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EMACS(1)                                                              EMACS(1)

       emacs - GNU project Emacs

       emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ...  ]

       GNU  Emacs is a version(1,3,5) of Emacs, written by the author of the original
       (PDP-10) Emacs, Richard Stallman.
       The primary documentation of GNU Emacs is  in(1,8)  the  GNU  Emacs  Manual,
       which  you  can  read(2,n,1 builtins) on line using Info, a subsystem of Emacs.  Please
       look(1,8,3 Search::Dict) there for complete and up-to-date documentation.  This man(1,5,7) page is
       updated  only  when someone volunteers to do so; the Emacs maintainers'
       priority goal is to minimize the amount of time(1,2,n)  this  man(1,5,7)  page  takes
       away from other more useful projects.
       The  user functionality of GNU Emacs encompasses everything other Emacs
       editors do, and it is easily extensible since its editing commands  are
       written in(1,8) Lisp.

       Emacs  has  an  extensive  interactive  help facility, but the facility
       assumes that you know how to  manipulate  Emacs  windows  and  buffers.
       CTRL-h  (backspace  or CTRL-h) enters the Help facility.  Help Tutorial
       (CTRL-h t) requests an interactive tutorial which can  teach  beginners
       the  fundamentals  of  Emacs in(1,8) a few minutes.  Help Apropos (CTRL-h a)
       helps you find a command given its functionality, Help Character (CTRL-
       h c) describes a given character's effect, and Help Function (CTRL-h f)
       describes a given Lisp function specified by name.

       Emacs's Undo can undo several steps of modification to your buffers, so
       it is easy to recover from editing mistakes.

       GNU Emacs's many special packages handle mail(1,8) reading (RMail) and send-
       ing (Mail), outline editing  (Outline),  compiling  (Compile),  running
       subshells  within Emacs windows (Shell), running a Lisp read-eval-print
       loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode), and automated psychotherapy (Doctor).

       There is an extensive reference manual,  but  users(1,5)  of  other  Emacses
       should  have little trouble adapting even without a copy.  Users new to
       Emacs will be able to use basic features fairly rapidly by studying the
       tutorial and using the self-documentation features.

       Emacs Options

       The following options are of general interest:

       file(1,n)    Edit file.

       +number Go  to  the  line  specified  by  number (do not insert a space
               between the "+" sign and the number).

       -q      Do not load(7,n) an init file.

       -u user Load user's init file.

       -t file(1,n) Use specified file(1,n) as the terminal instead of using  stdin/std-
               out.   This must be the first argument specified in(1,8) the command

       The following options are lisp-oriented (these options are processed in(1,8)
       the order encountered):

       -f function
               Execute the lisp function function.

       -l file(1,n) Load the lisp code in(1,8) the file(1,n) file.

       The following options are useful when running Emacs as a batch editor:

       -batch  Edit  in(1,8)  batch mode.  The editor will send(2,n) messages to stderr.
               This option must be the first in(1,8) the argument list.   You  must
               use -l and -f options to specify files to execute and functions
               to call.

       -kill   Exit Emacs while in(1,8) batch mode.

       Using Emacs with X

       Emacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system.  If  you
       run Emacs from under X windows, it will create its own X window to dis-
       play in.  You will probably want to start the editor  as  a  background
       process so that you can continue using your original window.

       Emacs can be started with the following X switches:

       -name name
               Specifies  the  name  which  should  be assigned to the initial
               Emacs window.  This controls looking up X resources as well  as
               the window title.

       -title name
               Specifies the title for the initial X window.

       -r      Display the Emacs window in(1,8) reverse video.

       -i      Use  the  "kitchen  sink" bitmap icon when iconifying the Emacs

       -font font, -fn font
               Set the Emacs window's font to that  specified  by  font.   You
               will  find the various X fonts in(1,8) the /usr/lib/X11/fonts direc-
               tory.  Note that Emacs will  only  accept(2,8)  fixed  width  fonts.
               Under  the X11 Release 4 font-naming conventions, any font with
               the value "m" or "c" in(1,8) the eleventh field of the font name  is
               a  fixed  width font.  Furthermore, fonts whose name are of the
               form widthxheight are generally fixed width,  as  is  the  font
               fixed.  See xlsfonts(1) for more information.

               When  you  specify  a  font, be sure to put a space between the
               switch(1,n) and the font name.

