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DOT(1)                                                                  DOT(1)



NAME
       dot - preprocessor for drawing directed graphs

SYNOPSIS
       dot  [-Gname=value] [-Nname=value] [-Ename=value] [-Tlang] [-l libfile]
       [-o outfile] [files]

DESCRIPTION
       dot draws directed graphs.  It works well on DAGs and other graphs that
       can  be  drawn  as  hierarchies.   It  reads attributed graph files and
       writes drawings.  By default, the output format dot is the  input  file(1,n)
       with layout coordinates appended.  To generate PostScript, use the -Tps
       option.  Other choices are -Tsvg -Tsvgz (Structured  Vector  Graphics),
       -Tfig  (XFIG  graphics),  -Tmif  (FrameMaker  graphics), -Thpgl (HP pen
       plotters), and -Tpcl (Laserjet  printers),  -Tpng  -Tjpg  -Tgif  (pixel
       graphics),  -Timap (imagemap files for httpd servers that mark out rec-
       tangles for each node that has a non-null "href"  attribute.),  -Tcmapx
       (client-side  imagemap for use in(1,8) html and xhtml).  (There are also two
       deprecated imagemap formats: -Tismap and -Tcmap.)

       Here is a synopsis of the graph file(1,n) language.

       digraph name { statement-list } is the top level graph.  Statements may
       be:

       name=val;
       node [name=val];
       edge  [name=val];  Set  default  graph, node, or edge attribute name to
       val.  Any subgraph, node, or edge appearing after this inherits the new
       default attributes.

       n0 [name0=val0,name1=val1,...]; Creates node n0 (if(3,n) it does not already
       exist) and sets its attributes according to the optional list.

       n0 -> n1  ->  ...  ->  nn  [name0=val0,name1=val1,...];  Creates  edges
       between  nodes  n0,  n1, ..., nn and sets their attributes according to
       the optional list.  Creates nodes as necessary.

       subgraph name { statement-list } Creates a subgraph.  Subgraphs may  be
       used  in(1,8)  place of n0, ..., nn in(1,8) the above statements to create edges.
       subgraph name is optional; if(3,n) missing,  the  subgraph  is  assigned  an
       internal name.

       Comments may be /*C-like*/ or //C++-like.

       Attribute names and values are ordinary (C-style) strings.  The follow-
       ing sections describe attributes that control graph layout.

GRAPH ATTRIBUTES
       size="x,y" sets bounding box of drawing in(1,8) inches.

       page="x,y" sets the PostScript pagination unit.

       ratio=f sets the aspect ratio to f which may be a floating  point  num-
       ber, or one of the keywords fill, compress, or auto(5,8).

       margin=f sets the page margin (included in(1,8) the page size).

       nodesep=f sets the minimum separation between nodes.

       ranksep=f sets the minimum separation between ranks.

       ordering=out  constrains  order of out-edges in(1,8) a subgraph according to
       their file(1,n) sequence.

       rankdir=LR requests a left-to-right drawing.

       pagedir=[TBLR][TBLR] sets the major and minor order of pagination.

       rank=same (or min or max) in(1,8) a subgraph constrains the rank  assignment
       of  its nodes.   If a subgraph's name has the prefix cluster, its nodes
       are drawn in(1,8) a distinct rectangle  of  the  layout.   Clusters  may  be
       nested.

       rotate=90  sets landscape mode.  (orientation=land is backward compati-
       ble but obsolete.)

       center=n a non-zero value centers the drawing on the page.

       nslimit=f or mclimit=f adjusts the bound on the number of network  sim-
       plex   or  mincross  iterations  by  the  given  ratio.   For  example,
       mclimit=2.0 runs twice as long.

       layers="id:id:id:id" is a sequence of  layer  identifiers  for  overlay
       diagrams.  The PostScript array variable layercolorseq sets the assign-
       ment of colors to layers. The least index is 1 and each element must be
       a 3-element array to be interpreted as a color coordinate.

       color=colorvalue sets foreground color (bgcolor for background).

       href="url"  the  default  url for image map files; in(1,8) PostScript files,
       the base URL for all relative URLs, as recognized by Acrobat  Distiller
       3.0 and up.

