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BEEP(1)                                                                BEEP(1)

       beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) - beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) the pc speaker any number of ways

       beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) [-f N] [-l N] [-r N] [-d N] [-D N] [-s] [-c]

       beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) [ OPTIONS ] [-n] [--new] [ OPTIONS ]

       beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) [-h] [--help]

       beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) [-v] [-V] [--version]

       beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) allows the user to control the pc-speaker with precision, allowing
       different sounds to indicate different events.  While  it  can  be  run
       quite  happily on the command line, it's intended place of residence is
       within shell/perl scripts, notifying the user when something  interest-
       ing  occurs.   Of  course,  it has no notion of what's interesting, but
       it's real good at that notifying part.

       All options have default values, meaning that just typing  'beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep)'  will
       work.   If  an  option is specified more than once on the command line,
       subsequent options override their predecessors.  So  'beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep)  -f  200  -f
       300' will beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) at 300Hz.

       -f N   beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep)  at  N Hz, where 0 < N < 20000.  As a general ballpark, the
              regular terminal beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) is around 750Hz.  N is not,  incidentally,
              restricted to whole numbers.

       -l N   beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) for N milliseconds.

       -r N   specify the number of repetitions (defaults to 1).

       -d N, -D N
              specify  a  delay of N milliseconds between repetitions.  Use of
              -d specifies that this delay should only  occur  between  beeps,
              that  is,  it  should  not  occur after the last repetition.  -D
              indicates that the delay should occur  after  every  repetition,
              including  the last.  Normally, -d is what you want, but if(3,n), for
              example, you are stringing several  beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep)  commands  together  to
              play  the  star(1,4)  wars  anthem,  you  may want control over every

       -n, --new
              this option allows you to break the command line up into  speci-
              fying  multiple  beeps.   Each  time(1,2,n)  this  option is used, beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep)
              starts treating all further arguments as though they were for  a
              new beep.  So for example:

              beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) -f 1000 -n -f 2000 -n -f 1500

              would  produce  a sequence of three beeps, the first with a fre-
              quency of 1000Hz (and otherwise default values), then  a  second
              beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep)  with  a frequency of 2000Hz (again, with things like delay
              and reps being set(7,n,1 builtins) to their defaults), then  a  third  beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep),  at
              1500Hz.   This is different from specifying a -r value, since -r
              repeats the same beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) multiple times, whereas -n allows  you  to
              specify  different  beeps.   After a -n, the new beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) is created
              with all the default values, and any of these can  be  specified
              without  altering  values  for preceeding (or later) beeps.  See
              the EXAMPLES section if(3,n) this managed to confuse you.

       -s, -c these options put beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) into  input-processing  mode.   -s  tells
              beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep)  to  read(2,n,1 builtins)  from  stdin, and beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) after each newline, and -c
              tells it to do so after every character.   In  both  cases,  the
              program will also echo(1,3x,1 builtins) the input back out to stdout, which makes
              it easy to slip beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) into a text-processing  pipeline,  see  the
              EXAMPLES section.

       -h, --help
              display usage info(1,5,n) and exit(3,n,1 builtins)

       -v, -V, --version
              display version(1,3,5) information and exit(3,n,1 builtins)

       At its simplest (yet still effective)

              beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep)

       A more interesting standalone setup(2,8)

              beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) -f 300.7 -r 2 -d 100 -l 400

       As part of a log-watching pipeline

              tail -f /var/log/xferlog | grep 'passwd(1,5)' | beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) -f 1000 -r 5 -s

       When  using -c mode, I recommend using a short -D, and a shorter -l, so
       that the beeps don't blur together.  Something like this will get you a
       cheesy 1970's style beep-as-you-type-each-letter effect

              cat file(1,n) | beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) -c -f 400 -D 50 -l 10

       A highly contrived example of -n/--new usage

              beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) -f 1000 -r 2 -n -r 5 -l 10 --new

              will produce first two 1000Hz beeps, then 5 beeps at the default
              tone, but only 10ms long each, followed by a  third  beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep)  using
              all the default settings (since none are specified).

       Some  users(1,5) will encounter a situation where beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) dies with a complaint
       from ioctl().  The reason for this, as Peter Tirsek was nice(1,2) enough  to
       point  out  to  me, stems from how the kernel handles beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep)'s attempt to
       poke at (for non-programmers: ioctl is a  sort(1,3)  of  catch-all  function
       that  lets  you  poke at things that have no other predefined poking-at
       mechanism) the tty(1,4), which is how it beeps.  The  short  story  is,  the
       kernel checks that either:

       - you are the superuser

       - you own the current tty(1,4)

       What  this means is that root can always make beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) work (to the best of
       my knowledge!), and that any local user can make beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) work, BUT a  non-
       root  remote user cannot use beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) in(1,8) it's natural state.  What's worse,
       an xterm, or other x-session counts, as far as the kernel is concerned,
       as 'remote', so beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) won't work from a non-priviledged xterm either.  I
       had originally chalked this up to a bug, but there's actually nothing I
       can  do  about  it,  and it really is a Good Thing that the kernel does
       things this way.  There is also a solution.

       By default beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) is not installed with the suid bit  set(7,n,1 builtins),  because  that
       would  just  be  zany.  On the other hand, if(3,n) you do make it suid root,
       all your problems with beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) bailing on ioctl calls will magically  van-
       ish,  which  is  pleasant,  and the only reason not to is that any suid
       program is a potential  security  hole.   Conveniently,  beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep)  is  very
       short, so auditing it is pretty straightforward.

       Decide  for yourself, of course, but it looks safe to me - there's only
       one buffer and fgets doesn't let it overflow,  there's  only  one  file(1,n)
       opening, and while there is a potential race condition there, it's with
       /dev/console.  If someone can exploit this race by replacing  /dev/con-
       sole(4,n), you've got bigger problems.  :)

       So  the  quick,  only,  and likely safe solution if(3,n) beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) is not beeping
       when you want it to is (as root):

       # chmod(1,2) 4755 /usr/bin/beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep)

       (or wherever you put it)

       The one snag is that this will give any little nitwit  the  ability  to
       run  beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) successfully - make sure this is what you want.  If it isn't,
       a slightly more complex fix would be something like:

       # chgrp beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep) /usr/bin/beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep)

       # chmod(1,2) 4750 /usr/bin/beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep)

       and then add only beep-worthy users(1,5) to the 'beep(1,3x,3x curs_beep)' group.

       Several people have asked for some basic help translating  music  notes
       to  frequencies.   There  are  a lot of music notes, and several tables
       online will give you translations, but here are approximate numbers for
       the octave of middle C, to get you started.

       Note      Frequency
       C         261.6
       C#        277.2
       D         293.7
       D#        311.1
       E         329.6
       F         349.2
       F#        370.0
       G         392.0
       G#        415.3
       A         440.0
       A#        466.2
       B         493.9
       C         523.2

       None that I'm aware of, though see the IOCTL WACKINESS section.

       Report bugs to <>

       This program was written by Johnathan Nightingale (
       and is distributed under the GNU General Public License.  For more con-
       tributing  information,  check the source, and past contributors can be
       found in(1,8) CREDITS.

                                  March 2002                           BEEP(1)

References for this manual (incoming links)