       -bw pixels
               Set the Emacs window's border width to  the  number  of  pixels
               specified by pixels.  Defaults to one pixel on each side of the

       -ib pixels
               Set the window's internal border width to the number of  pixels
               specified  by pixels.  Defaults to one pixel of padding on each
               side of the window.

       -geometry geometry
               Set the Emacs window's width, height, and  position  as  speci-
               fied.   The geometry specification is in(1,8) the standard X format;
               see X(1) for more information.  The width and height are speci-
               fied in(1,8) characters; the default is 80 by 24.

       -fg color
               On color displays, sets the color of the text.

               See  the  file(1,n)  /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt  for a list of valid color

       -bg color
               On color displays, sets the color of the window's background.

       -bd color
               On color displays, sets the color of the window's border.

       -cr color
               On color displays, sets the color of the window's text  cursor.

       -ms color
               On color displays, sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.

       -d displayname, -display displayname
               Create the Emacs window on the display  specified  by  display-
               name.   Must be the first option specified in(1,8) the command line.

       -nw     Tells Emacs not to use its special interface to X.  If you  use
               this  switch(1,n)  when invoking Emacs from an xterm(1) window, dis-
               play is done in(1,8) that window.  This must  be  the  first  option
               specified in(1,8) the command line.

       You can set(7,n,1 builtins) X default values for your Emacs windows in(1,8) your .Xresources
       file(1,n) (see xrdb(1)).  Use the following format:


       where value specifies the default value of keyword.  Emacs lets you set(7,n,1 builtins)
       default values for the following keywords:

       font (class Font)
               Sets the window's text font.

       reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
               If  reverseVideo's  value is set(7,n,1 builtins) to on, the window will be dis-
               played in(1,8) reverse video.

       bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon)
               If bitmapIcon's value is set(7,n,1 builtins) to on,  the  window  will  iconify
               into the "kitchen sink."

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
               Sets the window's border width in(1,8) pixels.

       internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
               Sets the window's internal border width in(1,8) pixels.

       foreground (class Foreground)
               For color displays, sets the window's text color.

       background (class Background)
               For color displays, sets the window's background color.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
               For color displays, sets the color of the window's border.

       cursorColor (class Foreground)
               For color displays, sets the color of the window's text cursor.

       pointerColor (class Foreground)
               For color displays, sets the color of the window's  mouse  cur-

       geometry (class Geometry)
               Sets the geometry of the Emacs window (as described above).

       title (class Title)
               Sets the title of the Emacs window.

       iconName (class Title)
               Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

       If  you  try to set(7,n,1 builtins) color values while using a black and white display,
       the window's characteristics will default as  follows:  the  foreground
       color  will be set(7,n,1 builtins) to black, the background color will be set(7,n,1 builtins) to white,
       the border color will be set(7,n,1 builtins) to grey, and the text  and  mouse  cursors
       will be set(7,n,1 builtins) to black.

       Using the Mouse

       The  following  lists  the  mouse  button bindings for the Emacs window
       under X11.

       left                 Set point.
       middle               Paste text.
       right                Cut text into X cut buffer.
       SHIFT-middle         Cut text into X cut buffer.
       SHIFT-right          Paste text.
       CTRL-middle          Cut text into X cut buffer and kill(1,2,1 builtins) it.
       CTRL-right           Select this window, then split(1,n) it  into  two  win-
                            dows.  Same as typing CTRL-x 2.
       CTRL-SHIFT-left      X  buffer  menu--hold  the  buttons and keys down,
                            wait  for  menu(3x,n,n tk_menuSetFocus)  to  appear,  select(2,7,2 select_tut)  buffer,  and
                            release.   Move  mouse  out of menu(3x,n,n tk_menuSetFocus) and release to
       CTRL-SHIFT-middle    X help menu--pop up  index  card  menu(3x,n,n tk_menuSetFocus)  for  Emacs
       CTRL-SHIFT-right     Select  window  with  mouse,  and delete all other
                            windows.  Same as typing CTRL-x 1.

       You can order printed copies of the GNU  Emacs  Manual  from  the  Free
       Software  Foundation, which develops GNU software.  See the file(1,n) ORDERS
       for ordering information.
       Your local Emacs maintainer might also have copies available.  As  with
       all  software  and publications from FSF, everyone is permitted to make
       and distribute copies of the Emacs manual.  The TeX source to the  man-
       ual is also included in(1,8) the Emacs source distribution.

