).

       t expr(1,3,n)      Trace through execution of "expr(1,3,n)".  See "Frame Listing Out-
                   put Examples" in(1,8) perldebguts for examples.

       b           Sets breakpoint on current line

       b [line] [condition]
                   Set a breakpoint before the given line.  If a condition is
                   specified, it's evaluated each time(1,2,n) the statement is
                   reached: a breakpoint is taken only if(3,n) the condition is
                   true.  Breakpoints may only be set(7,n,1 builtins) on lines that begin an
                   executable statement.  Conditions don't use "if(3,n)":

                       b 237 $x > 30
                       b 237 ++$count237 < 11
                       b 33 /pattern/i

       b subname [condition]
                   Set a breakpoint before the first line of the named(5,8) subrou-
                   tine.  subname may be a variable containing a code refer-
                   ence (in(1,8) this case condition is not supported).

       b postpone subname [condition]
                   Set a breakpoint at first line of subroutine after it is

       b load(7,n) filename
                   Set a breakpoint before the first executed line of the
                   filename, which should be a full pathname found amongst the
                   %INC values.

       b compile subname
                   Sets a breakpoint before the first statement executed after
                   the specified subroutine is compiled.

       B line      Delete a breakpoint from the specified line.

       B *         Delete all installed breakpoints.

       a [line] command
                   Set an action to be done before the line is executed.  If
                   line is omitted, set(7,n,1 builtins) an action on the line about to be exe-
                   cuted.  The sequence of steps taken by the debugger is

                     1. check for a breakpoint at this line
                     2. print the line if(3,n) necessary (tracing)
                     3. do any actions associated with that line
                     4. prompt user if(3,n) at a breakpoint or in(1,8) single-step
                     5. evaluate line

                   For example, this will print out $foo every time(1,2,n) line 53 is

                       a 53 print "DB FOUND $foo\n"

       A line      Delete an action from the specified line.

       A *         Delete all installed actions.

       w expr(1,3,n)      Add a global watch-expression.  We hope you know what one
                   of these is, because they're supposed to be obvious.

       W expr(1,3,n)      Delete watch-expression

       W *         Delete all watch-expressions.

       o           Display all options

       o booloption ...
                   Set each listed Boolean option to the value 1.

       o anyoption? ...
                   Print out the value of one or more options.

       o option=value ...
                   Set the value of one or more options.  If the value has
                   internal whitespace, it should be quoted.  For example, you
                   could set(7,n,1 builtins) "o pager="less(1,3) -MQeicsNfr"" to call less(1,3) with
                   those specific options.  You may use either single or dou-
                   ble quotes, but if(3,n) you do, you must escape any embedded
                   instances of same sort(1,3) of quote you began with, as well as
                   any escaping any escapes that immediately precede that
                   quote but which are not meant to escape the quote itself.
                   In other words, you follow single-quoting rules irrespec-
                   tive of the quote; eg: "o option='this isn\'t bad'" or "o
                   option="She said, \"Isn't it?\""".

                   For historical reasons, the "=value" is optional, but
                   defaults to 1 only where it is safe to do so--that is,
                   mostly for Boolean options.  It is always better to assign
                   a specific value using "=".  The "option" can be abbrevi-
                   ated, but for clarity probably should not be.  Several
                   options can be set(7,n,1 builtins) together.  See "Configurable Options"
                   for a list of these.

       < ?         List out all pre-prompt Perl command actions.

       < [ command ]
                   Set an action (Perl command) to happen before every debug-
                   ger prompt.  A multi-line command may be entered by back-
                   slashing the newlines.

       < *         Delete all pre-prompt Perl command actions.

       << command  Add an action (Perl command) to happen before every debug-
                   ger prompt.  A multi-line command may be entered by back-
                   whacking the newlines.

       > ?         List out post-prompt Perl command actions.

