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ls(1) - ls, ls - list directory contents - man 1 ls

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LS(1)                                 FSF                                LS(1)



NAME
       ls - list directory contents

SYNOPSIS
       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION
       List  information  about  the FILEs (the current directory by default).
       Sort entries alphabetically if(3,n) none of -cftuSUX nor --sort.

       -a, --all
              do not hide entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
              do not list implied . and ..

       -b, --escape
              print octal escapes for nongraphic characters

       --block-size=SIZE
              use SIZE-byte blocks

       -B, --ignore-backups
              do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with -lt: sort(1,3) by, and show, ctime (time(1,2,n) of last modification of
              file(1,n)  status  information)  with -l: show ctime and sort(1,3) by name
              otherwise: sort(1,3) by ctime

       -C     list entries by columns

       --color[=WHEN]
              control whether color is used to distinguish file(1,n)  types.   WHEN
              may be `never', `always', or `auto(5,8)'

       -d, --directory
              list directory entries instead of contents

       -D, --dired
              generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

       -f     do not sort(1,3), enable -aU, disable -lst

       -F, --classify
              append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries

       --format=WORD
              across  -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1,
              verbose -l, vertical -C

       --full-time
              list both full date and full time(1,2,n)

       -g     (ignored)

       -G, --no-group
              inhibit display of group information

       -h, --human-readable
              print sizes in(1,8) human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

       --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H     same as `--si' for now; soon to change to conform to POSIX

       --indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
              none (default), classify (-F), file-type (-p)

       -i, --inode
              print index number of each file(1,n)

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k, --kilobytes
              like --block-size=1024

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
              list entries pointed to by symbolic links

       -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
              list numeric UIDs and GIDs instead of names

       -N, --literal
              print raw(3x,7,8,3x cbreak) entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters  spe-
              cially)

       -o     use long listing format without group info(1,5,n)

       -p, --file-type
              append indicator (one of /=@|) to entries

       -q, --hide-control-chars
              print ? instead of non graphic characters

       --show-control-chars
              show  non  graphic  characters  as-is (default unless program is
              `ls' and output is a terminal)

       -Q, --quote-name
              enclose entry names in(1,8) double quotes

       --quoting-style=WORD
              use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale(3,5,7),  shell,
              shell-always, c, escape

       -r, --reverse
              reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
              list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
              print size of each file(1,n), in(1,8) blocks

       -S     sort(1,3) by file(1,n) size

       --sort=WORD
              extension -X, none -U, size -S, time(1,2,n) -t, version(1,3,5) -v

              status -c, time(1,2,n) -t, atime -u, access(2,5) -u, use -u

       --time=WORD
              show  time(1,2,n)  as WORD instead of modification time: atime, access(2,5),
              use, ctime  or  status;  use  specified  time(1,2,n)  as  sort(1,3)  key  if(3,n)
              --sort=time(1,2,n)

       -t     sort(1,3) by modification time(1,2,n)

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
              assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with  -lt:  sort(1,3)  by, and show, access(2,5) time(1,2,n) with -l: show access(2,5)
              time(1,2,n) and sort(1,3) by name otherwise: sort(1,3) by access(2,5) time(1,2,n)

       -U     do not sort(1,3); list entries in(1,8) directory order

       -v     sort(1,3) by version(1,3,5)

       -w, --width=COLS
              assume screen width instead of current value

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort(1,3) alphabetically by entry extension

       -1     list one file(1,n) per line

       --help display this help and exit(3,n,1 builtins)

       --version
              output version(1,3,5) information and exit(3,n,1 builtins)

       By default, color is not used to distinguish types of files.   That  is
       equivalent to using --color=none.  Using the --color option without the
       optional WHEN argument is equivalent  to  using  --color=always.   With
       --color=auto(5,8),  color  codes  are output only if(3,n) standard output is con-
       nected to a terminal (tty(1,4)).

AUTHOR
       Written by Richard Stallman and David MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS
       Report bugs to <bug-fileutils@gnu.org>.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright  2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is
       NO  warranty;  not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
       PURPOSE.

SEE ALSO
       The full documentation for ls is maintained as a  Texinfo  manual.   If
       the  info(1,5,n) and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the com-
       mand

              info(1,5,n) ls

       should give you access(2,5) to the complete manual.



ls (fileutils) 4.1                April 2001                             LS(1)

References for this manual (incoming links)