       /usr/local/info(1,5,n) - files for the Info documentation browser (a subsystem
       of Emacs) to refer to.  Currently not much of Unix is documented  here,
       but  the  complete  text of the Emacs reference manual is included in(1,8) a
       convenient tree structured form.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/src - C source files and object files

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/lisp - Lisp source files  and  compiled
       files  that  define  most editing commands.  Some are preloaded; others
       are autoloaded from this directory when used.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc - various programs  that  are  used
       with GNU Emacs, and some files of information.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DOC.*  - contains the documentation
       strings for the Lisp primitives and preloaded  Lisp  functions  of  GNU
       Emacs.  They are stored here to reduce the size of Emacs proper.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/OTHER.EMACSES  discusses  GNU Emacs
       vs. other versions of Emacs.
       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/SERVICE lists people offering vari-
       ous  services  to assist users(1,5) of GNU Emacs, including education, trou-
       bleshooting, porting and customization.
       These files also have information useful to  anyone  wishing  to  write(1,2)
       programs  in(1,8)  the Emacs Lisp extension language, which has not yet been
       fully documented.

       /usr/local/com/emacs/lock - holds lock files  that  are  made  for  all
       files  being modified in(1,8) Emacs, to prevent simultaneous modification of
       one file(1,n) by two users.

       /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt - list of valid X color names.

       There is a mailing list, on the  internet
       (ucbvax!!bug-gnu-emacs  on UUCPnet), for reporting Emacs
       bugs and fixes.  But before reporting something as a bug, please try to
       be sure that it really is a bug, not a misunderstanding or a deliberate
       feature.  We ask you to read(2,n,1 builtins) the section ``Reporting Emacs Bugs''  near
       the  end  of the reference manual (or Info system) for hints on how and
       when to report bugs.  Also, include the version(1,3,5) number of the Emacs you
       are running in(1,8) every bug report that you send(2,n) in.

       Do  not  expect  a  personal  answer  to  a bug report.  The purpose of
       reporting bugs is to get them fixed for everyone in(1,8) the  next  release,
       if(3,n)  possible.   For  personal assistance, look(1,8,3 Search::Dict) in(1,8) the SERVICE file(1,n) (see
       above) for a list of people who offer it.

       Please do not send(2,n) anything but bug reports to this mailing list.  Send
       requests  to  be  added  to mailing lists to the special list info-gnu- (or the corresponding UUCP address).  For
       more   information   about   Emacs   mailing   lists,   see   the  file(1,n)
       /usr/local/emacs/etc/MAILINGLISTS.  Bugs tend actually to be  fixed  if(3,n)
       they  can be isolated, so it is in(1,8) your interest to report them in(1,8) such
       a way that they can be easily reproduced.

       Bugs that I know about are: shell will not work with  programs  running
       in(1,8) Raw mode on some Unix versions.

       Emacs  is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under
       the terms stated in(1,8) the Emacs General Public License, a copy  of  which
       accompanies  each copy of Emacs and which also appears in(1,8) the reference

       Copies of Emacs may sometimes be received packaged  with  distributions
       of  Unix  systems, but it is never included in(1,8) the scope of any license
       covering those systems.  Such inclusion violates  the  terms  on  which
       distribution is permitted.  In fact, the primary purpose of the General
       Public License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other  restric-
       tions to redistribution of Emacs.

       Richard  Stallman encourages you to improve and extend Emacs, and urges
       that you contribute your extensions to the GNU library.  Eventually GNU
       (Gnu's  Not  Unix)  will  be  a complete replacement for Berkeley Unix.
       Everyone will be free to use, copy, study and change the GNU system.

       X(1), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)

       Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.
       Joachim Martillo and Robert Krawitz added the X features.

       Copyright (c) 1995, 1999, 2000, 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission  is  granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version  1.1  or
       any  later  version(1,3,5)  published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
       Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.

       This  document  is  part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
       Documentation License.  If you want to distribute this  document  sepa-
       rately  from  the  collection,  you  can  do so by adding a copy of the
       license to the document, as described in(1,8) section 6 of the  license.   A
       copy  of  the  license  is included in(1,8) the gfdl(1,7)(1) man(1,5,7) page, and in(1,8) the
       section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License" in(1,8) the Emacs  manual.

4th Berkeley Distribution       1995 December 7                       EMACS(1)

References for this manual (incoming links)