       > command   Set an action (Perl command) to happen after the prompt
                   when you've just given a command to return to executing the
                   script.  A multi-line command may be entered by backslash-
                   ing the newlines (we bet you couldn't've guessed this by

       > *         Delete all post-prompt Perl command actions.

       >> command  Adds an action (Perl command) to happen after the prompt
                   when you've just given a command to return to executing the
                   script.  A multi-line command may be entered by backslash-
                   ing the newlines.

       { ?         List out pre-prompt debugger commands.

       { [ command ]
                   Set an action (debugger command) to happen before every
                   debugger prompt.  A multi-line command may be entered in(1,8)
                   the customary fashion.

                   Because this command is in(1,8) some senses new, a warning is
                   issued if(3,n) you appear to have accidentally entered a block
                   instead.  If that's what you mean to do, write(1,2) it as with
                   ";{ ... }" or even "do { ... }".

       { *         Delete all pre-prompt debugger commands.

       {{ command  Add an action (debugger command) to happen before every
                   debugger prompt.  A multi-line command may be entered, if(3,n)
                   you can guess how: see above.

       ! number    Redo a previous command (defaults to the previous command).

       ! -number   Redo number'th previous command.

       ! pattern   Redo last command that started with pattern.  See "o
                   recallCommand", too.

       !! cmd      Run cmd in(1,8) a subprocess (reads from DB::IN, writes to
                   DB::OUT) See "o shellBang", also.  Note that the user's
                   current shell (well, their $ENV{SHELL} variable) will be
                   used, which can interfere with proper interpretation of
                   exit(3,n,1 builtins) status or signal(2,7) and coredump information.

       source file(1,n) Read and execute debugger commands from file(1,n).  file(1,n) may
                   itself contain "source" commands.

       H -number   Display last n commands.  Only commands longer than one
                   character are listed.  If number is omitted, list them all.

       q or ^D     Quit.  ("quit" doesn't work for this, unless you've made an
                   alias) This is the only supported way to exit(3,n,1 builtins) the debugger,
                   though typing "exit(3,n,1 builtins)" twice might work.

                   Set the "inhibit_exit" option to 0 if(3,n) you want to be able
                   to step off the end the script.  You may also need to set(7,n,1 builtins)
                   $finished to 0 if(3,n) you want to step through global destruc-

       R           Restart the debugger by "exec(3,n,1 builtins)()"ing a new session.  We try
                   to maintain your history(1,3,n,1 builtins) across this, but internal settings
                   and command-line options may be lost.

                   The following setting are currently preserved: history(1,3,n,1 builtins),
                   breakpoints, actions, debugger options, and the Perl com-
                   mand-line options -w, -I, and -e.

       |dbcmd      Run the debugger command, piping DB::OUT into your current

       ||dbcmd     Same as "|dbcmd" but DB::OUT is temporarily "select(2,7,2 select_tut)"ed as

       = [alias value]
                   Define a command alias, like

                       = quit q

                   or list current aliases.

       command     Execute command as a Perl statement.  A trailing semicolon
                   will be supplied.  If the Perl statement would otherwise be
                   confused for a Perl debugger, use a leading semicolon, too.

       m expr(1,3,n)      List which methods may be called on the result of the eval-
                   uated expression.  The expression may evaluated to a refer-
                   ence to a blessed object, or to a package name.

       M           Displays all loaded modules and their versions

       man(1,5,7) [manpage]
                   Despite its name, this calls your system's default documen-
                   tation viewer on the given page, or on the viewer itself if(3,n)
                   manpage is omitted.  If that viewer is man(1,5,7), the current
                   "Config" information is used to invoke man(1,5,7) using the proper
                   MANPATH or -M manpath option.  Failed lookups of the form
                   "XXX" that match known manpages of the form perlXXX will be
                   retried.  This lets you type "man(1,5,7) debug" or "man(1,5,7) op" from
                   the debugger.