       URL="url" ("URL" is a synonym for "href".)

       stylesheet="file.css" includes a reference to a stylesheet in(1,8) -Tsvg and
       -Tsvgz outputs.  Ignored by other formats.

NODE ATTRIBUTES
       height=d or width=d  sets  minimum  height  or  width.   Adding  fixed-
       size=true forces these to be the actual size (text labels are ignored).

       shape=record polygon epsf builtin_polygon
       builtin_polygon is one of: plaintext ellipse circle  egg  triangle  box
       diamond  trapezium  parallelogram house hexagon octagon.  (Polygons are
       defined or modified by the following node attributes: regular,  periph-
       eries,  sides, orientation, distortion and skew.)  epsf uses the node's
       shapefile attribute as the path name of an external  EPSF  file(1,n)  to  be
       automatically loaded for the node shape.

       label=text  where  text  may include escaped newlines \n, \l, or \r for
       center, left, and right justified lines.  The string(3,n) '\N' value will be
       replaced  by  the  node  name.  Record labels may contain recursive box
       lists delimited by { | }.  Port identifiers in(1,8) labels are  set(7,n,1 builtins)  off  by
       angle   brackets  <  >.   In  the  graph  file(1,n),  use  colon  (such  as,
       node0:port28).

       fontsize=n sets the label type size to n points.

       fontname=name sets the label font family name.

       color=colorvalue sets the outline color, and the default fill color  if(3,n)
       style=filled and fillcolor is not specified.

       fillcolor=colorvalue  sets  the  fill  color when style=filled.  If not
       specified, the fillcolor when style=filled defaults to be the  same  as
       the outline color.

       fontcolor=colorvalue sets the label text color.

       A  colorvalue  may  be  "h,s,v"  (hue, saturation, brightness) floating
       point numbers between 0 and 1, or an X11 color name such as white black
       red  green  blue yellow magenta cyan or burlywood, or a "#rrggbb" (red,
       green, blue, 2 hex characters each) value.

       style=filled solid dashed dotted bold invis or any Postscript code.

       layer=id or id:id or "all" sets the node's active  layers.   The  empty
       string(3,n) means no layers (invisible).

       The following attributes apply only to polygon shape nodes:

       regular=n  if(3,n) n is non-zero then the polygon is made regular, i.e. sym-
       metric about the x and y axis,  otherwise  the  polygon  takes  on  the
       aspect ratio of the label.  builtin_polygons that are not already regu-
       lar are made regular by  this  attribute.   builtin_polygons  that  are
       already  regular  are  not affected (i.e.  they cannot be made asymmet-
       ric).

       peripheries=n sets the number of periphery lines drawn around the poly-
       gon.    This   value  supercedes  the  number  of  periphery  lines  of
       builtin_polygons.

       sides=n sets the number of sides to the  polygon.  n<3  results  in(1,8)  an
       ellipse.  This attribute is ignored by builtin_polygons.

       orientation=f  sets  the  orientation  of the first apex of the polygon
       counterclockwise from the vertical, in(1,8) degrees.  f may  be  a  floating
       point  number.   The  orientation  of  labels  is  not affected by this
       attribute.  This attribute is  added  to  the  initial  orientation  of
       builtin_polygons.

       distortion=f  sets the amount of broadening of the top and narrowing of
       the bottom of the polygon  (relative  to  its  orientation).   Floating
       point  values  between  -1  and  +1  are  suggested.  This attribute is
       ignored by builtin_polygons.

       skew=f sets the amount of right-displacement of the top  and  left-dis-
       placement  of  the bottom of the polygon (relative to its orientation).
       Floating point values between -1 and +1 are suggested.  This  attribute
       is ignored by builtin_polygons.

       href="url"  sets  the  url for the node in(1,8) imagemap, PostScript and SVG
       files.  The substring '\N' is substituted in(1,8) the same manner as for the
       node label attribute.