                   On systems traditionally bereft of a usable man(1,5,7) command,
                   the debugger invokes perldoc.  Occasionally this determina-
                   tion is incorrect due to recalcitrant vendors or rather
                   more felicitously, to enterprising users.  If you fall into
                   either category, just manually set(7,n,1 builtins) the $DB::doccmd variable
                   to whatever viewer to view the Perl documentation on your
                   system.  This may be set(7,n,1 builtins) in(1,8) an rc file(1,n), or through direct
                   assignment.  We're still waiting for a working example of
                   something along the lines of:

                       $DB::doccmd = 'netscape -remote';

       Configurable Options

       The debugger has numerous options settable using the "o" command,
       either interactively or from the environment or an rc file.  (./.perldb
       or ~/.perldb under Unix.)

       "recallCommand", "ShellBang"
                   The characters used to recall command or spawn shell.  By
                   default, both are set(7,n,1 builtins) to "!", which is unfortunate.

       "pager"     Program to use for output of pager-piped commands (those
                   beginning with a "|" character.)  By default, $ENV{PAGER}
                   will be used.  Because the debugger uses your current ter-
                   minal characteristics for bold and underlining, if(3,n) the cho-
                   sen pager does not pass escape sequences through unchanged,
                   the output of some debugger commands will not be readable
                   when sent through the pager.

       "tkRunning" Run Tk while prompting (with ReadLine).

       "signalLevel", "warnLevel", "dieLevel"
                   Level of verbosity.  By default, the debugger leaves your
                   exceptions and warnings alone, because altering them can
                   break correctly running programs.  It will attempt to print
                   a message when uncaught INT, BUS, or SEGV signals arrive.
                   (But see the mention of signals in(1,8) BUGS below.)

                   To disable this default safe mode, set(7,n,1 builtins) these values to
                   something higher than 0.  At a level of 1, you get back-
                   traces upon receiving any kind of warning (this is often
                   annoying) or exception (this is often valuable).  Unfortu-
                   nately, the debugger cannot discern fatal exceptions from
                   non-fatal ones.  If "dieLevel" is even 1, then your non-
                   fatal exceptions are also traced and unceremoniously
                   altered if(3,n) they came from "eval'd" strings or from any kind
                   of "eval" within modules you're attempting to load.  If
                   "dieLevel" is 2, the debugger doesn't care where they came
                   from:  It usurps your exception handler and prints out a
                   trace(3x,n,3x _nc_tracebits), then modifies all exceptions with its own embellish-
                   ments.  This may perhaps be useful for some tracing pur-
                   poses, but tends to hopelessly destroy any program that
                   takes its exception handling seriously.

       "AutoTrace" Trace mode (similar to "t" command, but can be put into

       "LineInfo"  File or pipe(2,8) to print line number info(1,5,n) to.  If it is a pipe(2,8)
                   (say, "|visual_perl_db"), then a short message is used.
                   This is the mechanism used to interact with a slave editor
                   or visual debugger, such as the special "vi" or "emacs"
                   hooks, or the "ddd" graphical debugger.

                   If 0, allows stepping off the end of the script.

       "PrintRet"  Print return value after "r" command if(3,n) set(7,n,1 builtins) (default).

       "ornaments" Affects screen appearance of the command line (see
                   Term::ReadLine).  There is currently no way to disable
                   these, which can render some output illegible on some dis-
                   plays, or with some pagers.  This is considered a bug.

       "frame"     Affects the printing of messages upon entry and exit(3,n,1 builtins) from
                   subroutines.  If "frame & 2" is false, messages are printed
                   on entry only. (Printing on exit(3,n,1 builtins) might be useful if(3,n) inter-
                   spersed with other messages.)

                   If "frame & 4", arguments to functions are printed, plus
                   context and caller info.  If "frame & 8", overloaded
                   "stringify" and "tie"d "FETCH" is enabled on the printed
                   arguments.  If "frame & 16", the return value from the sub-
                   routine is printed.