       URL="url" ("URL" is a synonym for "href".)

       target="target"  is  a target string(3,n) for client-side imagemaps and SVG,
       effective when nodes have a URL.  The target string(3,n) is used  to  deter-
       mine  which  window  of the browser is used for the URL.  Setting it to
       "_graphviz" will open(2,3,n) a new window if(3,n) it doesn't already exist, or  re-
       use it if(3,n) it does.  If the target string(3,n) is empty, the default, then no
       target attribute is included in(1,8) the output.  The substring '\N' is sub-
       stituted in(1,8) the same manner as for the node label attribute.

       tooltip="tooltip"  is  a  tooltip  string(3,n) for client-side imagemaps and
       SVG, effective when nodes have a URL.  The tooltip string(3,n)  defaults  to
       be the same as the label string(3,n), but this attribute permits nodes with-
       out labels to still have tooltips thus permitting denser  graphs.   The
       substring  '\N' is substituted in(1,8) the same manner as for the node label
       attribute.

EDGE ATTRIBUTES
       minlen=n where n is an integer factor(1,6) that applies to the  edge  length
       (ranks for normal edges, or minimum node separation for flat edges).

       weight=n  where n is the integer cost of the edge.  Values greater than
       1 tend to shorten the edge.  Weight 0 flat edges are ignored for order-
       ing nodes.

       label=text  where  text  may include escaped newlines \n, \l, or \r for
       centered, left, or right justified lines.  If  the  substring  '\T'  is
       found  in(1,8)  a  label  it will be replaced by the tail_node name.  If the
       substring '\H' is found in(1,8) a label it will be replaced by the head_node
       name.   If  the  substring  '\E'  value  is found in(1,8) a label it will be
       replaced      by:      tail_node_name->head_node_name      or       by:
       tail_node_name--head_node_name for undirected graphs.

       fontsize=n sets the label type size to n points.

       fontname=name sets the label font family name.

       fontcolor=colorvalue sets the label text color.

       style=solid dashed dotted bold invis

       color=colorvalue sets the line color for edges.

       dir=forward back both none controls arrow direction.

       tailclip,headclip=false disables endpoint shape clipping.

       href="url"  sets  the  url for the node in(1,8) imagemap, PostScript and SVG
       files.  The substrings '\T', '\H', and '\E' are substituted in(1,8) the same
       manner as for the edge label attribute.

       URL="url" ("URL" is a synonym for "href".)

       target="target"  is  a target string(3,n) for client-side imagemaps and SVG,
       effective when edges have a URL.  If the target string(3,n)  is  empty,  the
       default,  then no target attribute is included in(1,8) the output.  The sub-
       strings '\T', '\H', and '\E' are substituted in(1,8) the same manner as  for
       the edge label attribute.

       tooltip="tooltip"  is a tooltip string(3,n) for client-side imagemaps effec-
       tive when edges have a URL.  The tooltip string(3,n) defaults to be the same
       as the edge label string.  The substrings '\T', '\H', and '\E' are sub-
       stituted in(1,8) the same manner as for the edge label attribute.

       arrowhead,arrowtail=none, normal, inv, dot, odot, invdot, invodot, tee,
       empty, invempty, open(2,3,n), halfopen, diamond, odiamond, box, obox, crow.

       arrowsize                                 (norm_length=10,norm_width=5,
       inv_length=6,inv_width=7,dot_radius=2)

       headlabel,taillabel=string(3,n) for port labels.   labelfontcolor,labelfont-
       name,labelfontsize  for  head  and  tail  labels.  The substrings '\T',
       '\H', and '\E' are substituted in(1,8) the same manner as for the edge label
       attribute.

       headhref="url"  sets  the url for the head port in(1,8) imagemap, PostScript
       and SVG files.  The substrings '\T', '\H', and '\E' are substituted  in(1,8)
       the same manner as for the edge label attribute.

       headURL="url" ("headURL" is a synonym for "headhref".)

       headtarget="headtarget"  is  a  target string(3,n) for client-side imagemaps
       and SVG, effective when edge heads have a URL.  The  headtarget  string(3,n)
       is  used  to determine which window of the browser is used for the URL.
       If the  headtarget  string(3,n)  is  empty,  the  default,  then  headtarget
       defaults  to  the  same  value  as target for the edge.  The substrings
       '\T', '\H', and '\E' are substituted in(1,8) the same manner as for the edge
       label attribute.