                   The length at which the argument list is truncated is gov-
                   erned by the next option:

                   Length to truncate(2,7) the argument list when the "frame"
                   option's bit 4 is set.

                   Change the size of code list window (default is 10 lines).

       The following options affect what happens with "V", "X", and "x" com-

       "arrayDepth", "hashDepth"
                   Print only first N elements ('' for all).

       "dumpDepth" Limit recursion depth to N levels when dumping structures.
                   Negative values are interpreted as infinity.  Default:

       "compactDump", "veryCompact"
                   Change the style of array and hash output.  If "compact-
                   Dump", short array may be printed on one line.

       "globPrint" Whether to print contents of globs.

                   Dump arrays holding debugged files.

                   Dump symbol tables of packages.

                   Dump contents of "reused" addresses.

       "quote", "HighBit", "undefPrint"
                   Change the style of string(3,n) dump.  The default value for
                   "quote" is "auto(5,8)"; one can enable double-quotish or single-
                   quotish format by setting it to """ or "'", respectively.
                   By default, characters with their high bit set(7,n,1 builtins) are printed

       "UsageOnly" Rudimentary per-package memory usage dump.  Calculates
                   total size of strings found in(1,8) variables in(1,8) the package.
                   This does not include lexicals in(1,8) a module's file(1,n) scope, or
                   lost in(1,8) closures.

       After the rc file(1,n) is read(2,n,1 builtins), the debugger reads the $ENV{PERLDB_OPTS}
       environment variable and parses this as the remainder of a `O ...'
       line as one might enter at the debugger prompt.  You may place the ini-
       tialization options "TTY", "noTTY", "ReadLine", and "NonStop" there.

       If your rc file(1,n) contains:

         parse_options("NonStop=1 LineInfo=db.out AutoTrace");

       then your script will run without human intervention, putting trace(3x,n,3x _nc_tracebits)
       information into the file(1,n) db.out.  (If you interrupt it, you'd better
       reset(1,7,1 tput) "LineInfo" to /dev/tty(1,4) if(3,n) you expect to see anything.)

       "TTY"       The TTY to use for debugging I/O.

       "noTTY"     If set(7,n,1 builtins), the debugger goes into "NonStop" mode and will not
                   connect to a TTY.  If interrupted (or if(3,n) control goes to
                   the debugger via explicit setting of $DB::signal or
                   $DB::single from the Perl script), it connects to a TTY
                   specified in(1,8) the "TTY" option at startup, or to a tty(1,4) found
                   at runtime using the "Term::Rendezvous" module of your

                   This module should implement a method named(5,8) "new" that
                   returns an object with two methods: "IN" and "OUT".  These
                   should return filehandles to use for debugging input and
                   output correspondingly.  The "new" method should inspect an
                   argument containing the value of $ENV{PERLDB_NOTTY} at
                   startup, or ".perldbtty$$" otherwise.  This file(1,n) is not
                   inspected for proper ownership, so security hazards are
                   theoretically possible.

       "ReadLine"  If false, readline support in(1,8) the debugger is disabled in(1,8)
                   order to debug applications that themselves use ReadLine.

       "NonStop"   If set(7,n,1 builtins), the debugger goes into non-interactive mode until
                   interrupted, or programmatically by setting $DB::signal or

       Here's an example of using the $ENV{PERLDB_OPTS} variable:

           $ PERLDB_OPTS="NonStop frame=2" perl -d myprogram

       That will run the script myprogram without human intervention, printing
       out the call tree with entry and exit(3,n,1 builtins) points.  Note that "NonStop=1
       frame=2" is equivalent to "N f=2", and that originally, options could
       be uniquely abbreviated by the first letter (modulo the "Dump*"
       options).  It is nevertheless recommended that you always spell them
       out in(1,8) full for legibility and future compatibility.

       Other examples include

           $ PERLDB_OPTS="NonStop LineInfo=listing frame=2" perl -d myprogram

       which runs script non-interactively, printing info(1,5,n) on each entry into a
       subroutine and each executed line into the file(1,n) named(5,8) listing.  (If you
       interrupt it, you would better reset(1,7,1 tput) "LineInfo" to something "interac-

       Other examples include (using standard shell syntax to show environment
       variable settings):

         $ ( PERLDB_OPTS="NonStop frame=1 AutoTrace LineInfo=tperl.out"
             perl -d myprogram )

       which may be useful for debugging a program that uses "Term::ReadLine"
       itself.  Do not forget to detach your shell from the TTY in(1,8) the window
       that corresponds to /dev/ttyXX, say, by issuing a command like

         $ sleep(1,3) 1000000

       See "Debugger Internals" in(1,8) perldebguts for details.

       Debugger input/output

       Prompt  The debugger prompt is something like


               or even


               where that number is the command number, and which you'd use to
               access(2,5) with the built-in csh-like history(1,3,n,1 builtins) mechanism.  For exam-
               ple, "!17" would repeat command number 17.  The depth of the
               angle brackets indicates the nesting depth of the debugger.
               You could get more than one set(7,n,1 builtins) of brackets, for example, if(3,n)
               you'd already at a breakpoint and then printed the result of a
               function call that itself has a breakpoint, or you step into an
               expression via "s/n/t expression" command.

       Multiline commands
               If you want to enter a multi-line command, such as a subroutine
               definition with several statements or a format, escape the new-
               line that would normally end the debugger command with a back-
               slash.  Here's an example:

                     DB<1> for (1..4) {         \
                     cont:     print "ok\n";   \
                     cont: }

               Note that this business of escaping a newline is specific to
               interactive commands typed into the debugger.

       Stack backtrace
               Here's an example of what a stack backtrace via "T" command
               might look(1,8,3 Search::Dict) like:

                   $ = main::infested called from file(1,n) `' line 10
                   @ = Ambulation::legs(1, 2, 3, 4) called from file(1,n) `camel_flea' line 7
                   $ = main::pests('bactrian', 4) called from file(1,n) `camel_flea' line 4

               The left-hand character up there indicates the context in(1,8) which
               the function was called, with "$" and "@" meaning scalar or
               list contexts respectively, and "." meaning void context (which
               is actually a sort(1,3) of scalar context).  The display above says
               that you were in(1,8) the function "main::infested" when you ran the
               stack dump, and that it was called in(1,8) scalar context from line
               10 of the file(1,n), but without any arguments at all,
               meaning it was called as &infested.  The next stack frame shows
               that the function "Ambulation::legs" was called in(1,8) list context
               from the camel_flea file(1,n) with four arguments.  The last stack
               frame shows that "main::pests" was called in(1,8) scalar context,
               also from camel_flea, but from line 4.

               If you execute the "T" command from inside an active "use"
               statement, the backtrace will contain both a "require" frame
               and an "eval") frame.

       Line Listing Format
               This shows the sorts of output the "l" command can produce:

                   DB<<13>> l
                 101:                @i{@i} = ();
                 102:b               @isa{@i,$pack(3,n,n pack-old)} = ()
                 103                     if(3,n)(exists $i{$prevpack} || exists $isa{$pack(3,n,n pack-old)});
                 104             }
                 106             next
                 107==>              if(3,n)(exists $isa{$pack(3,n,n pack-old)});
                 109:a           if(3,n) ($extra-- > 0) {
                 110:                %isa = ($pack(3,n,n pack-old),1);

               Breakable lines are marked with ":".  Lines with breakpoints
               are marked by "b" and those with actions by "a".  The line
               that's about to be executed is marked by "==>".

               Please be aware that code in(1,8) debugger listings may not look(1,8,3 Search::Dict) the
               same as your original source code.  Line directives and exter-
               nal source filters can alter the code before Perl sees it,
               causing code to move(3x,7,3x curs_move) from its original positions or take on
               entirely different forms.