       headtooltip="tooltip"  is  a  tooltip  string(3,n) for client-side imagemaps
       effective when head ports have a URL.  The tooltip string(3,n)  defaults  to
       be  the  same  as the headlabel string.  The substrings '\T', '\H', and
       '\E' are  substituted  in(1,8)  the  same  manner  as  for  the  edge  label
       attribute.

       tailhref="url"  sets  the url for the tail port in(1,8) imagemap, PostScript
       and SVG files.  The substrings '\T', '\H', and '\E' are substituted  in(1,8)
       the same manner as for the edge label attribute.

       tailURL="url" ("tailURL" is a synonym for "tailhref".)

       tailtarget="tailtarget"  is  a  target string(3,n) for client-side imagemaps
       and SVG, effective when edge tails have a URL.  The  tailtarget  string(3,n)
       is  used  to determine which window of the browser is used for the URL.
       If the  tailtarget  string(3,n)  is  empty,  the  default,  then  tailtarget
       defaults  to  the  same  value  as target for the edge.  The substrings
       '\T', '\H', and '\E' are substituted in(1,8) the same manner as for the edge
       label attribute.

       tailtooltip="tooltip"  is  a  tooltip  string(3,n) for client-side imagemaps
       effective when tail ports have a URL.  The tooltip string(3,n)  defaults  to
       be  the  same  as the taillabel string.  The substrings '\T', '\H', and
       '\E' are  substituted  in(1,8)  the  same  manner  as  for  the  edge  label
       attribute.

       labeldistance and port_label_distance set(7,n,1 builtins) distance; also labelangle (in(1,8)
       degrees CCW)

       decorate draws line from edge to label.

       samehead,sametail aim edges having the same value  to  the  same  port,
       using the average landing point.

       constraint=false causes an edge to be ignored for rank assignment.

       layer=id  or  id:id  or "all" sets the edgess active layers.  The empty
       string(3,n) means no layers (invisible).

OPTIONS
       -G sets a default graph attribute.  -N and -E  set(7,n,1 builtins)  default  attributes
       for  nodes  and  edges.   Some examples: -Gsize="7,8" or -Nshape=box or
       -Efontsize=8.

       -lfile(1,n) loads custom PostScript library  files.   Usually  these  define
       custom  shapes  or  styles.   If  -l  is  given by itself, the standard
       library is omitted.

       -Tlang sets the output language as described above.

EXAMPLE
       digraph test123 {
               a -> b -> c;
               a -> {x y};
               b [shape=box];
               c [label="hello\nworld",color=blue,fontsize=24,
                    fontname="Palatino-Italic",fontcolor=red,style=filled];
               a -> z [label="hi", weight=100];
               x -> z [label="multi-line\nlabel"];
               edge [style=dashed,color=red];
               b -> x;
               {rank=same; b x}
       }

BUGS
       Edge splines can overlap unintentionally.

       Flat edge labels are slightly broken.   Intercluster  edge  labels  are
       totally broken.


SEE ALSO
       dotty(1)
       neato(1)
       circo(1)
       twopi(1)
       fdp(1)
       tcldot(n)
       xcolors(1)
       libgraph(3)

       E.  R.  Gansner,  S.  C.  North,   K.  P. Vo, "DAG -- A Program to Draw
       Directed Graphs", Software --  Practice and Experience 17(1), 1988, pp.
       1047-1062.
       E.  R. Gansner, E. Koutsofios, S. C. North,  K. P. Vo, "A Technique for
       Drawing Directed Graphs," IEEE Trans. on Soft. Eng.  19(3),  1993,  pp.
       214-230.
       S.  North  and  E.  Koutsofios,  "Applications of graph visualization",
       Graphics Interface 94, pp. 234-245.
       E. Koutsofios and S. C. North, "Drawing Graphs with dot," Available  on
       research.att.com in(1,8) dist/drawdag/dotguide.ps.Z.
       The  GIF driver is a publically available library from the Quest Center
       at Cold Spring Harbor Labs (courtesy Tom Boutell,  boutell@netcom.com).
       The  Truetype  font  renderer  for  the  GIF  driver was written by the
       Freetype Project (David Turner, Robert  Wilhelm,  and  Werner  Lemberg)
       (who can be contacted at freetype-devel@lists.lrz-muenchen.de).



                               02 December 1996                         DOT(1)

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