       Frame listing
               When the "frame" option is set(7,n,1 builtins), the debugger would print
               entered (and optionally exited) subroutines in(1,8) different
               styles.  See perldebguts for incredibly long examples of these.

       Debugging compile-time statements

       If you have compile-time executable statements (such as code within
       BEGIN and CHECK blocks or "use" statements), these will not be stopped
       by debugger, although "require"s and INIT blocks will, and compile-time
       statements can be traced with "AutoTrace" option set(7,n,1 builtins) in(1,8) "PERLDB_OPTS").
       From your own Perl code, however, you can transfer control back to the
       debugger using the following statement, which is harmless if(3,n) the debug-
       ger is not running:

           $DB::single = 1;

       If you set(7,n,1 builtins) $DB::single to 2, it's equivalent to having just typed the
       "n" command, whereas a value of 1 means the "s" command.  The
       $DB::trace  variable should be set(7,n,1 builtins) to 1 to simulate having typed the
       "t" command.

       Another way to debug compile-time code is to start the debugger, set(7,n,1 builtins) a
       breakpoint on the load(7,n) of some module:

           DB<7> b load(7,n) f:/perllib/lib/
         Will stop on load(7,n) of `f:/perllib/lib/'.

       and then restart the debugger using the "R" command (if(3,n) possible).  One
       can use "b compile subname" for the same purpose.

       Debugger Customization

       The debugger probably contains enough configuration hooks that you
       won't ever have to modify it yourself.  You may change the behaviour of
       debugger from within the debugger using its "o" command, from the com-
       mand line via the "PERLDB_OPTS" environment variable, and from cus-
       tomization files.

       You can do some customization by setting up a .perldb file(1,n), which con-
       tains initialization code.  For instance, you could make aliases like
       these (the last one is one people expect to be there):

           $DB::alias{'len'}  = 's/^len(.*)/p length($1)/';
           $DB::alias{'stop'} = 's/^stop (at|in(1,8))/b/';
           $DB::alias{'ps'}   = 's/^ps\b/p scalar /';
           $DB::alias{'quit'} = 's/^quit(\s*)/exit(3,n,1 builtins)/';

       You can change options from .perldb by using calls like this one;

           parse_options("NonStop=1 LineInfo=db.out AutoTrace=1 frame=2");

       The code is executed in(1,8) the package "DB".  Note that .perldb is pro-
       cessed before processing "PERLDB_OPTS".  If .perldb defines the subrou-
       tine "afterinit", that function is called after debugger initialization
       ends.  .perldb may be contained in(1,8) the current directory, or in(1,8) the
       home directory.  Because this file(1,n) is sourced in(1,8) by Perl and may con-
       tain arbitrary commands, for security reasons, it must be owned by the
       superuser or the current user, and writable by no one but its owner.

       You can mock TTY input to debugger by adding arbitrary commands to
       @DB::typeahead. For example, your .perldb file(1,n) might contain:

           sub afterinit { push @DB::typeahead, "b 4", "b 6"; }

       Which would attempt to set(7,n,1 builtins) breakpoints on lines 4 and 6 immediately
       after debugger initilization. Note that @DB::typeahead is not a sup-
       ported interface and is subject to change in(1,8) future releases.

       If you want to modify the debugger, copy from the Perl
       library to another name and hack it to your heart's content.  You'll
       then want to set(7,n,1 builtins) your "PERL5DB" environment variable to say something
       like this:

           BEGIN { require "" }

       As a last resort, you could also use "PERL5DB" to customize the debug-
       ger by directly setting internal variables or calling debugger func-

       Note that any variables and functions that are not documented in(1,8) this
       document (or in(1,8) perldebguts) are considered for internal use only, and
       as such are subject to change without notice.

       Readline Support

       As shipped, the only command-line history(1,3,n,1 builtins) supplied is a simplistic one
       that checks for leading exclamation points.  However, if(3,n) you install
       the Term::ReadKey and Term::ReadLine modules from CPAN, you will have
       full editing capabilities much like GNU readline(3) provides.  Look for
       these in(1,8) the modules/by-module/Term directory on CPAN.  These do not
       support normal vi command-line editing, however.

       A rudimentary command-line completion is also available.  Unfortu-
       nately, the names of lexical variables are not available for comple-

       Editor Support for Debugging

       If you have the FSF's version(1,3,5) of emacs installed on your system, it can
       interact with the Perl debugger to provide an integrated software
       development environment reminiscent of its interactions with C debug-

       Perl comes with a start file(1,n) for making emacs act like a syntax-
       directed editor that understands (some of) Perl's syntax.  Look in(1,8) the
       emacs directory of the Perl source distribution.

       A similar setup(2,8) by Tom Christiansen for interacting with any vendor-
       shipped vi and the X11 window system is also available.  This works
       similarly to the integrated multiwindow support that emacs provides,
       where the debugger drives the editor.  At the time(1,2,n) of this writing,
       however, that tool's eventual location in(1,8) the Perl distribution was

       Users of vi should also look(1,8,3 Search::Dict) into vim and gvim, the mousey and windy
       version(1,3,5), for coloring of Perl keywords.

       Note that only perl can truly parse Perl, so all such CASE tools fall
       somewhat short of the mark, especially if(3,n) you don't program your Perl
       as a C programmer might.

       The Perl Profiler

       If you wish to supply an alternative debugger for Perl to run, just
       invoke your script with a colon and a package argument given to the -d
       flag.  The most popular alternative debuggers for Perl is the Perl pro-
       filer.  Devel::DProf is now included with the standard Perl distribu-
       tion.  To profile your Perl program in(1,8) the file(1,n), just type:

           $ perl -d:DProf

       When the script terminates the profiler will dump the profile informa-
       tion to a file(1,n) called tmon.out.  A tool like dprofpp, also supplied
       with the standard Perl distribution, can be used to interpret the
       information in(1,8) that profile.

Debugging regular expressions
       "use re 'debug'" enables you to see the gory details of how the Perl
       regular expression engine works. In order to understand this typically
       voluminous output, one must not only have some idea about how regular
       expression matching works in(1,8) general, but also know how Perl's regular
       expressions are internally compiled into an automaton. These matters
       are explored in(1,8) some detail in(1,8) "Debugging regular expressions" in(1,8)

Debugging memory usage
       Perl contains internal support for reporting its own memory usage, but
       this is a fairly advanced concept that requires some understanding of
       how memory allocation works.  See "Debugging Perl memory usage" in(1,8)
       perldebguts for the details.

       You did try the -w switch(1,n), didn't you?

       perldebtut, perldebguts, re, DB, Devel::DProf, dprofpp, Dumpvalue, and

       You cannot get stack frame information or in(1,8) any fashion debug func-
       tions that were not compiled by Perl, such as those from C or C++

       If you alter your @_ arguments in(1,8) a subroutine (such as with "shift" or
       "pop"), the stack backtrace will not show the original values.

       The debugger does not currently work in(1,8) conjunction with the -W com-
       mand-line switch(1,n), because it itself is not free of warnings.

       If you're in(1,8) a slow syscall (like "wait"ing, "accept(2,8)"ing, or "read(2,n,1 builtins)"ing
       from your keyboard or a socket(2,7,n)) and haven't set(7,n,1 builtins) up your own $SIG{INT}
       handler, then you won't be able to CTRL-C your way back to the debug-
       ger, because the debugger's own $SIG{INT} handler doesn't understand
       that it needs to raise(3,n) an exception to longjmp(3) out of slow syscalls.

perl v5.8.5                       2004-04-23                      PERLDEBUG(1)

References for this manual (incoming links)